Table 1: The operating conditions of the ICP-OES.


Power1.3 kW
Plasma gas glow15 L/min
Auxiliary gas flow1.5 L/min
Spray chamber typeGlass cyclonic (single-pass)
TorchStandard one-piece quartz axial
Nebulizer typeSea spray
Nebulizer flow0.7 L/min
Pump speed2–4 rpm
Total sample usage2 mL
Replicate read time5 s
Number of replicates2
Sample undertake delay time15 s
Stabilization time40 s
Rinse time20 s
Fast pumpOff
Background correctionFitted