The Scientific World Journal: Vascular Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. An Approach to Differential Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Related Conditions Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a systemic, acquired, immune-mediated disorder characterized by episodes of venous, arterial, or microcirculation thrombosis and/or pregnancy abnormalities, associated with the persistent presence of autoantibodies, confirmed at least in two occasions 12 weeks apart, directed to molecular complexes consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should always be considered as a potential diagnosis especially for young patients presenting with a history of thrombotic events, in particular when they occur without any obvious external trigger or any inherited thrombophilic mutation (even if 2006 criteria do not exclude antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in patients with other inherited or acquired prothrombotic conditions), or for women with recurrent pregnancy losses or later fetal deaths. Many other disorders are able to mimic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, so a broad range of alternative diagnoses should be investigated and ruled out during clinical workup. Giacomo Emmi, Elena Silvestri, Danilo Squatrito, Lucia Ciucciarelli, Anna Maria Cameli, Gentian Denas, Mario Milco D’Elios, Vittorio Pengo, Lorenzo Emmi, and Domenico Prisco Copyright © 2014 Giacomo Emmi et al. All rights reserved. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports Tue, 01 Jul 2014 10:37:06 +0000 The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was years for all patients but years and years for female and male subjects, respectively (). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell’s diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. Michał Polguj, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Jarosław D. Kasprzak, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Mirosław Topol, and Agata Majos Copyright © 2014 Michał Polguj et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Stent and Balloon Technologies in the Femoropopliteal Arteries Tue, 04 Feb 2014 11:44:40 +0000 Endovascular procedures for the management of the superficial femoral (SFA) and popliteal artery disease are increasingly common. Over the past decade, several stent technologies have been established which may offer new options for improved clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the current evidence for SFA and popliteal artery angioplasty and stenting, with a focus on randomized trials and registries of nitinol self-expanding stents, drug-eluting stents, dug-coated balloons, and covered stent-grafts. We also highlight the limitations of the currently available data and the future routes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) stent and balloon technology. Georgios Pastromas, Konstantinos Katsanos, Miltiadis Krokidis, Dimitrios Karnabatidis, and Stavros Spiliopoulos Copyright © 2014 Georgios Pastromas et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study Mon, 27 Jan 2014 09:37:47 +0000 Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA) was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV). From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently). Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser. R. G. Bush, P. Bush, J. Flanagan, R. Fritz, T. Gueldner, J. Koziarski, K. McMullen, and G. Zumbro Copyright © 2014 R. G. Bush et al. All rights reserved. Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology Sun, 19 Jan 2014 06:17:03 +0000 Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. C. Benazzi, A. Al-Dissi, C. H. Chau, W. D. Figg, G. Sarli, J. T. de Oliveira, and F. Gärtner Copyright © 2014 C. Benazzi et al. All rights reserved. Transaortic Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Catheter Insertion through a Separate Saphenous Vein Graft in Patients with Severe Aortoiliac Disease Thu, 02 Jan 2014 14:04:12 +0000 Background. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is the most widely used mechanical assist device for hemodynamic support in high risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim of our study was to confirm whether transaortic route is a suitable alternative to allow IABP insertion in patients with severe aortoiliac diseases. Methods. This study included 7 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease associated with severe aortoiliac disease. These patients could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass and required the IABP support, which were placed through the ascending aorta. IABP catheter was inserted indirectly through a separate saphenous vein graft anastomosed to the ascending aorta by an end-to-side manner under a partial occluding clamp and advanced to the desired position in the descending thoracic aorta and exteriorly brought into the subcutaneous tissues in the jugulum. Results. The procedure was