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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 946249, 9 pages
Research Article

An Empirical Evaluation of Lightweight Random Walk Based Routing Protocol in Duty Cycle Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

1Department of Computer Science, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Lahore 54700, Pakistan
2Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75080-3021, USA

Received 31 August 2013; Accepted 5 December 2013; Published 13 February 2014

Academic Editors: W. Sun and G. Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Adnan Noor Mian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Energy efficiency is an important design paradigm in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and its consumption in dynamic environment is even more critical. Duty cycling of sensor nodes is used to address the energy consumption problem. However, along with advantages, duty cycle aware networks introduce some complexities like synchronization and latency. Due to their inherent characteristics, many traditional routing protocols show low performance in densely deployed WSNs with duty cycle awareness, when sensor nodes are supposed to have high mobility. In this paper we first present a three messages exchange Lightweight Random Walk Routing (LRWR) protocol and then evaluate its performance in WSNs for routing low data rate packets. Through NS-2 based simulations, we examine the LRWR protocol by comparing it with DYMO, a widely used WSN protocol, in both static and dynamic environments with varying duty cycles, assuming the standard IEEE 802.15.4 in lower layers. Results for the three metrics, that is, reliability, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption, show that LRWR protocol outperforms DYMO in scalability, mobility, and robustness, showing this protocol as a suitable choice in low duty cycle and dense WSNs.