The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Photoprotective Activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (Anacardiaceae) Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. is a native plant of Caatinga which has high concentrations of compounds capable of absorbing ultraviolet light, suggesting its potential application for the development of sunscreen preparations. After its identification and collection, this vegetable drug was submitted to a physicochemical analysis through the preparation of ethanolic extract. The phytochemical screening and analysis of extracts were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) evaluation. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching test. Inhibitory hemolytic activity and morphological deformation of erythrocytes induced by H2O2 were also demonstrated and the antimicrobial activity was analyzed by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) method. For the in vitro determination of the sun protection factor (SPF), the spectrophotometric method was used. From the analyses carried out with this species, this plant showed significant results for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as sunscreen action. Important flavonoids were identified. These data are an important step for the development of new photoprotective cosmetic with Caatinga species, revealing importance and representing another incentive for the preservation of the species involved and analyzed in the study. Sarah Raquel Gomes de Lima-Saraiva, Fernanda Granja da Silva Oliveira, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Junior, Camila de Souza Araújo, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Alessandra Gomes Marques Pacheco, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim, Francine Celise Siqueira César, and Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida Copyright © 2017 Sarah Raquel Gomes de Lima-Saraiva et al. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Group of Escherichia coli Isolates from Broilers in Brazilian Poultry Slaughterhouse Tue, 10 Oct 2017 08:58:09 +0000 The aim of the study was to determine the phylogenetic groups of E. coli strains isolated from seemingly healthy broiler and broiler condemned suspected of colibacillosis in a Brazilian slaughterhouse. Samples from respiratory tract and edible giblets (liver and heart) of broilers with and without macroscopic lesions of colibacillosis were collected at slaughter. There were 84 strains isolated from broilers condemned of which 11 were obtained from swabs of the heart, 7 from the liver, and 66 from the respiratory tract. Of the 53 E. coli strains isolated from broilers not condemned, 5 were isolated from the heart, 4 from the liver, and 44 from the respiratory tract. E coli strains were tested via PCR for phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, C, D, E, and F. Phylogroups A and B1 were the most common phylogroups of E. coli obtained from healthy and sick-appearing broiler carcasses. The results of the study showed that phylogroups B2 and E were associated with the heart samples and phylogroup A was associated with respiratory tract samples, phylogroup B1 with not condemned carcass, and phylogroup D with liver samples. Fernanda M. Coura, Soraia A. Diniz, Marcos X. Silva, Thiago L. M. Arcebismo, Silvia Minharro, Adriana C. F. Feitosa, Andrey P. Lage, Terezinha Knöbl, Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi, and Marcos B. Heinemann Copyright © 2017 Fernanda M. Coura et al. All rights reserved. Explaining Continuance Intention of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among the Rural Elderly: An Application of the Expectancy Confirmation Model Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Aim. Healthy aging is the permanent right of all people. Thus, the purpose of this work was to investigate the expectation confirmation model constructs on intention of continuing to consume fruit and vegetables among the rural elderly. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 332 elderly. The expectation confirmation model served as a theoretical framework. A random sampling was recruited. Data were collected through face-to-face visit in the second 6 months of 2016. The data were then analyzed using LISREL 8.5 and SPSS 16 software. Results. This model could explain 79% of intention to continue fruit and vegetable consumption. The usefulness and satisfaction had the most effect on the intention to continue the consumption of fruit and vegetables. Conclusion. Expectation confirmation model depicted a proper application in explaining the intention to continue the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the elderly. Since perceived benefits were the most important factor in determining the intention to continue F&V consumption in this study, it is required that policymakers utilize suitable efficient strategies to promote the perception of benefits of F&V consumption in the elderly by means of campaigns in the society, organizations, and families. Mohamad Reza Jafari, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, and Hashem Mohamadian Copyright © 2017 Mohamad Reza Jafari et al. All rights reserved. Continental Shelf Sediments of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo Mon, 18 Sep 2017 10:29:45 +0000 Sediment distributions in deep sea influence the benthic community structure and thus play an important role in shaping the marine ecosystem. Several studies on sediment characteristics had been conducted in South China Sea (SCS), but only limited to coastal areas of regions within SCS territories. Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the benthic sediment profile in an area beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of Sarawak, southern SCS. Sediment samples were collected from 31 stations, comprising three depth ranges: (I) 20–50 m, (II) 50–100 m, and (III) 100–200 m. The total organic matter (TOM) contents were determined and subjected to dry and wet sieving methods for particle size analysis. TOM contents in the deep area (>50 m) were significantly higher () and positively correlated () with silt-clay fraction. About 55% and 82% of stations in strata II and III, respectively, were dominated by silt-clay fractions (<63 μm mean diameter), coherent with TOM data. In addition, sediments in the deep area (>50 m) tend to be poorly sorted, very fine skewed, and platykurtic. Unlike data obtained 20 years ago which reported high content of silt-clay (58%), this study recorded a lower content (35%); therefore, changes in sediment load had been observed in southern SCS. Wan Zabidii Wan Morni, Siti Akmar Khadijah Ab Rahim, Tarmiji Masron, Richard Rumpet, Jamil Musel, and Ruhana Hassan Copyright © 2017 Wan Zabidii Wan Morni et al. All rights reserved. Skin-to-Skin Contact in Cesarean Birth and Duration of Breastfeeding: A Cohort Study Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth is a physiological practice that is internationally recommended and has well-documented importance for the baby and for the mother. This study aims to examine SSC with a cohort of mothers or fathers in the operating room after a Cesarean section (C-section) and its relationship with duration of breastfeeding. From January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012, at the Castelli Hospital in Verbania, Italy, a Baby Friendly designated hospital, 252 consecutive women who had a C-section were enrolled in the study and followed for 6 months. The sample was later divided into three groups depending on the real outcomes in the operating room: SSC with the mother (57.5%), SSC with the father (17.5%), and no SSC (25%). Our study showed a statistical association between skin-to-skin contact with the mother and the exclusive breastfeeding rates on discharge. This effect is maintained and statistically significant at three and six months, as compared to the groups that had paternal SSC or no SSC. After a C-section, skin-to-skin contact with the mother can be an important practice for support, promotion, and duration of breastfeeding. Andrea Guala, Luigina Boscardini, Raffaella Visentin, Paola Angellotti, Laura Grugni, Michelangelo Barbaglia, Elise Chapin, Eleonora Castelli, and Enrico Finale Copyright © 2017 Andrea Guala et al. All rights reserved. Difference of Success Rates of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Pulpotomies Performed Both by Undergraduate Dental Students and by an Expert Operator: A Retrospective Study Thu, 24 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Aim. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success of pulpotomy on primary molars performed by dental students compared to that performed by an expert operator. Methods. The study was conducted on 142 second primary molars in 102 children. The patients were randomly selected from the available records. The test group (treated by dental students) included 51 subjects (28 males and 23 females, mean age: ) and the control group included 51 children (29 males and 22 females, mean age: years). After pulpotomy, a clinical and radiographic evaluation after 12 months was performed. Chi-square test and odds ratio were calculated and significance level was set at . Results. The success rate was significantly lower, 81.6% (), in the test group than in the control group (93%). The test group showed less clinical and radiographic success (86% and 80%, resp.) compared to the control group (97.2% for clinical success and 93% for radiographic success). Conclusions. Pulpotomy with MTA is an effective method that ensures a good percentage of success. The clinical experience of the operator is a contributing factor. Marco Pasini, Maria Rita Giuca, Roberto Gatto, and Silvia Caruso Copyright © 2017 Marco Pasini et al. All rights reserved. Addition of