Table 5: Associations between the psychosocial impact of malocclusion and sociodemographic factors.

Psychosocial Impact of MalocclusionSocio-demographic Factors
GenderEducationIncome
Male: 50.8% (n = 339)Below college: 79.0% (n = 527)≤20,000 HKD: 56.7% (n = 378)
Female: 49.2% (n = 328)College: 21.0% (n = 140)> 20,000 HKD: 43.3% (n = 289)

Concerned
No: 39.6% (n = 264);
Yes: 60.4% (n = 403)
Odds ratio1.0631.2460.996
Standard error0.1640.1790.190
p-value0.7090.2210.984
Confidence interval0.771-1.4650.876-1.7710.686-1.447

Smiling
No: 66.0% (n = 440);
Yes: 34.0% (n = 227)
Odds ratio0.9621.1161.039
Standard error0.1680.1820.197
p-value0.8170.5470.845
Confidence interval0.692-1.337 0.781-1.5940.707-1.528

Teased
No: 52.1% (n = 348);
Yes: 47.9% (n = 319)
Odds ratio0.9471.1241.080
Standard error0.1600.1740.186
p-value0.7340.5010.680
Confidence interval0.693-1.2950.800-1.5790.750-1.556