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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 809253, 11 pages
Research Article

Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

1RŽ Tehnička Kontrola, 16ta Makedonska Brigada 18, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
2Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Saints Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
3Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimčeva Ulica 14, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation (ICIA), 67 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Received 19 August 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editors: C. Cameselle, E. P. Meulenberg, and J. J. Schauer

Copyright © 2014 Stanko Ilić Popov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.