Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 768604, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/768604
Review Article

Radiotracer Technology in Mixing Processes for Industrial Applications

1Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Kajang, 43000 Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600 Selangor, Malaysia

Received 7 November 2013; Accepted 17 December 2013; Published 30 January 2014

Academic Editors: C. Costa, B. Dou, and A. M. Efstathiou

Copyright © 2014 N. Othman and S. K. Kamarudin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. E. Hills, Practical Guidebook for Radioisotope-Based Technology in Industry, IAEA/RCA RAS/8/078, 2nd edition, 2001.
  2. Radiotracer Technology as Applied to Industry, IAEA-TECDOC-1262, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2001.
  3. IAEA, “Residence time distribution method for industrial and environmental applications,” Training Course Series 31, Vienna, Austria, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  4. L. Furman, L. Petryka, Z. Stȩgowski, and A. Wierzbicki, “Data acquisition and processing in radiotracer experiments,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 436–442, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. J. Pant, J. Thýn, R. Zitný, and B. C. Bhatt, “Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI),” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. J. Pant, V. K. Sharma, M. V. Kamudu et al., “Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 1609–1615, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Furman, J. P. Leclerc, and Z. Stegowski, “Tracer investigation of a packed column under variable flow,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 3043–3048, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Rahimi and A. Parvareh, “Experimental and CFD investigation on mixing by a jet in a semi-industrial stirred tank,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 115, no. 1-2, pp. 85–92, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. J. Pant, J. Thýn, R. Zitný, and B. C. Bhatt, “Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI),” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. M. Shekhar and S. Jayanti, “CFD study of power and mixing time for paddle mixing in unbaffled vessels,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 482–498, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Aubin, D. F. Fletcher, and C. Xuereb, “Modeling turbulent flow in stirred tanks with CFD: the influence of the modeling approach, turbulence model and numerical scheme,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 431–445, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Montante and F. Magelli, “Liquid homogenization characteristics in vessels stirred with multiple Rushton turbines mounted at different spacings: CFD study and comparison with experimental data,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 1179–1187, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. E. Arratia, J. P. Lacombe, T. Shinbrot, and F. J. Muzzio, “Segregated regions in continuous laminar stirred tank reactors,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1481–1490, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. V. Danckwerts, “Continuous flow systems. Distribution of residence times,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Z. Stegowski and L. Furman, “Radioisotope tracer investigation and modeling of copper concentrate dewatering process,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Kasban, O. Zahran, H. Arafa, M. El-Kordy, S. M. S. Elaraby, and F. E. Abd El-Samie, “Laboratory experiments and modeling for industrial radiotracer applications,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1049–1056, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Ding, X. Wang, X.-F. Zhou, N.-Q. Ren, and W.-Q. Guo, “CFD optimization of continuous stirred-tank (CSTR) reactor for biohydrogen production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 18, pp. 7005–7013, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1999.
  19. H. J. Pant and V. N. Yelgoankar, “Radiotracer investigations in aniline production reactors,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 319–325, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Jafari and J. S. S. Mohammadzadeh, “Mixing time, homogenization energy and residence time distribution in a gas-induced contactor,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 83, no. 5 A, pp. 452–459, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. Bujalski, Z. Jaworski, and A. W. Nienow, “CFD study of homogenization with dual Rushton turbines—comparison with experimental results. Part II: the multiple reference frame,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 97–104, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. W. Patwardhan and J. B. Joshi, “Relation between flow pattern and blending in stirred tanks,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 3131–3143, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Pramparo, J. Pruvost, F. Stüber et al., “Mixing and hydrodynamics investigation using CFD in a square-sectioned torus reactor in batch and continuous regimes,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 386–395, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Wang, Z.-S. Mao, and X.-Q. Shen, “Numerical simulation of macroscopic mixing in a Rushton impeller stirred tank,” The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 857–863, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Wabo, M. Kagoshima, and R. Mann, “Batch stirred vessel mixing evaluated by visualized reactive tracers and electrical tomography,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 1229–1236, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. B. Fasano and W. R. Penney, “Avoid blending mix-ups,” Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 56–63, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Delvigne, J. Destain, and P. Thonart, “Structured mixing model for stirred bioreactors: an extension to the stochastic approach,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Ruszkowski, “A rational method for measuring blending performance, and comparison of different impeller types,” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Mixing, pp. 283–292, Cambridge, UK, 1994.