Wollastonite Fibers to Calcium Phosphate Cement Increases Cell Viability and Stimulates Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that is based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) is considered desirable for bone tissue engineering because of its relatively rapid degradation properties. However, such cement is relatively weak, restricting its use to areas of low mechanical stress. Wollastonite fibers (WF) have been used to improve the mechanical strength of biomaterials. However, the biological properties of WF remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the response of osteoblast-like cells to being cultured on CPC reinforced with 5% of WF (CPC-WF). We found that both types of cement studied achieved an ion balance for calcium and phosphate after 3 days of immersion in culture medium and this allowed subsequent long-term cell culture. CPC-WF increased cell viability and stimulated cell differentiation, compared to nonreinforced CPC. We hypothesize that late silicon release by CPC-WF induces increased cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that CPC-WF is a promising material for bone tissue engineering applications. Juliana Almeida Domingues, Mariana Motisuke, Celso Aparecido Bertran, Moema A. Hausen, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende Duek, and José Angelo Camilli Copyright © 2017 Juliana Almeida Domingues et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Vitamin D Status in a Population of Ecuadorian Subjects Wed, 16 Aug 2017 08:47:27 +0000 Introduction. Vitamin D is a preprohormone known to play a key role in phosphocalcic metabolism; its main source comes from the synthesis at the skin level by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of vitamin D in an Ecuadorian population. Materials and Methods. Retrospective study of Ecuadorian subjects from the city of Guayaquil, who had an initial study of 25 (OH)-D serum, as the indicator of Vitamin D status, in the period of 2015-2016. Results. A total of 269 Ecuadorian subjects were analyzed, with a mean age of 54.73 ± 16.58; 85% (229) were females and 15% (41) males; mean vitamin D was 27.29 ± 10.12 ng/dl –; 70% of the population showed levels below 30 ng/dL of vitamin D, whereas only 30% (81) had normal values. 69% (185) had levels between 29 and 10 ng/dl and 1% (3) levels below 10 ng/dl. High levels of vitamin D were evidenced in the summer months in relation to the winter months. Conclusion. It is evident that, despite the location of Ecuador and the intensity of UV rays it receives throughout the year, Ecuadorian subjects have insufficient levels of vitamin D. G. Maldonado, C. Paredes, R. Guerrero, and C. Ríos Copyright © 2017 G. Maldonado et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of a Pack of Supercapacitors Used in Electric Vehicles Mon, 14 Aug 2017 09:47:20 +0000 Electric vehicles have recently attracted research interest. An electric vehicle is composed of two energy sources, such as fuel cells and ultracapacitors, which are employed to provide, respectively, the steady-state and transient power demanded by the vehicle. A bidirectional DC-DC converter is needed to interface the ultracapacitor to a DC bus. The pack of ultracapacitor consists of many cells in series and possibly also in parallel. In this regard, this paper introduces a comparative study between two packs of supercapacitors. The first supercapacitor pack is composed of ten cells in series but the second supercapacitor pack is composed of five cells in series and two parallel circuits. Each cell is characterized by 2.5 V and 100 F. A number of practical tests are presented. Amari Mansour, Chabchoub Mohamed Hedi, and Bacha Faouzi Copyright © 2017 Amari Mansour et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Low Body Mass Index Can Identify Majority of Osteoporotic Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Missed by Current Guidelines” Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Ashish Atreja, Ashish Aggarwal, Angelo A. Licata, and Bret A. Lashner Copyright © 2017 Ashish Atreja et al. All rights reserved. Overweight and Body Image Perception in Adolescents with Triage of Eating Disorders Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Purpose. To verify the influence of overweight and alteration in the perception of the corporal image during the triage of eating disorders. Method. A food disorder triage was performed in adolescents with 10 to 19 years of age using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Children’s Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), as well as a nutritional status evaluation. The perception of body image was evaluated in a subsample of adolescents with 10 to 14 years of age, using the Brazilian Silhouette Scale. The project was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results. The prevalence of eating disorder triage was 11.4% () for the 