The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:52:22 +0000 The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly () affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield. Justice Kipkorir Rono, Erick Kimutai Cheruiyot, Jacktone Odongo Othira, Virginia Wanjiku Njuguna, Joseph Kinyoro Macharia, James Owuoche, Moses Oyier, and Alex Machio Kange Copyright © 2016 Justice Kipkorir Rono et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare Wed, 28 Sep 2016 11:54:41 +0000 Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. Judith L. Stella and Candace C. Croney Copyright © 2016 Judith L. Stella and Candace C. Croney. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives Tue, 27 Sep 2016 12:30:38 +0000 Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age years) answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry) and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions. Christoph Schulze, Michael Becker, Susanne Finze, Christoph Holtherm, Jens Hinder, and Andreas Lison Copyright © 2016 Christoph Schulze et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study Mon, 26 Sep 2016 06:46:08 +0000 Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb. M. S. Kabir, M. A. Salam, D. N. R. Paul, M. I. Hossain, N. M. F. Rahman, Abdullah Aziz, and M. A. Latif Copyright © 2016 M. S. Kabir et al. All rights reserved. A New Finite-Time Observer for Nonlinear Systems: Applications to Synchronization of Lorenz-Like Systems Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:11:14 +0000 This paper proposes a synchronization methodology of two chaotic oscillators under the framework of identical synchronization and master-slave configuration. The proposed methodology is based on state observer design under the frame of control theory; the observer structure provides finite-time synchronization convergence by cancelling the upper bounds of the main nonlinearities of the chaotic oscillator. The above is showed via an analysis of the dynamic of the so called synchronization error. Numerical experiments corroborate the satisfactory results of the proposed scheme. Ricardo Aguilar-López and Juan L. Mata-Machuca Copyright © 2016 Ricardo Aguilar-López and Juan L. Mata-Machuca. All rights reserved. Sedation for Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:43:32 +0000 Although anesthetic requirements for minimally invasive neurosurgical techniques have been described in detail and applied successfully since the early 2000s, most of the literature on this subject has dealt with cranial cases that were operated on in the supine or sitting positions. However, spinal surgery has also used minimally invasive techniques that were performed in prone position for more than 30 years to date. Although procedures in both these neurosurgical techniques require the patient to be awake for a certain period of time, the main surgical difference with minimally invasive spinal surgery is that the patients are in the prone position, which may result in increased requirement of airway management because of deep sedation. In addition, although minimally invasive spinal surgery progresses slowly and different techniques are used with no agreement on the terminology used to describe these techniques thus far, the anesthetist needs to understand the surgical and anesthetic requirements for each type of intervention in order to take necessary precautions. This paper reviews the literature on this topic and discusses the anesthetic necessities for percutaneous endoscopic laser surgery. Menekse Oksar Copyright © 2016 Menekse Oksar. All rights reserved. Upscaling of Helmholtz Equation Originating in Transmission through Metallic Gratings in Metamaterials Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:25:30 +0000 We investigate the transmission properties of a metallic layer with narrow slits. We consider (time-harmonic) Maxwell’s equations in the -parallel case with a fixed incident wavelength. We denote as the typical size of the complex structure and obtain the effective equations by letting . For metallic permittivities with negative real part, plasmonic waves can be excited on the surfaces of the slits. For the waves to be in resonance with the height of the metallic layer, the corresponding results can be perfect transmission through the layer. Hari Shankar Mahato Copyright © 2016 Hari Shankar Mahato. All rights reserved. Cost-Sensitive Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier for Software Defect Prediction Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:21:49 +0000 Effective prediction of software modules, those that are prone to defects, will enable software developers to achieve efficient allocation of resources and to concentrate on quality assurance activities. The process of software development life cycle basically includes design, analysis, implementation, testing, and release phases. Generally, software testing is a critical task in the software development process wherein it is to save time and budget by detecting defects at the earliest and deliver a product without defects to the customers. This testing phase should be carefully operated in an effective manner to release a defect-free (bug-free) software product to the customers. In order to improve the software testing process, fault prediction methods identify the software parts that are more noted to be defect-prone. This paper proposes a prediction approach based on conventional radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and the novel adaptive dimensional biogeography based optimization (ADBBO) model. The developed ADBBO based RBFNN model is tested with five publicly available datasets from the NASA data program repository. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ADBBO-RBFNN classifier approach with respect to the considered metrics in comparison with that of the early predictors available in the literature for the same datasets. P. Kumudha and R. Venkatesan Copyright © 2016 P. Kumudha and R. Venkatesan. All rights reserved. In Vitro Adherence of Oral Bacteria to Different Types of Tongue Piercings Tue, 20 Sep 2016 07:24:16 +0000 The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50 μL of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis ( value ). For E. corrodens, difference among types of material was observed () and titanium and surgical steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization () in titanium and surgical steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis, and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface. Lucas Pereira Borges, Julio Cesar Campos Ferreira-Filho, Julia Medeiros Martins, Caroline Vieira Alves, Bianca Marques Santiago, and Ana Maria Gondim Valença Copyright © 2016 Lucas Pereira Borges et al. All rights reserved. Radiopacity of Methacrylate and Silorane Composite Resins Using a Digital Radiographic System Mon, 19 Sep 2016 08:59:50 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of silorane and methacrylate resin composites, comparing them to the enamel, dentin, and aluminum penetrometer using a digital image. From six resin composites (Filtek™ P90, Filtek Z350, Filtek Z350 XT flow, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum, and SureFil SDR flow) cylindrical disks (5 × 1 mm) were made and radiographed by a digital method, together with a 15-step aluminum step-wedge and a 1 mm slice of human tooth. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. The mean values of the shades of gray of the tested materials were measured and the equivalent width of aluminum was calculated for each resin. The results of our work yielded the following radiopacity values, given here in descending order: Tetric Ceram > TPH > SDR > Z350 > Z350 flow > P90 > enamel > dentin. The radiopacity of the materials was different both for the enamel and for the dentin, except for resin P90, which was no different than enamel. In conclusion, silorane-based resin exhibited a radiopacity higher than dentin and closest to the enamel; a large portion of the methacrylate-based flow and conventional resins demonstrated greater radiopacity in comparison to dentin and enamel. Leily Macedo Firoozmand, Mariana Gonçalves Cordeiro, Marcos André dos Santos Da Silva, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez, and Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho Copyright © 2016 Leily Macedo Firoozmand et al. All rights reserved. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice Sun, 18 Sep 2016 10:56:05 +0000 This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic () and a general practice (). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income () and education () compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger () and dogs were less likely to be neutered (). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; ), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; ). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status. Stephanie A. Sapowicz, Deborah E. Linder, and Lisa M. Freeman Copyright © 2016 Stephanie A. Sapowicz et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “In Vivo Quantitative Ultrasound Image Analysis of Femoral Subchondral Bone in Knee Osteoarthritis” Wed, 14 Sep 2016 09:22:08 +0000 Jana Podlipská, Juhani M. Koski, Pasi Pulkkinen, and Simo Saarakkala Copyright © 2016 Jana Podlipská et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Appendicular Lean Body Mass, Muscle Strength, and Size of Type II Muscle Fibers in Patients with Spondyloarthritis versus Healthy Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study Thu, 08 Sep 2016 11:18:05 +0000 Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age years) were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF) strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance. Magnetic resonance imaging of QF was used to measure muscle size and calculate specific muscle strength. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples were taken from m. vastus lateralis. Results. SpA patients presented with significantly lower appendicular lean body mass (LBM) (), but there was no difference in bone mineral density, fat mass, or total LBM. Absolute QF strength was significantly lower in SpA patients () with a parallel trend for specific strength (). Biopsy samples from the SpA patients revealed significantly smaller cross-sectional area (CSA) of type II muscle fibers (), but no difference in CSA type I fibers. Conclusions. Results indicate that the presence of SpA disease is associated with reduced appendicular LBM, muscle strength, and type II fiber CSA. Kristine Røren Nordén, Hanne Dagfinrud, Amund Løvstad, and Truls Raastad Copyright © 2016 Kristine Røren Nordén et al. All rights reserved. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam Thu, 08 Sep 2016 10:03:58 +0000 Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. Lan Huong Nguyen, Geetha Mohan, Pu Jian, Kazuhiko Takemoto, and Kensuke Fukushi Copyright © 2016 Lan Huong Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) Extract: In Vivo Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis in Galleria mellonella Model Wed, 07 Sep 2016 14:30:29 +0000 Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, medicinal alternatives are being explored. Punica granatum L. is an effective herbal extract with broad spectrum of action and bactericidal, antifungal, anthelmintic potential and being able to modulate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate glycolic extract (PGE) against the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis by using Galleria mellonella as in vivo model. Fifteen larvae were used per group. Injection of high concentration (200, 100, and 25 mg/mL) of PGE showed a toxic effect, leading them to death. A suspension of P. gingivalis (106 cells/mL) was inoculated in the left last proleg and PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL) were injected into the right proleg. The larvae were then kept at 37°C under the dark. Injection of PGE at any dose statistically improved larvae survival rates. The data were analysed (log-rank test, Mantel-Cox, ) and showed that all concentrations of PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL) presented higher larval survival rates, with significant statistical difference in relation to control group (P. gingivalis). In conclusion, the PGE had antimicrobial action against P. gingivalis in vivo model using G. mellonella. Livia Aparecida Procópio Gomes, Lívia Mara Alves Figueiredo, Ana Luiza do Rosário Palma, Barbara Maria Corrêa Geraldo, Kelly Cristine Isler Castro, Luciana Ruano de Oliveira Fugisaki, Antônio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira, and Juliana Campos Junqueira Copyright © 2016 Livia Aparecida Procópio Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode Wed, 07 Sep 2016 13:27:13 +0000 Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range. Alexandre dos Santos Rodrigues, José Henrique Souza Galdino Brandão, Jamille de Araújo Bitencourt, Ricardo Jucá-Chagas, Iracilda Sampaio, Horácio Schneider, and Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso Copyright © 2016 Alexandre dos Santos Rodrigues et al. All rights reserved. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River Tue, 06 Sep 2016 07:35:28 +0000 Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira, Stephen F. Ferrari, Huann C. G. Vasconcelos, Raimundo N. G. Mendes-Junior, Andrea S. Araújo, Carlos Eduardo Costa-Campos, Walace S. Nascimento, and Victoria J. Isaac Copyright © 2016 Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Selected Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Concentrations during an Ultramarathon Sled Dog Race Mon, 05 Sep 2016 16:23:02 +0000 The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of running a 1000-mile (1600 km) endurance sled dog race on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3). Serum was examined from 12 sled dogs prior to the race, at midrace (approximately 690 km), and again at the finish. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 were assessed using radioimmunoassay or enzyme linked immune-absorbance assays. Mean prerace concentrations were significantly higher than midrace and end-race concentrations at 215.93 ± 80.51 ng/mL, 54.29 ± 25.45 ng/mL, and 55.53 ± 28.25 ng/mL, respectively (). Mean IGFBP-1 concentrations were not different across these time periods at 24.1 ± 15.8 ng/mL, 25.7 ± 14.0 ng/mL, and 26.6 ± 17.6 ng/mL, respectively. IGFBP-3 concentrations showed a modest significant decrease across time periods at 3,067 ± 2,792 ng/mL, 2,626 ± 2,310 ng/mL, and 2,331 ± 2,301 ng/mL, respectively (). Endurance sled dogs show a precipitous drop in serum IGF-1 concentrations. These differences may be related to fuel utilization and excessive negative energy balance associated with the loss of body condition during racing. The relative stability of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 suggests that IGF-1 anabolic signaling is diminished during ultramarathon racing. Further studies comparing the influence of time and duration of exercise versus negative energy balance on serum IGF-1 status are warranted to better understand exercise versus negative energy balance differences. Matthew W. Brunke, Christopher W. Frye, Corri B. Levine, Cristina Hansen, and Joseph J. Wakshlag Copyright © 2016 Matthew W. Brunke et al. All rights reserved. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations Thu, 01 Sep 2016 16:15:21 +0000 This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at ) and advection-degenerate (at ) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term : is constant , with , and it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where , and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE. Faustino Sánchez-Garduño and Judith Pérez-Velázquez Copyright © 2016 Faustino Sánchez-Garduño and Judith Pérez-Velázquez. All rights reserved. Retracted: Flavonoid-Deficient Mutants in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): Genetic Control, Linkage Relationships, and Mapping with Aconitase and S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase Isozyme Loci Thu, 01 Sep 2016 08:47:43 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry Mon, 29 Aug 2016 12:01:17 +0000 The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid’s first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. Alex Tserkovny Copyright © 2016 Alex Tserkovny. All rights reserved. Cats in Positive Energy Balance Have Lower Rates of Adipose Gain When Fed Diets Containing 188 versus 121 ppm L-Carnitine Mon, 29 Aug 2016 11:05:54 +0000 L-carnitine (LC) is included in select adult feline diets for weight management. This study investigated whether feeding adult cats with diets containing either 188 ppm of LC (LC188) or 121 ppm of LC (LC121) and feeding them 120% of maintenance energy requirement (MER) resulted in differences in total energy expenditure (EE), metabolic fuel selection, BW, body composition, and behavior. Cats (,  yrs) were stratified for BCS and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments and fed for 16 weeks. BW was measured weekly, and indirect calorimetry, body composition, physical activity, play motivation, and cognition were measured at baseline and throughout the study. A mixed, repeated measures, ANCOVA model was used. Cats in both treatments gained BW () throughout the study, with no differences between treatments at any time point (). There were no differences in body composition between groups at baseline; however, body fat (g) and body fat : lean mass ratio were greater in cats fed LC121 in contrast to cats fed LC188 () on week 16. No other outcomes differed between treatments (). Supplying dietary LC at a dose of at least 188 ppm may be beneficial for the health and well-being of cats fed above MER. M. A. Gooding, D. L. Minikhiem, and A. K. Shoveller Copyright © 2016 M. A. Gooding et al. All rights reserved. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission Sun, 28 Aug 2016 14:00:30 +0000 Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs) present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (). Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population. Rafael Alves Guimarães, Aurélio Goulart Rodovalho, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Graciele Cristina Silva, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Ivânia Vera, Valéria Duarte Gregório, and Roselma Lucchese Copyright © 2016 Rafael Alves Guimarães et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Content Patterns in Topic-Based Overlapping Communities” Tue, 23 Aug 2016 16:26:46 +0000 Sebastián A. Ríos and Ricardo Muñoz Copyright © 2016 Sebastián A. Ríos and Ricardo Muñoz. All rights reserved. Retracted: Epidemiological Pattern of Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia Thu, 18 Aug 2016 12:27:00 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat Tue, 16 Aug 2016 10:43:48 +0000 Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional “epidemiological homogeneity” concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies. Mohamed A. Daw, Abdallah El-Bouzedi, Mohamed O. Ahmed, Aghnyia A. Dau, and Mohamed M. Agnan Copyright © 2016 Mohamed A. Daw et al. All rights reserved. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver Mon, 15 Aug 2016 13:57:09 +0000 Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, -glutamylcysteine synthetase (-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule. Misako Taniguchi, Nobuko Mori, Chizuru Iramina, and Akira Yasutake Copyright © 2016 Misako Taniguchi et al. All rights reserved. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy Thu, 11 Aug 2016 16:12:48 +0000 Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children () entering care (age 6–60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms () and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited () and disinhibited () attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. Samuel Glass, Ruchika Gajwani, and Fiona Turner-Halliday Copyright © 2016 Samuel Glass et al. All rights reserved. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo Mon, 08 Aug 2016 16:34:38 +0000 The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. Avni Hajdari, Behxhet Mustafa, Dashnor Nebija, Hyrmete Selimi, Zeqir Veselaj, Pranvera Breznica, Cassandra Leah Quave, and Johannes Novak Copyright © 2016 Avni Hajdari et al. All rights reserved. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications Sun, 07 Aug 2016 12:00:11 +0000 For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters’ wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented. Farid Ullah Khan Copyright © 2016 Farid Ullah Khan. All rights reserved.