Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 969876, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/969876
Research Article

Carbonate Hydroxyapatite and Silicon-Substituted Carbonate Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, and Solubility Evaluations

1Rekagraf Laboratory, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Malaysia
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 13 December 2013; Accepted 18 January 2014; Published 2 March 2014

Academic Editors: F. Cleymand and E. Sahmetlioglu

Copyright © 2014 L. T. Bang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. V. Dorozhkin, “Nanosized and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 715–734, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. J. Wagoner Johnson and B. A. Herschler, “A review of the mechanical behavior of CaP and CaP/polymer composites for applications in bone replacement and repair,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 16–30, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Gomes, J.-M. Nedelec, E. Jallot, D. Sheptyakov, and G. Renaudin, “Silicon location in silicate-substituted calcium phosphate ceramics determined by neutron diffraction,” Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 4017–4026, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Kolmas, A. Jaklewicz, A. Zima et al., “Incorporation of carbonate and magnesium ions into synthetic hydroxyapatite: the effect on physicochemical properties,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 987, no. 1–3, pp. 40–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Lombardi, P. Palmero, K. Haberko, W. Pyda, and L. Montanaro, “Processing of a natural hydroxyapatite powder: from powder optimization to porous bodies development,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2513–2518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. O. Frank-Kamenetskaya, A. Kol'tsov, M. Kuz'mina, M. Zorina, and L. Poritskaya, “Ion substitutions and non-stoichiometry of carbonated apatite-(CaOH) synthesised by precipitation and hydrothermal methods,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 992, no. 1–3, pp. 9–18, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Landi, J. Uggeri, S. Sprio, A. Tampieri, and S. Guizzardi, “Human osteoblast behavior on as-synthesized SiO4 and B-CO3 co-substituted apatite,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 59–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Doi, H. Iwanaga, T. Shibutani, Y. Moriwaki, and Y. Iwayama, “Osteoclastic responses to various calcium phosphates in cell cultures,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 424–433, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Z. Zyman and M. Tkachenko, “CO2 gas-activated sintering of carbonated hydroxyapatites,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 241–248, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. M. Botelho, R. A. Brooks, S. M. Best et al., “Human osteoblast response to silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 723–730, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. E. Porter, C. M. Botelho, M. A. Lopes, J. D. Santos, S. M. Best, and W. Bonfield, “Ultrastructural comparison of dissolution and apatite precipitation on hydroxyapatite and silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite in vitro and in vivo,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 670–679, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Boanini, M. Gazzano, and A. Bigi, “Ionic substitutions in calcium phosphates synthesized at low temperature,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1882–1894, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Sprio, A. Tampieri, E. Landi et al., “Physico-chemical properties and solubility behaviour of multi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders containing silicon,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 179–187, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Landi, A. Tampieri, G. Celotti, L. Vichi, and M. Sandri, “Influence of synthesis and sintering parameters on the characteristics of carbonate apatite,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1763–1770, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Palard, E. Champion, and S. Foucaud, “Synthesis of silicated hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6-x(SiO4)x(OH)2-x,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 181, no. 8, pp. 1950–1960, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Landi, A. Tampieri, M. Mattioli-Belmonte et al., “Biomimetic Mg- and Mg,CO3-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis characterization and in vitro behaviour,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 2593–2601, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Landi, S. Sprio, M. Sandri, G. Celotti, and A. Tampieri, “Development of Sr and CO3 co-substituted hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 656–663, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Y. Mostafa, H. M. Hassan, and O. H. Abd Elkader, “Preparation and characterization of Na+, SiO44-, and CO32- co-substituted hydroxyapatite,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1584–1590, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Y. Mostafa, H. M. Hassan, and F. H. Mohamed, “Sintering behavior and thermal stability of Na+, SiO44-, and CO32- co-substituted hydroxyapatites,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 479, no. 1-2, pp. 692–698, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. R. Gibson, S. M. Best, and W. Bonfield, “Chemical characterization of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 44, pp. 422–428, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  21. L. T. Bang, K. Ishikawa, and R. Othman, “Effect of silicon and heat-treatment temperature on the morphology and mechanical properties of silicon—substituted hydroxyapatite,” Ceramics International, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 3637–3642, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. M. Ibrahim, A. A. Mostafa, and S. I. Korowash, “Chemical characterization of some substituted hydroxyapatites,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, article 74, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. L. Xu and K. A. Khor, “Chemical analysis of silica doped hydroxyapatite biomaterials consolidated by a spark plasma sintering method,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. F. Kamst, J. Vasseur, C. Bonazzi, and J. J. Bimbenet, “New method for the measurement of the tensile strength of rice grains by using the diametral compression test,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 227–232, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Kokubo and H. Takadama, “How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity?” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 2907–2915, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. M. Pietak, J. W. Reid, M. J. Stott, and M. Sayer, “Silicon substitution in the calcium phosphate bioceramics,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 28, pp. 4023–4032, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Z. LeGeros and J. P. LeGeros, “Calcim phosphate bioceramic: past, present and future,” in Bioceramic, B. Ben-Nissan, D. Sher, and W. Walsh, Eds., vol. 15, pp. 3–10, Trans Tech Publications, Sydney, Australia, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  28. Y. Doi, T. Koda, N. Wakamatsu et al., “Influence of carbonate on sintering of apatites,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1279–1284, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Huang, Y. Xiao, S. Wang et al., “Nanostructured Si, Mg, CO32- substituted hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by liquid precursor plasma spraying: synthesis and characterization,” Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 829–836, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Bianco, I. Cacciotti, M. Lombardi, and L. Montanaro, “Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 345–354, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. P. Lafon, E. Champion, and D. Bernache-Assollant, “Processing of AB-type carbonated hydroxyapatite Ca10-x(PO4)6-x(CO3)x(OH)2-x-2y(CO3)y ceramics with controlled composition,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 139–147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Vallet-Regi and D. Arcos, “Silicon substituted hydroxyapatites. A method to upgrade calcium phosphate based implants,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 1509–1516, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Kannan, S. I. Vieira, S. M. Olhero et al., “Synthesis, mechanical and biological characterization of ionic doped carbonated hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate mixtures,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1835–1843, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. W. Reid, L. Tuck, M. Sayer, K. Fargo, and J. A. Hendry, “Synthesis and characterization of single-phase silicon-substituted α-tricalcium phosphate,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 2916–2925, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. L. Tang, X. F. Xiao, and R. F. Liu, “Structural characterization of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite synthesized by a hydrothermal method,” Materials Letters, vol. 59, no. 29-30, pp. 3841–3846, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Aminian, M. Solati-Hashjin, A. Samadikuchaksaraei et al., “Synthesis of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite by a hydrothermal method with two different phosphorous sources,” Ceramics International, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1219–1229, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Balas, J. Pérez-Pariente, and M. Vallet-Regí, “In vitro bioactivity of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 364–375, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Douard, R. Detsch, R. Chotard-Ghodsnia, C. Damia, U. Deisinger, and E. Champion, “Processing, physico-chemical characterisation and in vitro evaluation of silicon containing β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 531–539, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Veiderma, K. Tõnsuaadu, R. Knubovets, and M. Peld, “Impact of anionic substitutions on apatite structure and properties,” Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, vol. 690, no. 10, pp. 2638–2643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. R. Gibson and W. Bonfield, “Novel synthesis and characterization of an AB-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 697–708, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. I. R. Gibson, S. M. Best, and W. Bonfield, “Effect of silicon substitution on the sintering and microstructure of hydroxyapatite,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 2771–2777, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Landi, G. Celotti, G. Logroscino, and A. Tampieri, “Carbonated hydroxyapatite as bone substitute,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 2931–2937, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. Rezwan, Q. Z. Chen, J. J. Blaker, and A. R. Boccaccini, “Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer/inorganic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 3413–3431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Y. W. Gu, K. A. Khor, and P. Cheang, “Bone-like apatite layer formation on hydroxyapatite prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 18, pp. 4127–4134, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. A. Jyoti, V. V. Thai, Y. K. Min, B.-T. Lee, and H.-Y. Song, “In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cements using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC),” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 5, pp. 1533–1539, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Pan, X. Zhao, B. W. Darvell, and W. W. Lu, “Apatite-formation ability—predictor of “bioactivity”?” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 4181–4188, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. H. Fathi, A. Hanifi, and V. Mortazavi, “Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 202, no. 1–3, pp. 536–542, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Kheradmandfard, M. H. Fathi, M. Ahangarian, and E. M. Zahrani, “In vitro bioactivity evaluation of magnesium-substituted fluorapatite nanopowders,” Ceramics International, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 169–175, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Sun, M. Li, Y. Lu, and A. Wang, “Immersion behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders before and after sintering,” Materials Characterization, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 250–254, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus