The Scientific World Journal: Molecular Imaging The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Development of Radiolabeled Compounds for Molecular Imaging and Imaging-Based Therapy Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:57:49 +0000 Kazuma Ogawa, Masahiro Ono, Mei Tian, Masashi Ueda, and Takahiro Higuchi Copyright © 2015 Kazuma Ogawa et al. All rights reserved. Novel PET/SPECT Probes for Imaging of Tau in Alzheimer’s Disease Mon, 23 Mar 2015 06:45:42 +0000 As the world’s population ages, the number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is predicted to increase rapidly. The presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of AD brain. Since the presence of NFTs is well correlated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in AD, imaging of tau using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for presymptomatic diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of AD. Therefore, novel PET/SPECT probes for the imaging of tau have been developed. More recently, several probes were tested clinically and evaluated for their utility. This paper reviews the current state of research on the development and evaluation of PET/SPECT probes for the imaging of tau in AD brain. Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Ono, and Hideo Saji Copyright © 2015 Hiroyuki Watanabe et al. All rights reserved. Development of PET and SPECT Probes for Glutamate Receptors Sun, 22 Mar 2015 13:52:07 +0000 L-Glutamate and its receptors (GluRs) play a key role in excitatory neurotransmission within the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Impaired regulation of GluRs has also been implicated in various neurological disorders. GluRs are classified into two major groups: ionotropic GluRs (iGluRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels, and metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs), which are coupled to heterotrimeric guanosine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins). Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of GluRs could provide a novel view of CNS function and of a range of brain disorders, potentially leading to the development of new drug therapies. Although no satisfactory imaging agents have yet been developed for iGluRs, several PET ligands for mGluRs have been successfully employed in clinical studies. This paper reviews current progress towards the development of PET and SPECT probes for GluRs. Takeshi Fuchigami, Morio Nakayama, and Sakura Yoshida Copyright © 2015 Takeshi Fuchigami et al. All rights reserved. Theragnostic Imaging Using Radiolabeled Antibodies and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:05:56 +0000 During the past decade, the efficacy of new molecular targeted drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies has been proven worldwide, and molecular targeted therapies have become the mainstream in cancer therapy. However, clinical use of these new drugs presents unexpected adverse effects or poor therapeutic effects. Therefore, we require diagnostic tools to estimate the target molecule status in cancer tissues and predict therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects. Although immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of biopsy samples are conventional and popular for this diagnostic purpose, molecular imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are also useful for noninvasive estimation of gene and protein expression and drug pharmacokinetics. In this review, we introduce new radiolabeled TKIs, antibodies, and their clinical application in molecular targeted therapy and discuss the issues of these imaging probes. Mitsuyoshi Yoshimoto, Hiroaki Kurihara, and Hirofumi Fujii Copyright © 2015 Mitsuyoshi Yoshimoto et al. All rights reserved. Iodine-131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Neuroblastoma: Reports So Far and Future Perspective Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:01:47 +0000 Neuroblastoma, which derives from neural crest, is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood. The tumors express the norepinephrine (NE) transporters on their cell membrane and take in metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) via a NE transporter. Since iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy was firstly reported, many trails of MIBG therapy in patients with neuroblastoma were performed. Though monotherapy with a low dose of I-131 MIBG could achieve high-probability pain reduction, the objective response was poor. In contrast, more than 12 mCi/kg I-131 MIBG administrations with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) obtain relatively good responses in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. The combination therapy with I-131 MIBG and other modalities such as nonmyeloablative chemotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy with HCT improved the therapeutic response in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. In addition, I-131 MIBG therapy incorporated in the induction therapy was proved to be feasible in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. To expand more the use of MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, further studies will be needed especially in the use at an earlier stage from diagnosis, in the use with other radionuclide formations of MIBG, and in combined use with other therapeutic agents. Daiki Kayano and Seigo Kinuya Copyright © 2015 Daiki Kayano and Seigo Kinuya. All rights reserved. Radiotracers Used for the Scintigraphic Detection of Infection and Inflammation Sun, 08 Feb 2015 06:23:35 +0000 Over the last forty years, a small group of commercial radiopharmaceuticals have found their way into routine medical use, for the diagnostic imaging of patients with infection or inflammation. These molecular radiotracers usually participate in the immune response to an antigen, by tagging leukocytes or other molecules/cells that are endogenous to the process. Currently there is an advancing effort by researchers in the preclinical domain to design and develop new agents for this application. This review discusses radiopharmaceuticals used in the nuclear medicine clinic today, as well as those potential