successfully performed in all the patients. The mean duration of IABP support was hours. There were no in-hospital mortality and complications related to transaortic route. IABP removal did not require repeat sternotomy. At postoperative 6th month, multislice CT examination showed thrombotic occlusion at the remnant of the saphenous vein graft. Conclusions. This technique is a simple, reliable, and reproducible option in patients with severe aortoiliac disease in whom retrograde femoral route is not possible. Faruk Toktas, Senol Yavuz, Cuneyt Eris, and Suleyman Surer Copyright © 2014 Faruk Toktas et al. All rights reserved. Chlamydia pneumoniae Antibodies and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Sat, 28 Dec 2013 15:16:54 +0000 Introduction. The study aim was to assess the relationship between the presence of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) incidence. Patients and Methods. Consecutive AAA patients and AAA-free controls were recruited prospectively. Serum samples from both groups were examined to determine Immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG titres against Chlamydia pneumoniae by ELISA and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Results were expressed as mean (SD) or median (IQR) and compared using and Mann-Whitney tests. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Each study group (AAA/nAAA) comprised 250 patients. 196 (78.7%) AAA patients had positive IgA antichlamydial antibody titres, compared to 181 (72.4%) in the control group (, OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.5). However, positive IgG antibody titres were similar (191 versus 203; , OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–1.3). Average CRP concentrations were higher in AAA individuals. IgA or IgG antibody titres were not related to CRP concentrations. Conclusions. These results demonstrated that the frequent incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies within the general population makes it difficult to relate its presence to AAA development, despite the high IgA antibody titres. In addition, raised CRP concentrations in AAA patients are not related to the presence of antichlamydial antibodies. M. A. Sharif, D. A. McDowell, and S. A. Badger Copyright © 2013 M. A. Sharif et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Sleep Respiratory Disorders on Endothelial Function in Children Thu, 26 Dec 2013 14:21:22 +0000 Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children can induce endothelial dysfunction, a well-known early marker of atherosclerosis. The study aimed to evaluate a link among endothelial function (measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)), obesity (evaluated by body mass index (BMI)), and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), assessed with apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI), in a paediatric population. We demonstrated that our little OSAS patients showed an impaired endothelial function as compared to controls. In particular, the higher the AHI, the worst the FMD values and thus the endothelial function. Although the population sample is small, this study demonstrated that OSAS could impair endothelial function and worsen cardiovascular risk profile since childhood. Luigia Brunetti, Ruggiero Francavilla, Pietro Scicchitano, Valentina Tranchino, Maria Loscialpo, Michele Gesualdo, Annapaola Zito, Fara Fornarelli, Marco Sassara, Paola Giordano, Vito Leonardo Miniello, and Marco Matteo Ciccone Copyright © 2013 Luigia Brunetti et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Immediate and 2-Year Outcomes between Excimer Laser-Assisted Angioplasty with Spot Stent and Primary Stenting in Intermediate to Long Femoropopliteal Disease Thu, 05 Dec 2013 15:48:23 +0000 Background. To compare the clinical outcomes between excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (ELA) with spot stent (group A) and primary stenting (group B) in intermediate to long femoropopliteal disease. Methods. Outcomes of 105 patients totaling 119 legs treated with two different strategies were analyzed retrospectively in a prospectively maintained database. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Better angiographic results and lesser increase of serum C-reactive protein levels (0.60 ± 0.72 versus 2.98 ± 0.97 mg/dL, ) after the intervention were obtained in Group B. Group A had inferior 1-year outcomes due to higher rate of binary restenosis (67% versus 32%, ) and lower rate of primary patency (40% versus 58%, ). Rates of amputation-free survival, target vessel revascularization, assisted primary patency, and stent fracture at 24 months were similar in both groups (80% versus 82%, , 65% versus 45%, , 78% versus 80%, and 6.3% versus 6.8%, , resp.). Conclusion. Greater vascular inflammation after ELA with spot stent resulted in earlier restenosis and inferior 1-year clinical outcomes than primary stenting. This benefit was lost in the primary stenting group at 2 years due to late catch-up restenosis. Active surveillance with prompt intervention was required to maintain the vessel patency. Tien-Yu Wu, Hsin-Hua Chou, Shang-Hung Chang, Yueh-Ju Tsai, Chien-An Hsieh, Shih-Tsung Cheng, Kuan-Hung Yeh, Hern-Jia Chang, Yu-Lin Ko, and Hsuan-Li Huang Copyright © 2013 Tien-Yu Wu et al. All rights reserved. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia after Cardiac Surgery: An Analysis of 52 Patients Sun, 27 Oct 2013 18:12:34 +0000 Objective. Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a rare but serious complication after cardiac surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence, outcome, and perioperative risk factors of AMI in the patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods. From January 2005 to May 2013, all patients who underwent cardiac surgery were screened for participation, and patients with registered gastrointestinal complications were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed. Results. The study included 6013 patients, of which 52 (0.86%) patients suffered from AMI, 35 (67%) of whom died. The control group (150 patients) was randomly chosen from among cases undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Preoperative parameters including age (), renal insufficiency (), peripheral vascular disease (), preoperative inotropic support (), poor left ventricular ejection fraction (), cardiogenic shock (), and preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support () revealed significantly higher levels in the AMI group. Among intra- and postoperative parameters, CPB time (), dialysis (), inotropic support (), prolonged ventilator time (), and IABP support () appeared significantly higher in the AMI group than the control group. Conclusions. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment should be initiated as early as possible in any patient suspected of AMI, leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate. Cuneyt Eris, Senol Yavuz, Serhat Yalcinkaya, Arif Gucu, Faruk Toktas, Gunduz Yumun, Burak Erdolu, and Ahmet Ozyazıcıoglu Copyright © 2013 Cuneyt Eris et al. All rights reserved. Soluble RAGE Plasma Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Peripheral Artery Disease Wed, 09 Oct 2013 11:45:58 +0000 The objective of the present study was define in a relatively large patient population with coronary artery disease (CAD) whether the concomitant presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is known to convey additional cardiovascular risk, was associated with different circulating levels of sRAGE with respect to CAD alone and control subjects. Clinical and laboratory parameters including the ankle brachial index (ABI) and sRAGE (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit) were investigated in 544 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 328 control subjects. 213/554 CAD patients (39%) showed an ABI <0.9 associated with typical symptoms (group CAD + PAD), whereas 331 patients were free from PAD. The concentration of plasma sRAGE was significantly lower () in CAD population, with and without PAD, than in control subjects. Among CAD patients, those with PAD showed lower levels of sRAGE. The distribution of the three groups (CAD, CAD + PAD, and controls) according to sRAGE tertiles showed that lower levels were more frequent in patients with CAD and CAD + PAD, whereas higher levels were more frequently found in controls. CAD patients presenting with PAD have lower sRAGE levels than CAD patients without peripheral atherosclerosis showing that stable atherosclerotic lesions in different vascular districts are inversely related to soluble decoy receptor sRAGE. Colomba Falcone, Sara Bozzini, Luigina Guasti, Angela D’Angelo, Anna Clizia Capettini, Edoardo Maria Paganini, Rossana Falcone, Roberto Moia, Carmine Gazzaruso, and Gabriele Pelissero Copyright © 2013 Colomba Falcone et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Combination with a Collagen Matrix in Chronic Hindlimb Ischemia Tue, 15 May 2012 17:49:04 +0000 Although therapeutic angiogenesis by angiogenic cytokines is a feasible strategy to improve regional blood flow in ischemic regions, the optimal delivery mode needs to be established. Here we designed a complex of collagen matrix (CM) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and evaluated its proangiogenic effect in ischemic hindlimbs. The bFGF-CM was prepared using lyophilization. The morphology, porosity and toxicity of CM were examined. The bFGF releasing profile and bioactivity of released bFGF were assessed. bFGF-CM was intramuscularly implanted into the rabbit ischemic hindlimb model. Oxygen saturation parameters (OSP) of ischemic hindlimbs was measured to evaluate the extremity perfusion at intervals. Histological examination was performed to evaluate the level of angiogenesis. The CM and bFGF-CM were of identical multiporous structure lacking cytotoxicity. The releasing profile lasted 10 days and the released bFGF remained