The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Centering Ability of ProTaper Next and WaveOne Classic in J-Shape Simulated Root Canals Thu, 08 Dec 2016 07:22:53 +0000 Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shaping and centering ability of ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and WaveOne Classic systems (Dentsply Maillefer) in simulated root canals. Methods. Forty J-shaped canals in resin blocks were assigned to two groups ( for each group). Photographic method was used to record pre- and postinstrumentation images. After superimposition, centering and shaping ability were recorded at 9 different levels from the apex using the software Autocad 2013 (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, USA). Results. Shaping procedures with ProTaper Next resulted in a lower amount of resin removed at each reference point level. In addition, the pattern of centering ability improved after the use of ProTaper Next in 8 of 9 measurement points. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, shaping procedures with ProTaper Next instruments demonstrated a lower amount of resin removed and a better centering ability than WaveOne Classic system. Giuseppe Troiano, Mario Dioguardi, Armando Cocco, Michele Giuliani, Cristiano Fabiani, Alfonso D’Alessandro, Domenico Ciavarella, and Lorenzo Lo Muzio Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Troiano et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa) Wed, 30 Nov 2016 11:16:05 +0000 The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells. P. A. S. R. Santos, G. B. Avanço, S. B. Nerilo, R. I. A. Marcelino, V. Janeiro, M. C. Valadares, and Miguel Machinski Copyright © 2016 P. A. S. R. Santos et al. All rights reserved. Klebsiella pneumoniae Planktonic and Biofilm Reduction by Different Plant Extracts: In Vitro Study Mon, 28 Nov 2016 11:26:50 +0000 This study evaluated the action of Pfaffia paniculata K., Juglans regia L., and Rosmarius officinalis L. extracts against planktonic form and biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values were determined for each extract by microdilution broth method, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Next, antimicrobial activity of the extracts on biofilm was analyzed. For this, standardized suspension at 107 UFC/mL of K. pneumoniae was distributed into 96-well microplates () and after 48 h at 37°C and biofilm was subjected to treatment for 5 min with the extracts at a concentration of 200 mg/mL. ANOVA and Tukey tests (5%) were used to verify statistical significant reduction () of planktonic form and biofilm. P paniculata K., R. officinalis L., and J. regia L. showed reductions in biomass of 55.6, 58.1, and 18.65% and cell viability reduction of 72.4, 65.1, and 31.5%, respectively. The reduction obtained with P. paniculata and R. officinalis extracts was similar to the reduction obtained with chlorhexidine digluconate 2%. In conclusion, all extracts have microbicidal action on the planktonic form but only P. paniculata K. and R. officinalis L. were effective against biofilm. Lucas De Paula Ramos, Carlos Eduardo da Rocha Santos, Daphne Camargo Reis Mello, Lígia Nishiama Theodoro, Felipe Eduardo De Oliveira, Graziella N. Back Brito, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, and Luciane Dias de Oliveira Copyright © 2016 Lucas De Paula Ramos et al. All rights reserved. Psychomotor Development in Cri du Chat Syndrome: Comparison in Two Italian Cohorts with Different Rehabilitation Methods Mon, 28 Nov 2016 11:21:22 +0000 The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdC) is a rare genetic disorder caused by variable size deletions of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p−). It is well known that home-reared patients show better performances as compared to institutionalised cases, and it was reported that continuous educational intervention can ameliorate their performances. To assess the efficacy of educational intervention and to develop new CdC oriented programs of rehabilitation, we compare the results obtained for many developmental skills in two groups of CdC patients undergoing two different rehabilitation programs. Using data on the development of a group of CdC patients obtained by validated Italian translation for the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, we compared a group of 13 patients undergoing an educational program developed for CdC patients, the Mayer Project (MP), with a second group of 15 cases in whom caring was not specifically oriented. A positive impact of the MP was reported by parents, observing an improvement in social skills obtained, even if no significant differences were observed when the items of the Denver Test are studied. The need for personalized care in CdC patients and the choice of different methods to compare the results are also discussed. Andrea Guala, Marianna Spunton, Fabio Tognon, Marilena Pedrinazzi, Luisa Medolago, Paola Cerutti Mainardi, Silvia Spairani, Michela Malacarne, Enrico Finale, Mario Comelli, and Cesare Danesino Copyright © 2016 Andrea Guala et al. All rights reserved. Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Farsi Version of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety in an Iranian Middle-Aged Sample Mon, 28 Nov 2016 09:10:56 +0000 The present study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) in an Iranian middle-aged sample. A sample of 55 volunteer Iranian persons took part in the study. Cronbach’s alpha of the ASDA was found to be high (0.91) and Spearman-Brown and Guttman Split-Half coefficients were 0.86. The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded five factors accounting for 72.49% of the total variance and labeled (F1) fear of death and fear of dead people; (F2) fear of postmortem events and fear of tombs; (F3) fear of lethal disease; (F4) preoccupation with after death, and death fear in sleep; and (F5) fear of deprivation of own ones. The ASDA has a good validity and reliability, and it can be used in clinical, educational, and research settings. Mahboubeh Dadfar and Fazel Bahrami Copyright © 2016 Mahboubeh Dadfar and Fazel Bahrami. All rights reserved. Histological and Metabolic State of Dams Suckling Small Litter or MSG-Treated Pups Sun, 27 Nov 2016 07:54:08 +0000 Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL) or normal litters (NL) and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG), or saline (CON). SL Dams and MSG Dams presented an increase in WAT content and higher plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin, in relation to NL Dams and CON Dams, respectively. The MG of SL Dams and MSG Dams presented a high adipocyte content and reduced alveoli development and the milk of the SL Dams presented a higher calorie and triglyceride content, compared to that of the NL Dams. SL Dams presented a reduction in islet size and greater lipid droplet accumulation in BAT, in relation to NL Dams. SL Dams and MSG Dams present similar responses to offspring manipulation during lactation, resulting in changes in metabolic parameters. These alterations were associated with higher fat accumulation in BAT and changes in milk composition only in SL Dams. Claudia Regina Capriglioni Cancian, Nayara Carvalho Leite, Elisangela Gueiber Montes, Stefani Valeria Fisher, Leticia Waselcoski, Emily Caroline Lopes Stal, Renata Zanardini Christoforo, and Sabrina Grassiolli Copyright © 2016 Claudia Regina Capriglioni Cancian et al. All rights reserved. Excretory Function of Intestinal Tract Enhanced in Kidney Impaired Rats Caused by Adenine Tue, 15 Nov 2016 07:15:21 +0000 The main aim of the study was to prove the compensative effect of intestine for renal function. Rat kidney was impaired by intragastrically administrating adenine (400 mg per day for 5 days). Intestinal tract was harvested and equally divided into 20 segments except cecum. Kidneys were harvested and histologically examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining kits. Uric acid, urea (BUN), and creatinine in serum were determined with assay kits, and BUN and creatinine in every intestinal segment were also determined. The results showed that adenine was able to increase uric acid level in serum from  μg/mL to  μg/mL and cause renal function damage with BUN (from  mM to 12. mM) and creatinine (from μM to μM) increasing in serum and with abnormally micromorphological changes in kidney. The amount of BUN and creatinine distributed in intestinal tract was positively correlated with those in blood. In impaired renal function rats, the amount of BUN (from μMole to 10.μMole) and creatinine (from nMole to nMole) distributed in intestinal tract significantly increased. All the results proved that intestinal tract had excretory function compensative for renal function. Yu Yun, Tao Gao, Yue Li, Zhiyi Gao, Jinlian Duan, Hua Yin, and Weigang Duan Copyright © 2016 Yu Yun et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Hazards in Agricultural and Virgin Soil in the State of Kedah, North of Malaysia Mon, 14 Nov 2016 06:16:17 +0000 The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined in 30 agricultural and virgin soil samples randomly collected from Kedah, north of Malaysia, at a fertile soil depth of 0–30 cm. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector and a PC-based MCA. The mean radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 102.08 ± 3.96, 133.96 ± 2.92, and 325.87 ± 9.83 Bq kg−1, respectively, in agricultural soils and 65.24 ± 2.00, 83.39 ± 2.27, and 136.98 ± 9.76 Bq kg−1, respectively, in virgin soils. The radioactivity concentrations in agricultural soils are higher than those in virgin soils and compared with those reported in other countries. The mean values of radium equivalent activity (), absorbed dose rates (nGy h−1), annual effective dose equivalent, and external hazard index () are 458.785 Bq kg−1, 141.62 nGy h−1, and 0.169 mSv y−1, respectively, in agricultural soils and 214.293 Bq kg−1, 87.47 nGy h−1, and 0.106 mSv y−1, respectively, in virgin soils, with average of 0.525. Results were discussed and compared with those reported in similar studies and with internationally recommended values. Ghazwa Alzubaidi, Fauziah B. S. Hamid, and I. Abdul Rahman Copyright © 2016 Ghazwa Alzubaidi et al. All rights reserved. Fetal Hemodynamic Parameters in Low Risk Pregnancies: Doppler Velocimetry of Uterine, Umbilical, and Middle Cerebral Artery Sun, 13 Nov 2016 14:14:41 +0000 Objective. To elaborate curves of longitudinal reference intervals of pulsatility index (PI) and systolic velocity (SV) for uterine (UtA), umbilical (UA), and middle cerebral arteries (MCA), in low risk pregnancies. Methods. Doppler velocimetric measurements of PI and SV from 63 low risk pregnant women between 16 and 41 weeks of gestational age. Means (±SD) for intervals of gestational age and percentiles 5, 50, and 95 were calculated for each parameter. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were also estimated for assessing intra- and intervariability of measurements. Results. Mean PI of UtA showed decreasing values during pregnancy, but no regular pattern was identified for mean SV. For UA, PI decreased and SV increased along gestation. MCA presented PI increasing values until 32–35 weeks. SV showed higher levels with increasing gestation. High ICC values indicated good reproducibility. Conclusions. Reference intervals for the assessment of SV and PI of UtA, UA, and MCA were established. These reference intervals showed how a normal pregnancy is expected to progress regarding these Doppler velocimetric parameters and are useful to follow high risk pregnancies. The comparison between results using different curves may provide insights about the best patterns to be used. C. O. Figueira, F. G. Surita, M. S. Dertkigil, S. L. Pereira, J. R. Bennini Jr., S. S. Morais, J. Mayrink, and J. G. Cecatti Copyright © 2016 C. O. Figueira et al. All rights reserved. Intake, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility, and Ruminal Constituents of Crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês Sheep Fed Diets with Babassu Mesocarp Flour Sun, 13 Nov 2016 07:48:58 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on intake, apparent digestibility, and ruminal constituents of sheep in response to the addition of increasing levels of babassu mesocarp flour (BMF) to the diet. Twenty crossbred sheep ( kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were confined for 21 days, with 16 days for diet adaptation and 5 days for data collection, in which they were fed an isonitrogenous diet ( CP, DM basis) containing 70% of concentrate and 30% (DM basis) of Tifton 85 hay. Increasing levels of BMF were 0, 10, 20, and 30% (DM basis). There was a quadratic effect () on the DM intake, nutrients intake, and digestibility of CP and NFC. The digestibility of DM, OM, TC, and NDF decreased linearly, while EE digestibility increased linearly with increasing levels of BMF. The high NDF content presented in the chemical composition of the babassu mesocarp flour ranked the same as fibrous food, which can limit the inclusion in the diet of high production animals. So, babassu mesocarp flour is an alternative for energy source in lambs feed and can be added at levels up to 10%. Osman José de Aguiar Gerude Neto, Michelle de Oliveira Maia Parente, Henrique Nunes Parente, Arnaud Azevedo Alves, Paull Andrews Carvalho dos Santos, Miguel Arcanjo Moreira Filho, Anderson de Moura Zanine, Daniele de Jesus Ferreira, Leilson Rocha Bezerra, and Ruan Mourão da Silva Gomes Copyright © 2016 Osman José de Aguiar Gerude Neto et al. All rights reserved. Origanum majorana Essential Oil Lacks Mutagenic Activity in the Salmonella/Microsome and Micronucleus Assays Mon, 07 Nov 2016 10:36:50 +0000 The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro mutagenic activity of Origanum majorana essential oil. The most abundant compounds identified by GC-MS were γ-terpinene (25.73%), α-terpinene (17.35%), terpinen-4-ol (17.24%), and sabinene (10.8%). Mutagenicity was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsome test using the preincubation procedure on TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 Salmonella typhimurium strains, in the absence or in the presence of metabolic activation. Cytotoxicity was detected at concentrations higher than 0.04 μL/plate in the absence of S9 mix and higher than 0.08 μL/plate in the presence of S9 mix and no gene mutation increase was observed. For the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test, V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts were used. Cytotoxicity was only observed at concentrations higher than or equal to 0.05 μg/mL. Moreover, when tested in noncytotoxic concentrations, O. majorana essential oil was not able to induce chromosome mutation. The results from this study therefore suggest that O. majorana essential oil is not mutagenic at the concentrations tested in the Salmonella/microsome and micronucleus assays. Andrea dos Santos Dantas, Luiz Carlos Klein-Júnior, Miriana S. Machado, Temenouga N. Guecheva, Luciana D. dos Santos, Régis A. Zanette, Fernanda B. de Mello, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques, and João Roberto Braga de Mello Copyright © 2016 Andrea dos Santos Dantas et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations, Difference Equations, and Dynamic Equations on Time Scales Wed, 26 Oct 2016 09:59:40 +0000 Tongxing Li, Martin Bohner, Tuncay Candan, Yuriy V. Rogovchenko, and Qi-Ru Wang Copyright © 2016 Tongxing Li et al. All rights reserved. On the Interval Stability of Weak-Nonlinear Control Systems with Aftereffect Sun, 23 Oct 2016 12:17:48 +0000 Sufficient conditions of interval absolute stability of nonlinear control systems described in terms of systems of the ordinary differential equations with delay argument and also neutral type are obtained. The Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method in the form of the sum of a quadratic component and integrals from nonlinearity is used at construction of statements. Andriy Shatyrko and Denys Khusainov Copyright © 2016 Andriy Shatyrko and Denys Khusainov. All rights reserved. Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species Wed, 19 Oct 2016 08:01:02 +0000 Vitamin A is essential for life in all vertebrate animals. Vitamin A requirement can be met from dietary preformed vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids, the most important of which is β-carotene. The metabolism of β-carotene, including its intestinal absorption, accumulation in tissues, and conversion to vitamin A, varies widely across animal species and determines the role that β-carotene plays in meeting vitamin A requirement. This review begins with a brief discussion of vitamin A, with an emphasis on species differences in metabolism. A more detailed discussion of β-carotene follows, with a focus on factors impacting bioavailability and its conversion to vitamin A. Finally, the literature on how animals utilize β-carotene is reviewed individually for several species and classes of animals. We conclude that β-carotene conversion to vitamin A is variable and dependent on a number of factors, which are important to consider in the formulation and assessment of diets. Omnivores and herbivores are more efficient at converting β-carotene to vitamin A than carnivores. Absorption and accumulation of β-carotene in tissues vary with species and are poorly understood. More comparative and mechanistic studies are required in this area to improve the understanding of β-carotene metabolism. Alice S. Green and Andrea J. Fascetti Copyright © 2016 Alice S. Green and Andrea J. Fascetti. All rights reserved. A Total Economic Valuation of Wetland Ecosystem Services: An Evidence from Jagadishpur Ramsar Site, Nepal Mon, 17 Oct 2016 14:11:59 +0000 Wetlands are the most productive ecosystem and provide wide arrays of wetland ecosystems (goods and services) to the local communities in particular and global communities in general. However, management of the wetland often does not remain priority and recognized as the unproductive waste land mainly due to poor realization of the economic value of the wetlands. Taking this into account, the study estimated the total economic value of the Jagadishpur Reservoir taking into account direct, indirect, and nonuse value. The study prioritized six major values of the reservoir which include wetland goods consumption, tourism, irrigation, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and conservation for future use (existence and option value). The study used market and nonmarket based valuation techniques to estimate total economic value of the reservoir. Household survey, focus group discussions, and interaction with the tourism entrepreneurs and district stakeholders were carried out to collect information. The study estimated the total annual economic value of the reservoir as NRs 94.5 million, where option/existence value remains main contributor followed by direct use value such as wetland goods and tourism and indirect use value, for example, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and irrigation. The study reveals that the local communities gave high importance to the future use value and are willing to make investment for conservation and restoration of reservoir given its conservation significance. Sony Baral, Bijendra Basnyat, Rajendra Khanal, and Kalyan Gauli Copyright © 2016 Sony Baral et al. All rights reserved. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches Wed, 12 Oct 2016 09:14:18 +0000 Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel. Julyus-Melvin Mobilik, Teck-Yee Ling, Mohd-Lokman Husain, and Ruhana Hassan Copyright © 2016 Julyus-Melvin Mobilik et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Physiochemical Parameters during Bioremediation of Synthetic Dye by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 Using Statistical Approach Mon, 10 Oct 2016 15:14:22 +0000 In many industrial areas such as in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, and textile, the use of synthetic dyes has been integral with products such as azo dye, anthrax, and dyestuffs. As such, these industries produce a lot of waste by-products that could contaminate the environment. Bioremediation, therefore, has become an important emerging technology due to its cost-sustainable, effective, natural approach to cleaning up contaminated groundwater and soil via the use of microorganisms. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation requires the optimisation of parameters used in cultivating the organism. Thus the aim of the work was to assess the degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye on soil using Plackett-Burman design by the basidiomycete, M. cladophyllus UMAS MS8. Biodegradation analyses were carried out on a soil spiked with RBBR and supplemented with rice husk as the fungus growth enhancer. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was used to screen the medium components for the effects on the decolourization of RBBR. For the analysis, eleven variables were selected and from these four parameters, dye concentration, yeast extract concentration, inoculum size, and incubation time, were found to be most effective to degrade RBBR with up to 91% RBBR removal in soil after 15 days. Fatin Nur Sufinas Shuib, Ahmad Husaini, Azham Zulkharnain, Hairul Azman Roslan, and Tay Meng Guan Copyright © 2016 Fatin Nur Sufinas Shuib et al. All rights reserved. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea Tue, 04 Oct 2016 09:52:49 +0000 This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs) and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (). Mussie Sium, Patrick Kareru, Joseph Keriko, Berhane Girmay, Ghebrehiwet Medhanie, and Semere Debretsion Copyright © 2016 Mussie Sium et al. All rights reserved. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:52:22 +0000 The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly () affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield. Justice Kipkorir Rono, Erick Kimutai Cheruiyot, Jacktone Odongo Othira, Virginia Wanjiku Njuguna, Joseph Kinyoro Macharia, James Owuoche, Moses Oyier, and Alex Machio Kange Copyright © 2016 Justice Kipkorir Rono et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare Wed, 28 Sep 2016 11:54:41 +0000 Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. Judith L. Stella and Candace C. Croney Copyright © 2016 Judith L. Stella and Candace C. Croney. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives Tue, 27 Sep 2016 12:30:38 +0000 Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age years) answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry) and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions. Christoph Schulze, Michael Becker, Susanne Finze, Christoph Holtherm, Jens Hinder, and Andreas Lison Copyright © 2016 Christoph Schulze et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study Mon, 26 Sep 2016 06:46:08 +0000 Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb. M. S. Kabir, M. A. Salam, D. N. R. Paul, M. I. Hossain, N. M. F. Rahman, Abdullah Aziz, and M. A. Latif Copyright © 2016 M. S. Kabir et al. All rights reserved. A New Finite-Time Observer for Nonlinear Systems: Applications to Synchronization of Lorenz-Like Systems Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:11:14 +0000 This paper proposes a synchronization methodology of two chaotic oscillators under the framework of identical synchronization and master-slave configuration. The proposed methodology is based on state observer design under the frame of control theory; the observer structure provides finite-time synchronization convergence by cancelling the upper bounds of the main nonlinearities of the chaotic oscillator. The above is showed via an analysis of the dynamic of the so called synchronization error. Numerical experiments corroborate the satisfactory results of the proposed scheme. Ricardo Aguilar-López and Juan L. Mata-Machuca Copyright © 2016 Ricardo Aguilar-López and Juan L. Mata-Machuca. All rights reserved. Sedation for Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:43:32 +0000 Although anesthetic requirements for minimally invasive neurosurgical techniques have been described in detail and applied successfully since the early 2000s, most of the literature on this subject has dealt with cranial cases that were operated on in the supine or sitting positions. However, spinal surgery has also used minimally invasive techniques that were performed in prone position for more than 30 years to date. Although procedures in both these neurosurgical techniques require the patient to be awake for a certain period of time, the main surgical difference with minimally invasive spinal surgery is that the patients are in the prone position, which may result in increased requirement of airway management because of deep sedation. In addition, although minimally invasive spinal surgery progresses slowly and different techniques are used with no agreement on the terminology used to describe these techniques thus far, the anesthetist needs to understand the surgical and anesthetic requirements for each type of intervention in order to take necessary precautions. This paper reviews the literature on this topic and discusses the anesthetic necessities for percutaneous endoscopic laser surgery. Menekse Oksar Copyright © 2016 Menekse Oksar. All rights reserved. Upscaling of Helmholtz Equation Originating in Transmission through Metallic Gratings in Metamaterials Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:25:30 +0000 We investigate the transmission properties of a metallic layer with narrow slits. We consider (time-harmonic) Maxwell’s equations in the -parallel case with a fixed incident wavelength. We denote as the typical size of the complex structure and obtain the effective equations by letting . For metallic permittivities with negative real part, plasmonic waves can be excited on the surfaces of the slits. For