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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 897523, 12 pages
Research Article

Overexpression of MMP13 Is Associated with Clinical Outcomes and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Oro-Maxillofacial Surgical and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4Centre of Preclinical Science Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
5Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
6Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
7Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, 41586 Klang, Malaysia
8Department of Oral Surgery, Hospital Umum Kuching, 93586 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
9Oral Cancer Research Team, Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation, 47500 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Received 20 June 2014; Revised 22 August 2014; Accepted 8 September 2014; Published 23 October 2014

Academic Editor: Steffen Maune

Copyright © 2014 Vui King Vincent-Chong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) plays a central role in the MMP activation cascade that enables degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and it is identified as a potential driver in oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to determine the copy number, mRNA, and protein expression of MMP13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to associate these expressions with clinicopathological parameters. Copy number, mRNA, and protein expression analysis of MMP13 were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods in OSCC samples. The correlations between MMP13 expressions and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated, and the significance of MMP13 as a prognostic factor was determined. Despite discrepancies between gene amplification and mRNA and protein overexpression rates, OSCC cases showed high amplification of MMP13 and overexpression of MMP13 at both mRNA and protein levels. High level of MMP13 protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis () and tumor staging (). Multivariate Cox regression model analysis revealed that high level of mRNA and protein expression of MMP13 were significantly associated with poor prognosis (). Taken together, these observations indicate that the MMP13 protein overexpression could be considered as a prognostic marker of OSCC.