radiotracers that exploit an organism’s defence mechanisms to an infectious or inflammatory event. Chris Tsopelas Copyright © 2015 Chris Tsopelas. All rights reserved. The Feasibility of Using CT-Guided ROI for Semiquantifying Striatal Dopamine Transporter Availability in a Hybrid SPECT/CT System Sun, 02 Nov 2014 08:03:02 +0000 A hybrid SPECT/CT system provides accurate coregistration of functional and morphological images. CT-guided region of interest (ROI) for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability may be a feasible method. We therefore assessed the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of manual SPECT and CT-guided ROI methods and compared their semiquantitative data with data from MRI-guided ROIs. We enrolled twenty-eight patients who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT-1 brain SPECT/CT and brain MRI. ROIs of the striatal, caudate, putamen, and occipital cortex were manually delineated on the SPECT, CT, and MRI. ROIs from CT and MRI were transferred to the coregistered SPECT for semiquantification. The striatal, caudate, and putamen nondisplaceable binding potential were calculated. Using CT-guided ROIs had higher intra- and interobserver concordance correlation coefficients, closer Bland-Altman biases to zero, and narrower limits of agreement than using manual SPECT ROIs. The correlation coefficients of striatal, caudate, and putamen were good between manual SPECT and MRI-guided ROI methods and even better between CT-guided and MRI-guided ROI methods. Conclusively, CT-guided ROI delineation for semiquantifying striatal DAT availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system is highly reproducible, and the semiquantitative data correlate well with data from MRI-guided ROIs. Chien-Chin Hsu, Yen-Hsiang Chang, Wei-Che Lin, Shu-Wen Tang, Pei-Wen Wang, Yung-Cheng Huang, and Nan-Tsing Chiu Copyright © 2014 Chien-Chin Hsu et al. All rights reserved. Multiparametric Monitoring of Early Response to Antiangiogenic Therapy: A Sequential Perfusion CT and PET/CT Study in a Rabbit VX2 Tumor Model Wed, 15 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. To perform dual analysis of tumor perfusion and glucose metabolism using perfusion CT and FDG-PET/CT for the purpose of monitoring the early response to bevacizumab therapy in rabbit VX2 tumor models and to assess added value of FDG-PET to perfusion CT. Methods. Twenty-four VX2 carcinoma tumors implanted in bilateral back muscles of 12 rabbits were evaluated. Serial concurrent perfusion CT and FDG-PET/CT were performed before and 3, 7, and 14 days after bevacizumab therapy (treatment group) or saline infusion (control group). Perfusion CT was analyzed to calculate blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability surface area product (PS); FDG-PET was analyzed to calculate SUVmax, SUVmean, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), entropy, and homogeneity. The flow-metabolic ratio (FMR) was also calculated and immunohistochemical analysis of microvessel density (MVD) was performed. Results. On day 14, BF and BV in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group. There were no significant differences in all FDG-PET-derived parameters between both groups. In the treatment group, FMR prominently decreased after therapy and was positively correlated with MVD. Conclusions. In VX2 tumors, FMR could provide further insight into the early antiangiogenic effect reflecting a mismatch in intratumor blood flow and metabolism. Jung Im Kim, Hyun-Ju Lee, Young Jae Kim, Kwang Gi Kim, Kyung Won Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Hak Jong Lee, and Won Woo Lee Copyright © 2014 Jung Im Kim et al. All rights reserved. Radiolabeled Apoptosis Imaging Agents for Early Detection of Response to Therapy Tue, 14 Oct 2014 11:17:12 +0000 Since apoptosis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis and is associated with responses to therapy, molecular imaging of apoptotic cells could be useful for early detection of therapeutic effects, particularly in oncology. Radiolabeled annexin V compounds are the hallmark in apoptosis imaging in vivo. These compounds are reviewed from the genesis of apoptosis (cell death) imaging agents up to recent years. They have some disadvantages, including slow clearance and immunogenicity, because they are protein-based imaging agents. For this reason, several studies have been conducted in recent years to develop low molecule apoptosis imaging agents. In this review, radiolabeled phosphatidylserine targeted peptides, radiolabeled bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) complex, radiolabeled 5-fluoropentyl-2-methyl-malonic acid (ML-10), caspase-3 activity imaging agents, radiolabeled duramycin, and radiolabeled phosphonium cation are reviewed as promising low-molecular-weight apoptosis imaging agents. Kazuma Ogawa and Miho Aoki Copyright © 2014 Kazuma Ogawa and Miho Aoki. All rights reserved. Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields Tue, 14 Oct 2014 09:44:48 +0000 Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. Akira Makino and Shunsaku Kimura Copyright © 2014 Akira Makino and Shunsaku Kimura. All rights reserved. Radioimmunotherapy: A Specific Treatment Protocol for Cancer by Cytotoxic Radioisotopes Conjugated to Antibodies Tue, 14 Oct 2014 08:45:18 +0000 Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents a selective internal radiation therapy, that is, the use of radionuclides conjugated to tumor-directed monoclonal antibodies (including those fragments) or peptides. In a clinical field, two successful examples of this treatment protocol are currently extended by 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar), both of which are anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies coupled to cytotoxic radioisotopes and are approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. In addition, some beneficial observations are obtained in preclinical studies targeting solid tumors. To date, in order to reduce the unnecessary exposure and to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, various biological, chemical, and treatment procedural improvements have been investigated in RIT. This review outlines