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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 963638, 5 pages
Research Article

Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

1Department of Chest Diseases, Duzce University Medical Faculty, Düzce, Turkey
2Emergency Department, Ankara Numune State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
4Department of Chest Disease, Private Practice, Ankara, Turkey
5Department of Chest Diseases, Istanbul University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey
6Department of Chest Diseases, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, Turkey

Received 22 April 2014; Revised 20 June 2014; Accepted 1 July 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Shuguang Leng

Copyright © 2014 Peri Arbak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were times, times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, ). Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, and 89.9% versus 109.6%, , resp.). % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, ). Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.