Table 2: Genetic diversity in Catharanthus roseus accessions using different marker systems.

NUA1Type of marker(s)Clustering methodSimilarity indicesRangesGenetic variationReferences

8RAPD2UPGMA7NP86–100Low-moderate[159]
8AFLP3UPGMANP85–100Low-moderate[159]
8 1H NMRUPGMANP0–3Moderate[159]
8Chemical (ion content)UPGMAEuclidean distance32–100High[160]
14ISSR4SAHN8Jaccard0.57–1.00Moderate[161]
14RAPDSAHNJaccard0.4–0.97High[161]
32Morphochemical/phytochemicalUPGMANei’s55–100Moderate[131]
50Phytochemical/enzymaticMean comparisonHigh/moderate[162]
72Isozyme/phytochemicalNP9Mean comparisonNPModerate[30]
40ISSRNei’s0.15–0.9High[163]
9RAPD/ISSR/SSR5UPGMAJaccard0.19–0.73/0.25–0.64/0.26–0.73High[164]
32SSR/STMS6UPGMANei and Li’s0.07–0.79High[165]

Number of used accessions, 2RAPD: random amplified polymorphic DNA, 3AFLP: amplified fragment length polymorphism, ∗1H NMR: hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, 4ISSR: intersimple sequence repeat, 5SSR: simple sequence repeat, 6STMS: sequence-tagged microsatellites sites, 7UPGMA: unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, 8SAHN: sequential agglomerative hierarchical nonoverlapping, and 9NP: not presented in the related reference.