the fundamentals of RIT and current knowledge of the preclinical/clinical trials for cancer treatment. Hidekazu Kawashima Copyright © 2014 Hidekazu Kawashima. All rights reserved. Radiolabeled Probes Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1-Active Tumor Microenvironments Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:42:56 +0000 Because tumor cells grow rapidly and randomly, hypoxic regions arise from the lack of oxygen supply in solid tumors. Hypoxic regions in tumors are known to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) expressed in hypoxic regions regulates the expression of genes related to tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Thus, imaging of HIF-1-active regions in tumors is of great interest. HIF-1 activity is regulated by the expression and degradation of its α subunit (HIF-1α), which is degraded in the proteasome under normoxic conditions, but escapes degradation under hypoxic conditions, allowing it to activate transcription of HIF-1-target genes. Therefore, to image HIF-1-active regions, HIF-1-dependent reporter systems and injectable probes that are degraded in a manner similar to HIF-1α have been recently developed and used in preclinical studies. However, no probe currently used in clinical practice directly assesses HIF-1 activity. Whether the accumulation of 18F-FDG or 18F-FMISO can be utilized as an index of HIF-1 activity has been investigated in clinical studies. In this review, the current status of HIF-1 imaging in preclinical and clinical studies is discussed. Masashi Ueda and Hideo Saji Copyright © 2014 Masashi Ueda and Hideo Saji. All rights reserved. Why Are We Failing to Implement Imaging Studies with Radiolabelled New Molecular Entities in Early Oncology Drug Development? Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:55:44 +0000 In early drug development advanced imaging techniques can help with progressing new molecular entities (NME) to subsequent phases of drug development and thus reduce attrition. However, several organizational, operational, and regulatory hurdles pose a significant barrier, potentially limiting the impact these techniques can have on modern drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) of radiolabelled NME is arguably the best example of a complex technique with a potential to deliver unique decision-making data in small cohorts of subjects. However, to realise this potential the impediments to timely inclusion of PET into the drug development process must be overcome. In the present paper, we discuss the value of PET imaging with radiolabelled NME during early anticancer drug development, as exemplified with one such NME. We outline the multiple hurdles and propose options on how to streamline the organizational steps for future studies. Azeem Saleem, Philip Murphy, Christophe Plisson, and Michael Lahn Copyright © 2014 Azeem Saleem et al. All rights reserved. PET Quantification of Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Small Animals Sun, 17 Aug 2014 08:31:03 +0000 Understanding cerebral oxygen metabolism is of great importance in both clinical diagnosis and animal experiments because oxygen is a fundamental source of brain energy and supports brain functional activities. Since small animals such as rats are widely used to study various diseases including cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases, the development of a noninvasive in vivo measurement method of cerebral oxygen metabolic parameters such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) as well as cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been a priority. Although positron emission tomography (PET) with 15O labeled gas tracers has been recognized as a powerful way to evaluate cerebral oxygen metabolism in humans, this method could not be applied to rats due to technical problems and there were no reports of PET measurement of cerebral oxygen metabolism in rats until an 15O-O2 injection method was developed a decade ago. Herein, we introduce an intravenous administration method using two types of injectable 15O-O2 and an 15O-O2 gas inhalation method through an airway placed in the trachea, which enables oxygen metabolism measurements in rats. Takashi Temma, Kazuhiro Koshino, Tetsuaki Moriguchi, Jun-ichiro Enmi, and Hidehiro Iida Copyright © 2014 Takashi Temma et al. All rights reserved. Differences of Various Region-of-Interest Methods for Measuring Dopamine Transporter Availability Using -TRODAT-1 SPECT Tue, 01 Jul 2014 10:41:18 +0000 This study was to investigate whether various region-of-interest (ROI) methods for measuring dopamine transporter (DAT) availabilities by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are statistically different, whether results of medical research are thereby influenced, and causes of these differences. Eighty-four healthy adults with -TRODAT-1 SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were included. Six major analysis approaches were compared: (1) ROI drawn on the coregistered MRI; (2) ROIs drawn on the SPECT images; (3) standard ROI templates; (4) threshold-ROIs; (5) atlas-based mappings with coregistered MRI; and (6) atlas-based mappings with SPECT images. Using the atlas-based approaches we assessed the influence of striatum ROIs by slice-wise and voxel-wise comparisons. In (5) and (6), three partial-volume correction (PVC) methods were also explored. The results showed that DAT availabilities obtained from different methods were closely related but quite different and leaded to significant differences in determining the declines of DAT availability per decade (range: 5.95โ€“11.99%). Use of 3D whole-striatum or more transverse slices could avoid biases in measuring the striatal DAT declines per decade. Atlas-based methods with PVC may be the preferable methods for medical research. Tang-Kai Yin, Bi-Fang Lee, Yen Kuang Yang, and Nan-Tsing Chiu Copyright © 2014 Tang-Kai Yin et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Metabolic Changes during the First 3 Months after 90Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Radioimmunotherapy Thu, 19 Jun 2014 08:57:39 +0000 Objective. To elucidate the time course of tumor metabolism during the first 3 months