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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 876509, 7 pages
Review Article

Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces

1Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
2Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel
3Private Practice, 15 School Road, Morningside, Johannesburg 2057, South Africa

Received 5 June 2015; Revised 20 August 2015; Accepted 24 August 2015

Academic Editor: Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez

Copyright © 2015 L. Feller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.