2,123 adolescents evaluated. Overweight was present in 21.1% () of the students, being more prevalent in the early adolescence phase, which presented levels of distortion of 56.9% () and dissatisfaction of 79.3% (). Body dissatisfaction was considered as a risk factor, increasing by more than 13 times the chance of TA screening. Conclusion. Overweight was correlated with the ED triage and body dissatisfaction was considered as a risk factor, increasing the chances of these disorders by more than 13 times. Roberta Stofeles Cecon, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, and Silvia Eloiza Priore Copyright © 2017 Roberta Stofeles Cecon et al. All rights reserved. Risk of Fungi Associated with Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Medicinal Herbal Products in the Kenyan Market Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of herbal products is a major concern due to the possibility of contamination by toxigenic fungi that are mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus species during processing and packaging. Research was carried out to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in herbal medicinal products sold in Eldoret and Mombasa towns in Kenya. The study employed both exploratory and laboratory experimental design. The herbal products were purchased from the market and transported to Kenya Medical Research Institute for processing and analysis. Fungal contaminants were determined according to Pharmacopoeia specifications. The toxins were quantified using ELISA based technique. The genus Aspergillus was the most dominant followed by Penicillium. Fungal counts ranged between 1 CFU/g and >1000 cfu/g. Analysis of variance showed that the rate of fungal contaminants for Eldoret and Mombasa samples had significant association (). Aflatoxin levels ranged from 1 to 24 ppb, while fumonisin levels ranged from 1 to >20 ppb. Only 31% of samples met the standards for microbial limits as specified in Pharmacopoeia. There is need for product microbial quality improvement through proper harvesting, processing, storage, and marketing. It is recommended that a policy be enacted to enable regulation of herbal products in Kenya. Lucia Keter, Richard Too, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Charles Mutai, Jennifer Orwa, Lizzy Mwamburi, Stanley Ndwigah, Christine Bii, and Richard Korir Copyright © 2017 Lucia Keter et al. All rights reserved. UV Activation of Persulfate for Removal of Penicillin G Antibiotics in Aqueous Solution Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Penicillin G (PG) is one of the most widely consumed antibiotics around the world. Release of PG in environment may lead to contamination of water resources. The aim of the present work is to assess feasibility of applying UV-activated persulfate process in removal of PG from aquatic environments. The study examined the effect of pH (3–11), persulfate initial concentration (0.5–3 mM), reaction time (15–90 minutes), and initial concentration of PG (0.02–0.14 mM) on PG decomposition. Also, the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was used for kinetic analysis of PG removal. The results indicated that UV-activated persulfate process can effectively eliminate PG from water. The highest PG removal efficiency was obtained as 94.28% at pH 5, and the decomposition percentage was raised by increasing persulfate dose from 0.5 to 3 mM and the reaction time from 15 to 90 minutes. Besides, the removal efficiency decreased through increasing the initial concentration of PG. UV-activated persulfate process effectively decomposes PG and eliminates it from water. Samira Norzaee, Edris Bazrafshan, Babak Djahed, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, and Razieh Khaksefidi Copyright © 2017 Samira Norzaee et al. All rights reserved. Etherification of Glycerol with Propylene or 1-Butene for Fuel Additives Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The etherification of glycerol with propylene over acidic heterogeneous catalysts, Amberlyst-15, S100, and S200 resins, produced mono-propyl glycerol ethers (MPGEs), 1,3-di- and 1,2-di-propyl glycerol ethers (DPGEs), and tri-propyl glycerol ether (TPGE). The propylation of glycerol over Amberlyst-15 yielded only TPGE. The glycerol etherification with 1-butene over Amberlyst-15 and S200 resins produced 1-mono-, 2-mono-, 1,2-di-, and 1,3-di-butyl glycerol ethers (1-MBGE, 2-MBGE, 1,2-DBGE, and 1,3-DBGE). The use of Amberlyst-15 resulted in the propylation and butylation of glycerol with higher yields than those obtained from the S100 and S200 resins. The PGEs, TPGE, and BGEs were evaluated as cold flow improvers and octane boosters. These alkyl glycerol ethers can reduce the cloud point of blended palm biodiesels with diesel. They can increase the research octane number and the motor octane number of gasoline. Chakrapong Saengarun, Amorn Petsom, and Duangamol Nuntasri