after 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in patients with refractory malignant lymphoma. Materials and Methods. Seven patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma underwent FDG-PET imaging before and after 1-, 4-, and 12-week RIT with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Tumor metabolic activity on FDG-PET scans was assessed as the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax). Results. Decrease in metabolism was detected 1 week after RIT. In the most decreased lesion, SUVmax decreased to 20% of the baseline value during the first week. Most lesions continued to decrease for up to 4 weeks. Some lesions showed increased metabolism from 4 to 12 weeks, while the level of FDG accumulations at 12 weeks was still lower than the baseline. Conclusions. Tumor response to RIT could be observed as early as 1 week after the administration of RIT. After tumor activity decreases, the metabolism may increase at least between 4 and 12 weeks. It suggests that the metabolic changes should be carefully evaluated during this period. Miwako Takahashi, Toshimitsu Momose, Keitaro Koyama, Motoshi Ichikawa, Mineo Kurokawa, and Kuni Ohtomo Copyright © 2014 Miwako Takahashi et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Mon, 24 Mar 2014 07:02:53 +0000 Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, ), withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, ), and not taking metformin (noMET, ). Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI-) based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yung-Cheng Huang, Chien-Chin Hsu, Wei-Che Lin, Tang-Kai Yin, Chi-Wei Huang, Pei-Wen Wang, Han-Hsuan Chang, and Nan-Tsing Chiu Copyright © 2014 Yung-Cheng Huang et al. All rights reserved. Can Na18F PET/CT Be Used to Study Bone Remodeling in the Tibia When Patients Are Being Treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame? Wed, 19 Mar 2014 13:50:55 +0000 Monitoring and quantifying bone remodeling are of interest, for example, in correction osteotomies, delayed fracture healing pseudarthrosis, bone lengthening, and other instances. Seven patients who had operations to attach an Ilizarov-derived Taylor Spatial Frame to the tibia gave informed consent. Each patient was examined by Na18F PET/CT twice, at approximately six weeks and three months after the operation. A validated software tool was used for the following processing steps. The first and second CT volumes were aligned in 3D and the respective PET volumes were aligned accordingly. In the first PET volume spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were delineated for the crural fracture and normal bone and transferred to the second PET volume for evaluation. This method potentially provides clinical insight into questions such as, when has the bone remodeling progressed well enough to safely remove the TSF? and when is intervention required, in a timelier manner than current methods? For example, in two patients who completed treatment, the between the first and second PET/CT examination decreased by 42% and 13%, respectively. Further studies in a larger patient population are needed to verify these preliminary results by correlating regional Na18F PET measurements to clinical and radiological findings. Henrik Lundblad, Gerald Q. Maguire Jr., Henrik Olivecrona, Cathrine Jonsson, Hans Jacobsson, Marilyn E. Noz, Michael P. Zeleznik, Lars Weidenhielm, and Anders Sundin Copyright © 2014 Henrik Lundblad et al. All rights reserved. PET and PET/CT with 68Gallium-Labeled Somatostatin Analogues in Non GEP-NETs Tumors Thu, 13 Feb 2014 12:25:44 +0000 Somatostatin (SST) is a 28-amino-acid cyclic neuropeptide mainly secreted by neurons and endocrine cells. A major interest for SST receptors (SSTR) as target for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic purposes was born since a series of stable synthetic SST-analouges PET became available, being the native somatostatin non feasible for clinical use due to the very low metabolic stability. The rationale for the employment of SST-analogues to image cancer is both based on the expression of SSTR by tumor and on the high affinity of these compounds for SSTR. The primary indication of SST-analogues imaging is for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which usually express a high density of SSTR, so they can be effectively targeted and visualized with radiolabeled SST-analogues in vivo. Particularly, SST-analogues imaging has been widely employed in gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs. Nevertheless, a variety of tumors other than NETs expresses SSTR thus SST-analogues imaging can also be used in these tumors, particularly if treatment with radiolabeled therapeutic SST-analouges PET is being considered. The aim of this paper is to provide a concise overview of the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 68Ga-radiolabeled SST-analouges PET in tumors other than GEP-NETs. Martina Sollini, Paola Anna Erba, Alessandro Fraternali, Massimiliano Casali, Maria Liberata Di Paolo, Armando Froio, Andrea Frasoldati, and Annibale Versari Copyright © 2014 Martina Sollini et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Performance of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Using Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose in Detecting Locoregional Nodal Involvement in Patients with Anal Canal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 04 Feb 2014 14:09:26 +0000 Purpose. The diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in detecting nodal involvement in patients with anal canal cancer (ACC) has been investigated by several studies with conflicting results. The aim of our study is to systematically review and meta-analyze published data about this topic. Methods. A comprehensive computer literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases was carried out on July 10 to find relevant articles concerning the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET in detecting locoregional nodal involvement in patients with ACC. No language restriction was used. Pooled diagnostic performance on a lesion-based analysis was calculated. Results. Seven retrospective and five prospective studies have been reviewed. Six studies allowed assessing pooled sensitivity; five studies allowed assessing pooled specificity. Sensitivity and specificity values of FDG-PET/CT on a lesion-based analysis ranged from 31 to 100% and from 53 to 98%, with pooled estimates of 56% (95% CI: 45–67%) and 90% (95% CI: 86–93%), respectively. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that FDG-PET is a specific diagnostic tool in detecting locoregional lymph node involvement in patients with ACC. Low sensitivity is a major concern; however, higher sensitivity could be reached combining FDG-PET with MR scan. Carmelo Caldarella, Salvatore Annunziata, Giorgio Treglia, Ramin Sadeghi, Narjes Ayati, and Luca Giovanella Copyright © 2014 Carmelo Caldarella et al. All rights reserved. The Role of 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT in Patients with Colorectal Liver Metastases Undergoing Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90: A First Evidence-Based Review Sun, 02 Feb 2014 08:46:12 +0000 Purpose. To provide a first evidence-based review of the literature on the role of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET and PET/CT) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) undergoing selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres. Methods. A comprehensive computer literature search was conducted to find relevant published articles on whole-body FDG-PET or PET/CT in patients with CRLM undergoing SIRT. Results. We identified 19 studies including 833 patients with CRLM undergoing SIRT. The role of FDG-PET or PET/CT was analysed in treatment planning, treatment response evaluation, and as prognostic tool. Conclusion. FDG-PET and PET/CT provide additional information in treatment evaluation of CRLM patients treated with SIRT and may have a role in treatment planning and patient selection. FDG-PET/CT is emerging as good prognostic tool in these patients. Salvatore Annunziata, Giorgio Treglia, Carmelo Caldarella, and Federica Galiandro Copyright © 2014 Salvatore Annunziata et al. All rights reserved. NP-59 SPECT/CT Imaging in Stage 1 Hypertensive and Atypical Primary Aldosteronism: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis of Clinicolaboratory and Imaging Features Mon, 21 Oct 2013 08:41:11 +0000 Objective. We retrospectively analyzed all primary aldosteronism (PA) patients undergoing NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging with regard to their clinicolaboratory and imaging features, investigation, and outcomes. Material and Methods. 11 PA patients who presented to our hospital for NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging between April 2007 and March 2012 and managed here were analyzed. Results. Among 11 PA patients, eight (73%) had stage 1 hypertension, three (27%) stage 2 hypertension, four (36%) normal plasma aldosterone concentration, nine (82%) nonsuppressed plasma renin activity (PRA), six (55%) normal aldosterone-renin-ratio (ARR), eight (73%) serum potassium ≧3 mEq/L, seven (64%) subclinical presentation, seven (64%) negative confirmatory testing, and four (36%) inconclusive results on CT scan and seven (64%) on planar NP-59 scan. All 11 (100%) patients had positive results on NP-59 SPECT/CT scan. Two (18%) met typical triad and nine (82%) atypical triad. Among nine atypical PA patients, three (33%) had clinical presentation, six (67%) subclinical presentation, six (67%) negative confirmatory testing, and four (44%) inconclusive results on CT scan and six (67%) on planar NP-59 scan. All patients had improved outcomes. Significant differences between typical and atypical PA existed in PRA and ARR. Conclusions. NP-59 SPECT/CT may provide diagnostic potential in stage 1 hypertensive and atypical PA. Yi-Chun Chen, Jainn-Shiun Chiu, and Yuh-Feng Wang Copyright © 2013 Yi-Chun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Is %ΔSUVmax a Useful Indicator of Survival in Patients with Advanced Nonsmall-Cell Lung Cancer? Wed, 09 Oct 2013 08:24:42 +0000 Purpose. To investigate the impact of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), size of primary lung lesion, and %ΔSUVmax on outcome (overall survival (OS) and 2-year disease-free survival (2-year DFS)) of patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods. 86 stage III-IV NSCLC patients underwent 18 F-FDGPET/CT, before and after chemotherapy, and were classified into subgroups according to the response criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. SUVmax values and tumor size with the best prognostic significance were searched. Correlation between the SUVmax value and the initial response to therapy (best response) and the relationship between %ΔSUVmax and OS were assessed. Results. In patients in PD (20/86), the average pretreatment SUVmax was , and the mean size of the primary lesion was . In SD, PR, and CR patients (66/86), the average pretreatment SUVmax was , and the mean size of the primary lesion was . Correlation was identified only for %ΔSUVmax; patients with PD (ΔSUVmax > +25%) showed a worse OS than patients with ΔSUVmax < +25% (CR, PR, and SD) (). Conclusions. In stage III-IV NSCLC, among the assessed factors, only %ΔSUVmax may be considered as a useful prognostic factor. Angelina Cistaro, Natale Quartuccio, Alireza Mojtahedi, Piercarlo Fania, Pier Luigi Filosso, Mariapaola Cucinotta, Alfredo Campennì, Umberto Ficola, and Sergio Baldari Copyright © 2013 Angelina Cistaro et al. All rights reserved. Detection of MUC1-Expressing Ovarian Cancer by C595 Monoclonal Antibody-Conjugated SPIONs Using MR Imaging Mon, 30 Sep 2013 08:27:26 +0000 The aim of this study is to find out the development and application of MUC1-expressing ovarian cancer (OVCAR3) by C595 monoclonal antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using MR imaging. At the end, its use as a nanosized contrast agent MR imaging probe for ovarian cancer detection was investigated. The strategy is to use SPIONs attached to C595 mAb that binds to the MUC1, to specifically detect ovarian cancer cells. Anticancer effects and MR imaging parameters of the prepared nanoconjugate was investigated both under in vitro and in vivo experiments. The characterization of nanoconjugate includes its size, cell toxicity, flow cytometry, Prussian blue staining test and its cellular uptake as well as its biodistribution, and MR imaging was also investigated. The findings of the study showed good tumor accumulation and detection, no in vivo toxicity, and potential selective antiovarian cancer activity. Overall, based on the findings SPIONs-C595 nanosized probe is a selective ovarian molecular imaging modality. Further subsequent clinical trials appear warranted. Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei and Mohammad Abdolahi Copyright © 2013 Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei and Mohammad Abdolahi. All rights reserved. Molecular Imaging of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Tue, 23 Apr 2013 11:37:20 +0000 Current laboratory research in the field of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease often utilizes small animal experimental models induced by genetic manipulation or chemical application. This has led to the use and development of multiple high-resolution molecular imaging modalities capable of tracking disease progression, quantifying the role of inflammation, and evaluating the effects of potential therapeutics. In vivo imaging reduces the number of research animals used, provides molecular and cellular information, and allows for longitudinal studies, a necessity when tracking vessel expansion in a single animal. This review outlines developments of both established and emerging molecular imaging techniques used to study AAA disease. Beyond the typical modalities used for anatomical imaging, which include ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), previous molecular imaging efforts have used magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), bioluminescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Mouse and rat AAA models will hopefully provide insight into potential disease mechanisms, and the development of advanced molecular imaging techniques, if clinically useful, may have translational potential. These efforts could help improve the management of aneurysms and better evaluate the therapeutic potential of new treatments for human AAA disease. Aneesh K. Ramaswamy, Mark Hamilton II, Rucha V. Joshi, Benjamin P. Kline, Rui Li, Pu Wang, and Craig J. Goergen Copyright © 2013 Aneesh K. Ramaswamy et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Clinically Significant Extraosseous Findings on Unenhanced CT Portions of 18F-Fluoride PET/CT Bone Scans Mon, 10 Sep 2012 14:15:59 +0000 Objective. Due to the frequently interrupted supply of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate, the use of 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become more popular. The study aims to determine the percentage of extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT portion of 18F-fluoride PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively collected 18F-fluoride PET/CT studies between March 2010 and February 2011. The unenhanced CT portions of 18F-fluoride PET/CT were reviewed for each patient. Significant extraosseous findings related to malignancy from the unenhanced CT were recorded. Results. A total of 158 patients (110 females, 48 males) were included in the study. Clinically significant extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT were found in 43 patients (27.2%). Previously unknown extraosseous findings were identified in 17 patients (10.8%) after a review of the 18F-fluoride PET/CT scan results. Most of the extraosseous findings were small pulmonary metastases or enlarged metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion. It is not rare to identify new clinically significant extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT of 18F-fluoride PET/CT studies. Therefore the clinical management of patients may be altered by the results, and a careful review of the unenhanced CT portion of 18F-fluoride PET/CT is mandatory. Chao-Jung Chen and Shih-Ya Ma Copyright © 2012 Chao-Jung Chen and Shih-Ya Ma. All rights reserved. Correlation of Dynamic PET and Gene Array Data in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Mon, 04 Jun 2012 15:42:30 +0000 Introduction. The results obtained with dynamic PET (dPET) were compared to gene expression data obtained in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The primary aim was to assess the association of the dPET results and gene expression data. Material and Methods. dPET was performed following the injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in 22 patients with GIST. All patients were examined prior to surgery for staging purpose. Compartment and noncompartment models were used for the quantitative evaluation of the dPET examinations. Gene array data were based on tumor specimen obtained by surgery after the PET examinations. Results. The data analysis revealed significant correlations for the dPET parameters and the expression of zinc finger genes (znf43, znf85, znf91, znf189). Furthermore, the transport of FDG (k1) was associated with VEGF-A. The cell cycle gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C was correlated with the maximum tracer uptake (SUVmax) in the tumors. Conclusions. The data demonstrate a dependency of the tracer kinetics on genes associated with prognosis in GIST. Furthermore, angiogenesis and cell proliferation have an impact on the tracer uptake. Ludwig G. Strauss, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Dirk Koczan, Leyun Pan, and Peter Hohenberger Copyright © 2012 Ludwig G. Strauss et al. All rights reserved. SPECT and PET Imaging of Meningiomas Tue, 01 May 2012 15:43:03 +0000 Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical) and grade III (anaplastic) meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue. Varvara Valotassiou, Anastasia Leondi, George Angelidis, Dimitrios Psimadas, and Panagiotis Georgoulias Copyright © 2012 Varvara Valotassiou et al. All rights reserved. Review Analysis of the Association between the Prevalence of Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Outdoor Temperature Thu, 19 Apr 2012 13:12:48 +0000 Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for regulating body weight. Environmental temperature influences BAT activation. Activated BAT is identifiable using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). 