Table of Contents
Volume 2013, Article ID 820468, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Profile, Bacteriology, and Risk Factors for Foot Ulcers among Diabetics in a Tertiary Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria

1University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1278, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
2University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, PMB 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Received 10 April 2013; Accepted 8 August 2013

Academic Editor: Thomas Brzozowski

Copyright © 2013 Akaninyene Asuquo Otu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diabetic foot disease is a major medical, social, and economic problem. This retrospective study assessed the profile of diabetes mellitus patients with foot ulcers in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Nigeria. Admission records of all patients admitted unto the medical wards of UCTH over a 5 year period were analysed. The records of diabetic patients were retrieved. Data on patient characteristics and possible risk factors for diabetes mellitus foot ulcers was extracted. Of the 3,882 patients admitted, 297 (7%) were on account of complications of diabetes mellitus. Foot ulcers accounted for 63 (21.2%) of all diabetic admissions. The elderly constituted the majority of patients admitted with foot ulcers. The average duration of stay of diabetics with foot ulcers was 38.5 days. Diabetics admitted for other conditions had average duration of admission of 15.8 days. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated from swabs of foot ulcers. Most of the organisms identified from ulcer swab cultures were sensitive to quinolones and resistant to penicillins. These diabetic foot ulcers were significantly associated with peripheral sensory neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, intermittent claudication, and walking barefoot. An effective diabetes foot programme is required to address these risk factors and reverse the current trend.