Tungasmita Copyright © 2017 Chakrapong Saengarun et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Lippia alba Essential Oil, Citral, and Carvone against Staphylococcus aureus Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the Lippia alba essential oil and its major components (citral and carvone) against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Essential oils (LA1EO, LA2EO, and LA3EO) were extracted from the aerial parts of three L. alba specimens by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. For the antibiofilm assays, the biomass formation in the biofilm was evaluated by the microtiter-plate technique with the crystal violet (CV) assay and the viability of the bacterial cells was analyzed. All oils and their major components presented antibacterial activity, and the lowest MIC and MBC values were 0.5 mg mL−1 when LA1EO and citral were used. Potential inhibition (100%) of S. aureus biofilm formation at the concentration of 0.5 mg mL−1 of all EOs was observed. However, the elimination of biofilm cells was confirmed at concentrations of 1 mg mL−1, 2 mg mL−1, 2 mg mL−1, and 0.5 mg mL−1 for LA1EO, LA2EO, LA3EO, and citral, respectively. The results obtained in the present research point to the promising antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of L. alba EOs against S. aureus, a species of recognized clinical interest. Emanuela Mesquita Porfírio, Hider Machado Melo, Antônio Matheus Gomes Pereira, Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, Geovany Amorim Gomes, Mário Geraldo de Carvalho, Renata Albuquerque Costa, and Francisco Eduardo Aragão Catunda Júnior Copyright © 2017 Emanuela Mesquita Porfírio et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2%) utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species), food plants (37 species), construction timber and thatching (14 species), firewood (five species), browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each), and brooms and crafts (two species). Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project. Alfred Maroyi Copyright © 2017 Alfred Maroyi. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents Associated with Higher Economic Class in the Northeast of Brazil Wed, 26 Jul 2017 07:04:58 +0000 Design. The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13–18 years. The risk behaviors measured were “low levels of physical activity,” “excessive daily TV time,” “high consumption of alcoholic beverages on a single occasion,” “involvement in fights,” “smoking cigarettes,” “carrying firearms,” and “marijuana consumption.” Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Results. Considering the results, it was observed that female adolescents and those aged up to 16 years were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviors compared to males and those aged 17 years or more, respectively. It was also found that both high- and middle-income level adolescents had higher prevalence of having two or more health risk behaviors. Conclusions. It was concluded that male adolescents older than 16 years with better socioeconomic level were more exposed to the simultaneous presence of several health risk behaviors. Arley Santos Leão, Nara Michelle Moura Soares, Eliane Cristina de Andrade Gonçalves, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva, and Sara Maria Thomazzi Copyright © 2017 Arley Santos Leão et al. All rights reserved. Histomorphological Description of the Digestive System of Pebbly Fish, Alestes baremoze (Joannis, 1835) Mon, 17 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Histomorphological studies of the digestive system of Alestes baremoze captured from Lake Albert, Uganda, were done using standard procedures. These revealed that A. baremoze has a fleshy-lipped terminal small mouth, large molar, short oesophagus, a three-lobed liver, pouch-like stomach, a nine-fingered caeca, and a long tubular intestine. A stratified squamous epithelium with numerous mucus-secreting cells lined the lips with no taste buds. Stratified squamous epithelia lined the oesophagus in the anterior portion which turned into a columnar epithelium towards the stomach. The lamina propria had numerous tubular glands throughout the entire oesophageal length. The stomach consisted of three distinct regions (cardiac, fundic, and pyloric) with distinguished lamina propria glands. The intestinal mucosa was thrown into villi of varying heights, with the tallest in the anterior part, lined with a simple columnar epithelium with numerous lymphocytes-like infiltrations. Numerous goblet cells appeared in the intestinal lamina epithelialis; these increased uniformly towards the anal opening. The liver was divided into lobules, with a central vein. Hepatocytes were visibly arranged closely, forming irregular cords, and the scattered tubular acinar glands formed the exocrine pancreas (hepatopancreas). Stomach content analysis indicated that the fish eats plankton, mollusks, crustaceans, and insects as the main proportion of its diet. Nasser Kasozi, Gerald Iwe Degu, Julius Mukalazi, Charles Drago Kato, Majid Kisekka, Akisoferi Owori Wadunde, Godfrey Kityo, and Victoria Tibenda Namulawa Copyright © 2017 Nasser Kasozi et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Generating Personalized Web Search Using Semantic Context Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2017 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Retracted: The Design and Implementation of Postprocessing for Depth Map on Real-Time Extraction System Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2017 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. QT and QTc in Male Patients with Psychotic Disorders Treated with Atypical Neuroleptics Wed, 12 Jul 2017 10:06:47 +0000 Objective. We explored the potential association between antipsychotics and QT/QTc duration changes in hospitalized male patients with psychotic disorders. Methods. The chart review was conducted on 184 male patients hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 at the Psychiatric Clinic of Pisa, Italy. Patients who were treated with one atypical antipsychotic at the time of the ECG recording were 109/184 (59.2%). QT/QTc were compared considering the atypical antipsychotic received. Results. 96.3% (n = 105/109) of the sample showed QTc values ≤ 430 ms; 4 patients (3.7%) had QTc values between 430 and 450 msec (2 with paliperidone, 1 with risperidone, and 1 with olanzapine). The mean QT duration of the overall sample was 368.0 ± 28.0 and the mean QTc 400.1 ± 17.8. QTc values did not reveal statistically significant differences. QT values were significantly different (chi-square = 17.3; df = 5; p = .004). Statistically significant differences between aripiprazole and paliperidone (349.0 ± 28.3 versus 390.5 ± 29.8; p = .002) and between clozapine and paliperidone (361.1 ± 22.43 versus 390.5 ± 29.8; p = .033) were found. Conclusions. Aripiprazole was the least interfering neuroleptic with QT/QTc. Paliperidone was the atypical neuroleptic with the most relevant difference with aripiprazole, but only on QT. Mario Miniati, Marly Simoncini, Federica Vanelli, Caterina Franceschini, Gabriele Massimetti, Claudia Carmassi, and Liliana Dell’Osso Copyright © 2017 Mario Miniati et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Development and Application of a ZigBee-Based Building Energy Monitoring and Control System” Wed, 12 Jul 2017 08:28:25 +0000 Changhai Peng and Kun Qian Copyright © 2017 Changhai Peng and Kun Qian. All rights reserved. Titanium Pyrophosphate for Removal of Trivalent Heavy Metals and Actinides Simulated by Retention of Europium Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This work addresses the synthesis of titanium pyrophosphate, as well as the characterization and evaluation of the sorption process of europium, for removal of trivalent heavy metals and actinides simulate. The evaluation of the surface properties of titanium pyrophosphate was carried out determining the surface roughness and surface acidity constants. The values obtained from the determination of the surface roughness of the synthesized solid indicate that the surface of the material presents itself as slightly smooth. The FITEQL program was used to fit the experimental titration curves to obtain the surface acidity constants: and . The results of sorption kinetics evidenced that the pseudo-order model explains the retention process of europium, in which the initial sorption velocity was 8.3 × 10−4 mg g−1 min−1 and kinetic constant was 1.8 × 10−3 g mg min−1. The maximum sorption capacity was 0.6 mg g−1. The results obtained from sorption edge showed the existence of two bidentate complexes on the surface. Huemantzin Balan Ortiz-Oliveros, Rosa María Flores-Espinosa, Eduardo Ordoñez-Regil, and Suilma Marisela Fernández-Valverde Copyright © 2017 Huemantzin Balan Ortiz-Oliveros et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2017 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. H2S Loss through Nalophan™ Bags: Contributions of Adsorption and Diffusion Tue, 27 Jun 2017 06:54:16 +0000 Hydrogen-sulfide (H2S) is a molecule of small dimensions typically present in the odor emissions from different plants. The European Standard EN 13725:2003 set a maximum storage time allowed of 30 hours, during which the sampling bag has to maintain the mixture of odorants with minimal changes. This study investigates the H2S losses through Nalophan bags and it shows that nonnegligible losses of H2S can be observed. The percent H2S loss after 30 hrs with respect to the initial concentration is equal to 33%  ± 3% at a relative humidity of 20% and equal to 22%  ± 1% at a relative humidity of 60%. The average quantity of adsorbed H2S at 30 h is equal to 2.17 105  at a storage humidity of 20% and equal to 1.79 105  at a storage humidity of 60%. The diffusion coefficients of H2S through Nalophan, for these two humidity conditions tested, are comparable (i.e., 7.5 10−12 m2/sec at 20% humidity and 6.6 10−12 m2/sec at 60% humidity). Lidia Eusebio, Laura Capelli, and Selena Sironi Copyright © 2017 Lidia Eusebio et al. All rights reserved. The Psychometric Parameters of the Farsi Form of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety Sun, 18 Jun 2017 07:56:03 +0000 The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Farsi Form of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA). The original scale was first translated into Farsi by language experts using the back translation procedure and then administered to a total of 252 Iranian college students and 52 psychiatric outpatients from psychiatric and psychological clinics. The one-week test-retest reliability of the Farsi version in a sample of college students was 0.78, indicating good temporal stability and corroborating the trait-like nature of scores. Cronbach’s was 0.90 for the college students and 0.92 for the psychiatric outpatients, indicating high internal consistency. Scale scores correlated 0.46 with Death Obsession Scale scores, 0.56 with Death Depression Scale scores, 0.41 with Death Anxiety Scale scores, and 0.40 with Wish to be Dead Scale scores, indicating good construct and criterion-related validity. A principal component analysis with a Varimax rotation yielded four factors in the sample of Iranian college students, indicating a lack of homogeneity in the content of the scale. Male students obtained a significant higher mean score than did females. It was concluded that the Farsi ASDA had good internal consistency, temporal stability, criterion-related validity, and a factor structure reflecting important features of death anxiety. In general, the Farsi ASDA could be recommended for use in research on death anxiety among Iranian college students and psychiatric outpatients. Mahboubeh Dadfar, Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek, David Lester, and Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid Copyright © 2017 Mahboubeh Dadfar et al. All rights reserved. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients Wed, 14 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants. Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Rafael Aparecido dos Santos, Amir Horiquini Barbosa, Luciana Assirati Casemiro, Regina Helena Pires, and Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins Copyright © 2017 Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Fluoroquinolones and Sulfonamides Originating from Sewage Sludge Compost Mon, 12 Jun 2017 07:37:55 +0000 A simultaneous method for quantitative determination of traces of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and sulfonamides (SAs) in edible plants fertilized with sewage sludge was developed. The compounds were extracted from the plants by rapid and simple liquid extraction followed by extracts clean-up using solid phase extraction. The eluent additive 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol was used for liquid chromatographic detection to achieve separation of structurally similar antimicrobials like ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Identification and quantification of the compounds were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode. Method was validated and extraction recoveries of FQs and SAs ranged from 66% to 93%. The limit of quantifications was from 5 ng/g in the case of ofloxacin to 40 ng/g for norfloxacin. The method precision ranged from 1.43% to 2.61%. The developed novel method was used to evaluate the plats antimicrobial uptake (potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and wheat (Triticum vulgare L.)) from soil and migration of the analytes inside the plants. K. Kipper, M. Lillenberg, K. Herodes, L. Nei, and E. Haiba Copyright © 2017 K. Kipper et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults Sun, 11 Jun 2017 10:46:05 +0000 Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI) + 0.161 (age) for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI) + 0.132 (age) for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions. Kanokkarn Juntaping, Kaweesak Chittawatanarat, Sukon Prasitwattanaseree, Jeerayut Chaijaruwanich, and Patrinee Traisathit Copyright © 2017 Kanokkarn Juntaping et al. All rights reserved. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone Sun, 11 Jun 2017 06:48:08 +0000 Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata) is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods), sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%), muddy substratum (17.5%), coral substratum (11.5%), and sandy areas (10.6%). The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast. Ruhana Hassan, Suet Yee Lee, and Wan Zabidii Wan Morni Copyright © 2017 Ruhana Hassan et al. All rights reserved.