the waves to be in resonance with the height of the metallic layer, the corresponding results can be perfect transmission through the layer. Hari Shankar Mahato Copyright © 2016 Hari Shankar Mahato. All rights reserved. Cost-Sensitive Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier for Software Defect Prediction Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:21:49 +0000 Effective prediction of software modules, those that are prone to defects, will enable software developers to achieve efficient allocation of resources and to concentrate on quality assurance activities. The process of software development life cycle basically includes design, analysis, implementation, testing, and release phases. Generally, software testing is a critical task in the software development process wherein it is to save time and budget by detecting defects at the earliest and deliver a product without defects to the customers. This testing phase should be carefully operated in an effective manner to release a defect-free (bug-free) software product to the customers. In order to improve the software testing process, fault prediction methods identify the software parts that are more noted to be defect-prone. This paper proposes a prediction approach based on conventional radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and the novel adaptive dimensional biogeography based optimization (ADBBO) model. The developed ADBBO based RBFNN model is tested with five publicly available datasets from the NASA data program repository. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ADBBO-RBFNN classifier approach with respect to the considered metrics in comparison with that of the early predictors available in the literature for the same datasets. P. Kumudha and R. Venkatesan Copyright © 2016 P. Kumudha and R. Venkatesan. All rights reserved. In Vitro Adherence of Oral Bacteria to Different Types of Tongue Piercings Tue, 20 Sep 2016 07:24:16 +0000 The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50 μL of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis ( value ). For E. corrodens, difference among types of material was observed () and titanium and surgical steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization () in titanium and surgical steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis, and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface. Lucas Pereira Borges, Julio Cesar Campos Ferreira-Filho, Julia Medeiros Martins, Caroline Vieira Alves, Bianca Marques Santiago, and Ana Maria Gondim Valença Copyright © 2016 Lucas Pereira Borges et al. All rights reserved. Radiopacity of Methacrylate and Silorane Composite Resins Using a Digital Radiographic System Mon, 19 Sep 2016 08:59:50 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of silorane and methacrylate resin composites, comparing them to the enamel, dentin, and aluminum penetrometer using a digital image. From six resin composites (Filtek™ P90, Filtek Z350, Filtek Z350 XT flow, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum, and SureFil SDR flow) cylindrical disks (5 × 1 mm) were made and radiographed by a digital method, together with a 15-step aluminum step-wedge and a 1 mm slice of human tooth. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. The mean values of the shades of gray of the tested materials were measured and the equivalent width of aluminum was calculated for each resin. The results of our work yielded the following radiopacity values, given here in descending order: Tetric Ceram > TPH > SDR > Z350 > Z350 flow > P90 > enamel > dentin. The radiopacity of the materials was different both for the enamel and for the dentin, except for resin P90, which was no different than enamel. In conclusion, silorane-based resin exhibited a radiopacity higher than dentin and closest to the enamel; a large portion of the methacrylate-based flow and conventional resins demonstrated greater radiopacity in comparison to dentin and enamel. Leily Macedo Firoozmand, Mariana Gonçalves Cordeiro, Marcos André dos Santos Da Silva, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez, and Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho Copyright © 2016 Leily Macedo Firoozmand et al. All rights reserved. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice Sun, 18 Sep 2016 10:56:05 +0000 This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic () and a general practice (). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income () and education () compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger () and dogs were less likely to be neutered (). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; ), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; ). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status. Stephanie A. Sapowicz, Deborah E. Linder, and Lisa M. Freeman Copyright © 2016 Stephanie A. Sapowicz et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “In Vivo Quantitative Ultrasound Image Analysis of Femoral Subchondral Bone in Knee Osteoarthritis” Wed, 14 Sep 2016 09:22:08 +0000 Jana Podlipská, Juhani M. Koski, Pasi Pulkkinen, and Simo Saarakkala Copyright © 2016 Jana Podlipská et al. All rights reserved.