The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

Table 3

Justification of variables.

VariablesSourceJustification of variables

R&D expenditure (RD_E)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)This study uses R&D expenditure as a proxy for innovation.

R&D turnovers (RD_T)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)The study uses R&D turnovers to calculate the competition level.

Turnovers (Tur)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)This study uses turnovers to calculate the Market Share and Lerner index.

Capital (Cap)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)Size of firms

Patent (Pat)Taiwan Industrial Property Office (TIPO)The relationship between number of patents and R&D expenditure

Competition (Comp)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)Market share and the Lerner index are two main indicators to measure market. The study chooses it to calculate in the real world

Employee (Emp)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)This study uses employee to measure the firm size

Gross profit (GP)Taiwan Industry Economics Services (TIES)Market share and Lerner index