18F-FDG PET/CT scans done between June 2005 and May 2009 in our institution in tropical southern Taiwan and BAT studies from PubMed (2002–2011) were reviewed, and the average outdoor temperatures during the study periods were obtained. A simple linear regression was used to analyze the association between the prevalence of activated BAT (๐‘ƒ) and the average outdoor temperature (๐‘‡). The review analysis for 9 BAT studies (๐‘›=16,765) showed a significant negative correlation (๐‘Ÿ=โˆ’0.741, ๐‘ƒ=0.022) between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. The equation of the regression line is ๐‘ƒ(%)=6.99โˆ’0.20ร—๐‘‡(โˆ˜C). The prevalence of activated BAT decreased by 1% for each 5โˆ˜C increase in average outdoor temperature. In a neutral ambient temperature, the prevalence of activated BAT is low and especially rare in the tropics. There is a significant linear negative correlation between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. Yung-Cheng Huang, Chien-Chin Hsu, Pei-Wen Wang, Yen-Hsiang Chang, Tai-Been Chen, Bi-Fang Lee, and Nan-Tsing Chiu Copyright © 2012 Yung-Cheng Huang et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Dose Minimisation Protocol for 18F-FDG PET-CT in the Management of Lymphoma Postchemotherapy Followup Sun, 01 Apr 2012 09:25:20 +0000 Introduction. 18F-FDG-PET-CT plays an important role in the management of lymphoma postchemotherapy followup. Some centres perform prechemotherapy baseline CT and postchemotherapy PETCT. With a concern of radiation burden, especially in young patients, this study aimed to assess if PETCT radiation dose could be reduced. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 100 lymphoma patients was performed to record sites of disease on prechemotherapy CT and postchemotherapy PETCT. The potential reduction in radiation and time achieved with PETCT limited to sites of known disease identified on prechemotherapy CT was calculated. Results. No FDG-uptake was seen in 72 cases. FDG uptake at known disease sites was seen in 24. Of the remaining 4, one had clinically significant pathology, a rectal adenocarcinoma. PETCT did not reveal any unexpected sites of lymphoma. Limiting PETCT to sites of known disease would have saved a mean radiation dose of 4โ€‰mSv (27.3%), with a mean time of 16โ€‰minutes. Conclusion. Our study suggests that young patients may benefit from reduced radiation by limiting PETCT to sites of known disease with low risk of missing significant pathology. However, in older patients, with increased incidence of asymptomatic synchronous malignancies, whole-body PETCT is advisable unless prechemotherapy PETCT has been performed. L. I. Sonoda, B. Sanghera, and W. L. Wong Copyright © 2012 L. I. Sonoda et al. All rights reserved. DWI-MRI: Single, Informative, and Noninvasive Technique for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis Tue, 14 Feb 2012 15:24:02 +0000 Aim. To evaluate diffusion weighted image-MRI (DWI) as a single diagnostic noninvasive MRI technique for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted between July 2008 and July 2009. Candidates patients were equal or more than 40 years old, with suspicious digital rectal examination (more than clinical T2) or PSA >4 ng/mL. Informed consent was signed. DWI-MRI was performed at 1.5 T with a body coil combined with a spine coil in consecutive 100 cases. The histopathology of biopsies has been used as reference standard. Two examiners were evaluating MRI and TRUS, both of them were blinded regarding pathological findings. Accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were statistically analyzed. Results. Based on pathological diagnosis: group A (cancerous); 75 cases and group B (non-cancerous); 25 cases. Mean age was 65.3 and 62.8 years in groups A and B, respectively. Mean PSA was 30.7 and 9.2 ng/mL in groups A and B, respectively. Sensitivity of DWI was 58.3% while specificity was 83.8%. Accuracy of lesion detection was 52.4–77.8% (๐‘ƒ<0.05). Moreover, DWI at ADC value 1.2ร—10−3 mL/sec could determine 82.4% of true positive cases (๐‘ƒ<0.05). ADC values were lower with Gleason score ≥7 (๐‘ƒ<0.05). Conclusion. DWI could represent a non invasive single diagnostic tool not only in detection and localization but also in prediction of Gleason score whenever DWI is used prior to invasive TRUS biopsy. Furthermore, targeted single biopsy could be planned after DWI to minimize patient morbidity by invasive techniques. Elhousseiny I. Ibrahiem, Tarek Mohsen, Adel M. Nabeeh, Yasser Osman, Ihab A. Hekal, and Mohamed Abou El-Ghar Copyright © 2012 Elhousseiny I. Ibrahiem et al. All rights reserved. The Usefulness of the Source Images of Magnetic Resonance Angiogram in the Carotid Cavernous Fistula Mon, 02 Jan 2012 00:00:00 +0000 Bon D. Ku, Hak Yiung Rhee, and Sung Sang Yoon Copyright © 2011 Bon D. Ku et al. All rights reserved. Digital Three-Dimensional Atlas of Quail Development Using High-Resolution MRI Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 We present an archetypal set of three-dimensional digital atlases of the quail embryo based on microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (ฮผMRI). The atlases are composed of three modules: (1) images of fixed ex ovo quail, ranging in age from embryonic day 5 to 10 (e05 to e10); (2) a coarsely delineated anatomical atlas of the ฮผMRI data; and (3) an organ system-based hierarchical graph linked to the anatomical delineations. The atlas is designed to be accessed using SHIVA, a free Java application. The atlas is extensible and can contain other types of information including anatomical, physiological, and functional descriptors. It can also be linked to online resources and references. This digital atlas provides a framework to place various data types, such as gene expression and cell migration data, within the normal three-dimensional anatomy of the developing quail embryo. This provides a method for the analysis and examination of the spatial relationships among the different types of information within the context of the entire embryo. Seth W. Ruffins, Melanie Martin, Lindsey Keough, Salina Truong, Scott E. Fraser, Russell E. Jacobs, and Rusty Lansford Copyright ยฉ 2007 Seth W. Ruffins et al. All rights reserved. Imaging of Bone Marrow Involvement in Lymphoma: State of the Art and Future Directions Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Accurate detection of bone marrow involvement in patients with lymphoma is of crucial importance because of the prognostic and therapeutic consequences. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is currently regarded as the method of choice for the evaluation of the bone marrow in lymphoma, but it is invasive, has a risk of complications, and lacks sufficient sensitivity due to the possibility of sampling errors. Bone marrow imaging, if accurate, may (partially) replace BMBand/or may improve the sensitivity of BMB by guiding the biopsy to the location that appears to be involved by lymphoma at imaging. In this scientific communication, general concepts of bone marrow imaging, state-of-the-art imaging modalities, and future imaging strategies for the assessment of the bone marrow in lymphoma will be reviewed and discussed. Thomas C. Kwee, John M. H. de Klerk, and Rutger A. J. Nievelstein Copyright © 2011 Thomas Kwee et al. All rights reserved. Nanoparticles and Inflammation Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 The development of nanoscale molecular probes capable of diagnosis, characterization, and clinical treatment of disease is leading to a new generation of imaging technologies. Such probes are particularly relevant to inflammation, where the detection of subclinical, early disease states could facilitate speedier detection that could yield enhanced, tailored therapies. Nanoparticles offer robust platforms capable of sensitive detection, and early research has indicated their suitability for the detection of vascular activation and cellular recruitment at subclinical levels. This suggests that nanoparticle techniques may provide excellent biomarkers for the diagnosis and progression of inflammatory diseases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes being just some of the new methodologies employed. Development of these techniques could lead to a range of sensitive probes capable of ultrasensitive, localized detection of inflammation. This article will discuss the merits of each approach, with a general overview to their applicability in inflammatory diseases. Ross Stevenson, Axel J. Hueber, Alan Hutton, Iain B. McInnes, and Duncan Graham Copyright © 2011 Ross Stevenson et al. All rights reserved. Scintigraphic Demonstration of Urine Extravasation Secondary to Acute Ureteral Obstruction: A Case Report and Some Considerations about Acute Ureteral Obstruction Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Acute ureteral obstruction produces renal damage and complications that are proportional to the severity and length of the obstruction. Anatomic diagnosis of the obstruction may be insufficient to manage the patient. Intravenous urogram (IVU) is the method usually advised by radiologists to obtain functional information, but requires iodinated contrast agents. IVU anatomic information is superior to anatomic information obtained with renal scintigraphy, but normally the physician already has the anatomic information (unenhanced CT or ultrasound). A renal scan offers better physiologic information than the IVU, has neither adverse effects nor complications, is accurate to confirm or discard significant ureteral obstruction, and depicts obstruction complications. This paper presents a patient with spontaneous urine extravasation secondary to acute renal obstruction who is diagnosed with renal scintigraphy. The authors describe the scintigraphic signs of extraperitoneal, diffuse perinephric, urine extravasation and emphasize the role of renal scintigraphy in diagnosis and follow-up of renal colic. Federico M. Sarmiento, Arístides J.H. Sarmiento, Edgardo Bardoneschi, and Arístides H. Sarmiento Copyright © 2006 Federico M. Sarmiento et al. All rights reserved. Ultraviolet Fluorescence Spectra of Fingerprints Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 We have studied inherent fluorescence spectra and imaging of fingerprints in the deep ultraviolet (UV) region with a nanosecond-pulsed Nd-YAG laser system that consists of a tunable laser, a cooled CCD camera, and a grating spectrometer. In this paper, we have studied UV fluorescence spectra of fingerprints under 266-nm illumination. Fluorescence spectra of fingerprints have two main peaks, around 330 nm (peak A) and 440 nm (peak B). At first, when a fingerprint has just been pressed, peak A is dominant. However, its intensity reduces as the total illumination time increases. On the other hand, peak B is weak at first. It appears after enough 266-nm illumination and its intensity increases as time elapses. After 3 h of illumination, peak A almost diminishes and peak B becomes dominant. By leaving the fingerprint under a fluorescent lamp in a room without laser illumination, peak A can be restored partly, while the intensity of peak B still increases.Time-resolved fluorescence spectra were also measured for these two peaks. The lifetime of each peak is 2.0 nsec (peak A) and 6.2 nsec (peak B) on average. Both peaks seem to consist of several components with different lifetimes. In the case of peak A, the 330-nm peak decays fast and a new component at 360 nm becomes dominant when the delay time exceeds 20 nsec. In the case of peak B, unlike peak A, no clear peak separation is observed, but the peak position seems to move from 440 to 460 nm when the delay time becomes larger. Naoki Saitoh and Norimitsu Akiba Copyright © 2005 Naoki Saitoh and Norimitsu Akiba. All rights reserved. Confocal Imaging: Blood and Lymphatic Capillaries Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional imaging techniques are quite limited for the study of the relationship between blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Therefore, a new imaging technique is required based on blood vessel and lymphatic endothelial-specific molecular markers. In this short report, vascular molecular markers are reviewed and a new molecular imaging technique for blood vessel and lymphatic co-staining is introduced. Yingjie Cui Copyright © 2006 Yingjieย Cui. All rights reserved.