The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Overview of Platelet Physiology: Its Hemostatic and Nonhemostatic Role in Disease Pathogenesis

Table 1

Platelet receptors in different activation stages (adapted from Kauskot and Hoylaerts, 2012 [20]).
(a) Platelet receptors in recruitment, adhesion, and aggregation

ReceptorsPresent inFamilyLigandsComments

Initiation of platelet recruitment
GPIb-IX-V complex Platelet surfaceLeucine-rich repeat familyvWf, thrombin, FXI, FXII, P-selectin, HK, Mac-1, TSP-1Bernard-Soulier syndrome

Platelet adhesion and aggregation
GPVIPlatelet surfaceIg superfamilyCollagen, laminin
Platelet plasma membraneIntegrinsCollagen
Fibronectin
Laminin
Vitronectin, fibrinogen, vWf, osteopontin
Fibrinogen, fibrin, vWf, TSP-1, fibronectin, vitronectinGlanzmann thrombasthenia
CD148Platelet surfaceTyrosine phosphatase receptorUnknownRegulation of GPVI
CLEC-2C-type lectin receptorPodoplanin (platelets? CLEC-2?)

(b) Platelet receptors in the amplification phase

ReceptorsPresent inFamilyLigandsComments

P2Y1Platelet plasma membraneG protein-coupled receptorsADP
P2Y12
PAR1ThrombinHigh affinity
PAR4Low affinity
tPAThromboxane
PAF receptors1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholinePAF: platelet activating factor
PGE2 receptor (EP3)PGE2
Lysophosphatidic acid receptorLysophosphatidic acid
Chemokine receptorsChemokines
V1a vasopressin receptorVasopressin
A2a adenosine receptorAdenosine
b2 adrenergic receptorEpinephrine
Serotonin receptorSerotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin)
Dopamine receptorDopamine
P2X1Ion channelATP
c-Mp1Tyrosine kinase receptorTPO
Insulin receptorInsulin
PDGF receptorPDGF
Leptin receptorCytokine Leptin

(c) Platelet receptors in the stabilization phase and in the negative regulation of platelet activation

ReceptorsPresent inFamilyLigandsComments

Stabilization
Eph receptorPlatelet plasma membraneTyrosine kinase receptorEphrin
Axl/Tyro3/MerGas-6
P-selectinPlatelet
α granule; comes in plasma membrane upon activation
C-type lectin receptor familyPSGL-1, GPIb, TFSoluble
P-selectin: biomarker
TSSC6Platelet plasma membraneTetraspanins
CD151
CD36Class B scavenger receptorTSP1, oxLDL, VLDL, oxPL, collagen type VMany functions
TLT-1Ig superfamilyFibrinogen?TLT-1 soluble form correlated with DIC
PEAR1Multiple EGF-like domain proteinPhosphorylated after platelet contact

Negative regulation
VPAC1Platelet plasma membraneG protein-coupled receptorsPACAP
PECAM-1Ig superfamilyPECAM-1, collagen, glycosaminoglycans
G6B-b
PGI2 receptor (IP)G protein-coupled receptorsPGI2Prostacyclin released from endothelial cells
PGD2 receptorPGD2
PGE2 receptor (EP4)PGE2

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