  29. L. J. Burrows, A. J. Stokes, J. R. West, C. F. Forster, and A. D. Martin, “Evaluation of different analytical methods for tracer studies in aeration lanes of activated sludge plants,” Water Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 367–374, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Zadghaffari, J. S. Moghaddas, and J. Revstedt, “A mixing study in a double-Rushton stirred tank,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1240–1246, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Sugiharto, Z. Su'ud, R. Kurniadi, W. Wibisono, and Z. Abidin, “Radiotracer method for residence time distribution study in multiphase flow system,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 67, no. 7-8, pp. 1445–1448, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Behin and M. Aghajari, “Influence of water level on oil-water separation by residence time distribution curves investigations,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. J. Pant, V. K. Sharma, A. G. C. Nair et al., “Application of 140La and 24Na as intrinsic radiotracers for investigating catalyst dynamics in FCCUs,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 1591–1599, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. A. Santos and C. C. Dantas, “Transit time and RTD measurements by radioactive tracer to assess the riser flow pattern,” Powder Technology, vol. 140, no. 1-2, pp. 116–121, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. A. A. Klusener, G. Jonkers, F. During et al., “Horizontal cross-flow bubble column reactors: CFD and validation by plant scale tracer experiments,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 62, no. 18–20, pp. 5495–5502, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. D. P. Nigam, I. Iliuta, and F. Larachi, “Liquid back-mixing and mass transfer effects in trickle-bed reactors filled with porous catalyst particles,” Chemical Engineering and Processing, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 365–371, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Oriol, J. P. Leclerc, P. Berne et al., “Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81 mKr tracer experiments,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1363–1370, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. D. Abellon, Z. I. Kolar, W. Den Hollander, J. J. M. De Goeij, J. C. Schouten, and C. M. Van Den Bleek, “A single radiotracer particle method for the determination of solids circulation rate in interconnected fluidized beds,” Powder Technology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. V. V. Ranade, Computational Flow Modeling for Chemical Reactor Engineering, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  40. H. Bai, A. Stephenson, J. Jimenez, D. Jewell, and P. Gillis, “Modeling flow and residence time distribution in an industrial-scale reactor with a plunging jet inlet and optional agitation,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1462–1476, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Furman and Z. Stegowski, “CFD models of jet mixing and their validation by tracer experiments,” Chemical Engineering and Processing, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 300–304, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Z. Jaworski, W. Bujalski, N. Otomo, and A. W. Nienow, “CFD study of homogenization with dual rushton turbines-comparison with experimental results. Part I: initial studies,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 327–333, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. X.-C. Cao, T.-A. Zhang, and Q.-Y. Zhao, “Computational simulation of fluid dynamics in a tubular stirred reactor,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 489–495, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Sahle-Demessie, S. Bekele, and U. R. Pillai, “Residence time distribution of fluids in stirred annular photoreactor,” Catalysis Today, vol. 88, no. 1-2, pp. 61–72, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Gavrilescu and R. Z. Tudose, “Residence time distribution of the liquid phase in a concentric-tube airlift reactor,” Chemical Engineering and Processing, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 225–238, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. J. Osman and J. Varley, “Use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to estimate mixing times in a stirred tank,” in Proceedings of the 6th Fluid Mixing Symposium, Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series, pp. 15–22, August 1999. View at Scopus
  47. R. Zadghaffari, J. S. Moghaddas, and J. Revstedt, “Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow in a stirred tank driven by a Rushton turbine,” Computers and Fluids, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1183–1190, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Yianneskis, “The effect of flow rates and tracer insertion time on mixing times inkjet-agitated vessels,” in Proceeding of the 7th European Conference on Mixing, pp. 121–128, Brugge, Belgium, 1991.
  49. K. H. Javed, T. Mahmud, and J. M. Zhu, “Numerical simulation of turbulent batch mixing in a vessel agitated by a Rushton turbine,” Chemical Engineering and Processing, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 99–112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. U. Din, I. R. Chughtai, M. H. Inayat, I. H. Khan, and N. K. Qazi, “Modeling of a two-phase countercurrent pulsed sieve plate extraction column—a hybrid CFD and radiotracer RTD analysis approach,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 302–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. R. Khoei, I. Masters, and D. T. Gethin, “Design optimisation of aluminium recycling processes using Taguchi technique,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 96–106, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus