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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2016, Article ID 5393079, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5393079
Research Article

Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Mother Theresa Street, 10000 Prishtinë, Kosovo
2Institute of Biological and Environmental Research, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Mother Theresa Street, 10000 Prishtinë, Kosovo
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Mother Theresa Street, 10000 Prishtinë, Kosovo
4Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Mother Teresa, 1000 Prishtinë, Kosovo
5Center for the Study of Human Health, Emory University, 550 Asbury Circle, Candler Library 107E, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
6Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1518 Clifton Road NE, CNR 5035, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
7Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria

Received 24 April 2016; Accepted 10 July 2016

Academic Editor: Valdir Cechinel Filho

Copyright © 2016 Avni Hajdari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.