bioactive. OSP in bFGF-CM group was significantly higher than that in CM, bFGF and ischemic groups at 2 and 4 weeks. The number of capillaries and mature vessels in bFGF-CM group were significantly greater than that in untreated control, CM and bFGF groups. Therefore, bFGF-CM enables the safe and effective long-term release of bFGF with improved angiogenesis in ischemic hindlimbs compared with CM devoid of bFGF. Jianyin Zhou, Yilin Zhao, Jinling Wang, Sheng Zhang, Zhengjin Liu, Maochuan Zhen, Yun Liu, Pingguo Liu, Zhenyu Yin, and Xiaomin Wang Copyright © 2012 Jianyin Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Elevation of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Different Areas of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms in Patients with Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valves Thu, 03 May 2012 08:08:24 +0000 Our aim is to investigate the elevation of matrix proteins in tissues obtained from distal, above the sinotubular junction (proximal), concave, and convex sites of aneurysms in the ascending aorta using a simultaneous multiplex protein detection system. Tissues were collected from 41 patients with ascending aortic aneurysms. A total of 31 patients had a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), whereas 10 had a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). Concave and convex aortic site samples were collected from all patients, whereas proximal and distal convexity samples were obtained from 19 patients with BAV and 7 patients with TAV. Simultaneous detection of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) was performed at each of the four aortic sites. MMP-2 levels were higher in the concave aortic sites than in the convex aortic sites. In contrast, MMP-8 levels were higher in the convex sites than in the concave sites, as were MMP-9 levels. In both BAV and TAV patients, TIMP-3 levels were higher in the concave sites than in the convex sites. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 levels were significantly elevated in the sinotubular proximal aorta of BAV patients. Simultaneous detection of MMPs and TIMPs revealed different levels at different aortic sites in the same patient. Salah A. Mohamed, Frank Noack, Kerstin Schoellermann, Anje Karluss, Arlo Radtke, Detlev Schult-Badusche, Peter W. Radke, Bjoern E. Wenzel, and Hans H. Sievers Copyright © 2012 Salah A. Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Risk Factors for Amputation in 822 Cases with Acute Arterial Emboli Thu, 19 Apr 2012 13:49:10 +0000 Background. We retrospectively examined the records of 822 patients who underwent a total of 901 operations for acute peripheral arterial occlusion of the upper or lower extremities between 1999 and 2009. We analyzed the effects of atherosclerotic structure, the time of admission to hospital, and re-embolectomies on amputation in the early postoperative period. Methods. There were 466 (56.7%) men and 356 (43.3%) women. The time of admission to hospital was in the range of 58 hours. There were lower extremity emboli in 683 (83%). Bypass procedures were done in 27 (3.3%) patients. Fasciotomy, patchplasty, and endarterectomy were made in 19 (2.3%), 9 (1.1%), and 7 (0.8%) patients, respectively. Results. Early revision (re-embolectomy) was performed in 77 (9.3%) patients. Amputation was performed in 112 (13.6%) patients. Delay after six hours from the onset of complaints and re-embolectomies increased the risk of amputation and rates. Conclusion. If the embolectomy, which is a rapid and easy technique for treatment of acute arterial emboli, is performed by experienced surgeons without delay, the complications associated with the emboli may be prevented. Otherwise, delayed operation and repeated re-embolizations in acute arterial play important roles in morbidity. Ozgur Dag, Mehmet Ali Kaygın, and Bilgehan Erkut Copyright © 2012 Ozgur Dag et al. All rights reserved. Management of Symptomatic Venous Aneurysm Sun, 01 Apr 2012 09:38:15 +0000 Venous aneurysms (VAs) have been described in quite of all the major veins. They represent uncommon events but often life-threatening because of pulmonary or paradoxical embolism. We describe our twelve patients’ series with acute pulmonary emboli due to venous aneurysm thrombosis. Our experience underlines the importance of a multilevel case-by-case approach and the immediate venous lower limbs duplex scan evaluation in pulmonary embolism events. Our data confirm that anticoagulant alone is not effective in preventing pulmonary embolism. We believe that all the VAs of the deep venous system of the extremities should be treated with surgery as well as symptomatic superficial venous aneurysm. A simple excision can significantly improve symptoms and prevent pulmonary embolism. Roberto Gabrielli, Maria Sofia Rosati, Andrea Siani, and Luigi Irace Copyright © 2012 Roberto Gabrielli et al. All rights reserved. Potential Long-Term Complications of Endovascular Stent Grafting for Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury Sun, 01 Apr 2012 09:26:15 +0000 Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is a rare, but lethal, consequence of rapid deceleration events. Most victims of BTAI die at the scene of the accident. Of those who arrive to the hospital alive, expedient aortic intervention significantly improves survival. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been accepted as the standard of care for BTAI at many centers, primarily due to the convincing evidence of lower mortality and morbidity in comparison to open surgery. However, less attention has been given to potential long-term complications of TEVAR for BTAI. This paper focuses on these complications, which include progressive aortic expansion with aging, inadequate stent graft characteristics, device durability concerns, long-term radiation exposure concerns from follow-up computed tomography scans, and the potential for (Victims of Modern Imaging Technology) VOMIT. Larry E. Miller Copyright © 2012 Larry E. Miller. All rights reserved. Enhanced Vasodilator Responses to CGRP (Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide) in Subcutaneous Arteries in Human Hypertension Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 H. Lind and L. Edvinsson Copyright © 2001 H. Lind and L. Edvinsson. All rights reserved. Telomerase Allows Human Preosteoblasts to Maintain Their Phenotype during the Immortalization Process Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Christian Darimont, Ornella Avanti, Yvonne Tromvoukis, Patricia Leone, Elizabeth Offord, Matthew A. Roberts, Andrea Pfeifer, and Katherine Macé Copyright © 2001 Christian Darimont et al. All rights reserved. Comparison between Carotid Artery Wall Thickness Measured by Multidetector Row Computed Tomography Angiography and Intimae-Media Thickness Measured by Sonography Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 The increased thickness of the carotid wall >1 mm is a significant predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of our study was to assess the agreement between multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) in measuring carotid artery wall thickness (CAWT) and color Doppler ultrasound (CD-US) in measuring intimae-media thickness (IMT). Eighty-nine patients (aged 35–81) were prospectively analyzed using a 64-detector MDCTA and a CD-US scanner. Continuous data were described as the mean value ± standard deviation, and were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Bland–Altman statistics were employed to measure the agreement between MDCTA and CD-US. CAWT ranged from 0.62 to 1.60 mm, with a mean value of 1.09 mm. IMT ranged from 0.60 to 1.55 mm, with a mean value of 1.06 mm. We observed an excellent agreement between CD-US and MDCTA in the evaluation of the common carotid artery thickness, with a bias between methods of 0.029 mm (which is a highly statistically important difference of absolute values [t = 43.289; p < 0.01] obtained by paired T test), and limits of agreement from 0.04 to 0.104. Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.9997 (95% CI 0.9996–0.9998; p < 0.01). We conclude that there is an excellent correlation between CAWT and IMT measurements obtained with the MDCTA and CD-US. Živorad N. Savić, Ivan I. Soldatović, Milan D. Brajović, Aleksandra M. Pavlović, Dušan R. Mladenović, and Vesna D. Škodrić-Trifunović Copyright © 2011 Živorad N. Savić et al. All rights reserved. Effect of CGRP and Related Peptides in the Microcirculation Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 S. D. Brain and D. Q. Chu Copyright © 2001 S.D. Brain and D.Q. Chu. All rights reserved. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) in Cerebrovascular Disease Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Cerebral blood vessels are innervated by sensory nerves that store several neurotransmitters among which calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is the most abundant. In primary headaches, there is a clear association between the head pain and the release of CGRP. In cluster headache there is an additional release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Lars Edvinsson Copyright © 2002 Lars Edvinsson. All rights reserved. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (Hif-1) in Experimental Brain Ischemia Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Rainald Schmidt-Kastner, Bao-Tong Zhang, Keith Webster, Thomas Kietzmann, Weizhao Zhao, Raul Busto, and Myron D. Ginsberg Copyright © 2002 Rainald Schmidt-Kastner et al. All rights reserved. Inflammatory Microenvironment Promotes Hemopoietic-Derived Angiogenic Cell Expansion and Arterial Specification Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Patrizia Dentelli and Maria Felice Brizzi Copyright © 2008 Patrizia Dentelli and Maria Felice Brizzi. All rights reserved. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research. Vladimír Pucovský Copyright © 2010 Vladimír Pucovský. All rights reserved.