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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 802915, 9 pages
Research Article

Energy-Efficient Routing Control Algorithm in Large-Scale WSN for Water Environment Monitoring with Application to Three Gorges Reservoir Area

1College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
2School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
3Department of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, N-4898 Grimstad, Norway

Received 4 November 2013; Accepted 22 January 2014; Published 5 March 2014

Academic Editors: P. Garcia-Teodoro and Z. Sun

Copyright © 2014 Yuanchang Zhong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.