Figure 1: Diagram of the concept of tissue engineering. (A) Cells are isolated from humans or animals, (B) cultivated in vitro, and (C) incorporated into a three-dimensional porous biomaterial (scaffold), together with growth factors, small molecules, and/or micro/nanoparticles. (D) The bioactive scaffold is then grafted onto a tissue lesion, promoting its regeneration. Adapted from Dvir et al. 2011 [12] and Lanza et al. 2014 [2].