Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 545048, 13 pages
Research Article

The Effects of Tempol on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Micturition Reflexes

Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA

Received 13 January 2015; Revised 3 March 2015; Accepted 5 March 2015

Academic Editor: Ana Charrua

Copyright © 2015 Eric J. Gonzalez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis results in oxidative stress and contributes to urinary bladder dysfunction. We determined (1) the expression of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inflammatory modulators, neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (Sub P), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that contribute to the inflammatory process in the urinary tract and (2) the functional role of oxidative stress in urinary bladder dysfunction with an antioxidant, Tempol, (1 mM in drinking water) combined with conscious cystometry. In CYP-treated (4 hr or 48 hr; 150 mg/kg, i.p.) rats, ROS/RNS and 3-NT significantly () increased in urinary bladder. CYP treatment increased ATP, Sub P, and CGRP expression in the urinary bladder and cystometric fluid. In CYP-treated rats, Tempol significantly () increased bladder capacity and reduced voiding frequency compared to CYP-treated rats without Tempol. Tempol significantly () reduced ATP expression, 3-NT, and ROS/RNS expression in the urinary tract of CYP-treated rats. These studies demonstrate that reducing oxidative stress in CYP-induced cystitis improves urinary bladder function and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.