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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 854391, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/854391
Review Article

Human Paraoxonase 1 as a Pharmacologic Agent: Limitations and Perspectives

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, Punjab 160062, India

Received 11 May 2014; Revised 13 August 2014; Accepted 27 August 2014; Published 20 October 2014

Academic Editor: Srinivasa Reddy

Copyright © 2014 Priyanka Bajaj et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Human PON1 (h-PON1) is a multifaceted enzyme and can hydrolyze (and inactivate) a wide range of substrates. The enzyme shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiatherogenic, ant-diabetic, antimicrobial, and organophosphate (OP)-detoxifying properties. However, there are certain limitations regarding large-scale production and use of h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate. These include difficulties in producing recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using microbial expression system, low hydrolytic activity of wild-type h-PON1 towards certain substrates, and low storage stability of the purified enzyme. This review summarizes the work done in our laboratory to address these limitations. Our results show that (a) optimized polynucleotide sequence encoding rh-PON1 can express the protein in an active form in E. coli and can be used to generate variant of the enzyme having enhanced hydrolytic activity, (b) in vitro refolding of rh-PON1 enzyme can dramatically increase the yield of an active enzyme, (c) common excipients can be used to stabilize purified rh-PON1 enzyme when stored under different storage conditions, and (d) variants of rh-PON1 enzyme impart significant protection against OP-poisoning in human blood (ex vivo) and mouse (in vivo) model of OP-poisoning. The rh-PON1 variants and their process of production discussed here will help to develop h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate.