Table of Contents
Urban Studies Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 867129, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/867129
Research Article

The Structure of Witnessed Community Violence amongst Urban African American Mothers: Latent Class Analysis of a Community Sample

1Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Room 655, 111 Michigan Ave NW, Washington DC 20010, USA
2Center for Community and Clinical Research, Children's National Medical Center, 6th Floor Research, 111 Michigan Ave NW, Washington DC 20010, USA
3Center for Community and Clinical Research, Children's National Medical Center, Room 652, 111 Michigan Ave NW, Washington DC 20010, USA

Received 1 July 2010; Revised 23 December 2010; Accepted 17 January 2011

Academic Editor: David Wong

Copyright © 2011 Cynthia R. Ronzio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Overstreet, “Exposure to community violence: defining the problem and understanding the consequences,” Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7–25, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Campbell and D. F. Schwarz, “Prevalence and impact of exposure to interpersonal violence among suburban and urban middle school students,” Pediatrics, vol. 98, no. 3, part 1, pp. 396–402, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. D. Osofsky, S. Wewers, D. M. Hann, and A. C. Fick, “Chronic community violence: what is happening to our children?” Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Aisenberg, “The effects of exposure to community violence upon Latina mothers and preschool children,” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 378–398, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Clark, L. Ryan, I. Kawachi, M. J. Canner, L. Berkman, and R. J. Wright, “Witnessing community violence in residential neighborhoods: a mental health hazard for urban women,” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 22–38, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Stueve and L. O'Donnell, “Urban young women's experiences of discrimination and community violence and intimate partner violence,” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 386–401, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. R. Brown, H. M. Hill, and S. F. Lambert, “Traumatic stress symptoms in women exposed to community and partner violence,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1478–1494, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. L. Buka, T. L. Stichick, I. Birdthistle, and F. J. Earls, “Youth exposure to violence: prevalence, risks, and consequences,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 298–310, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Cooley-Quille, R. C. Boyd, E. Frantz, and J. Walsh, “Emotional and behavioral impact of exposure to community violence in inner-city adolescents,” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 199–206, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Cooley-Quille and R. Lorion, “Adolescents' exposure to community violence: sleep and psychophysiological functioning,” Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 367–375, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. A. Bogat, K. Leahy, A. Von Eye, C. Maxwell, A. A. Levendosky, and W. S. Davidson, “The influence of community violence on the functioning of women experiencing domestic violence,” American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 36, no. 1-2, pp. 123–132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. F. Suglia, L. Ryan, and R. J. Wright, “Creation of a community violence exposure scale: accounting for what, who, where, and how often,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 479–486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. C. Kennedy, “Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: prevalence, outcomes, and welfare policy implications,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 44–54, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Copeland-Linder, S. F. Lambert, and N. S. Ialongo, “Community violence, protective factors, and adolescent mental health: a profile analysis,” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 176–186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. Bowen, K. Natasha, Lee, J-S Weller, and E. Bridget, “Social environmental risk and protection: A typology with implications for practice in elementary schools,” Children and Schools, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 229–242, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  16. C. C. Clogg, Latent Class Models. Handbook of Statistical Modeling for the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  17. B. S. Everitt, Cluster Analysis, John Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1980.
  18. J. Wang, “Methods and applications of mixture models,” Advances and Applications in Statistical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. L. A. Goodman, “Exploratory latent structure analysis using both identifiable and unidentifiable models,” Biometrika, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 215–231, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. J. Turner and D. A. Lloyd, “Lifetime traumas and mental health: the significance of cumulative adversity,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 360–376, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. R. Ronzio and S. J. Mitchell, “The highs and lows of maternal depression: cluster analysis of depression symptoms in a sample of African American women,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 887–892, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. J. E. Richters and P. Martinez, “The NIMH community violence project: I. Children as victims of and witnesses to violence,” Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 7–21, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. A. Wolfer, “"It happens all the time": overcoming the limits of memory and method for chronic community violence experience,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1070–1094, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. S. Radloff, “The CES-D scale: a self report depression scale for research in the general population,” Applied Psychological Measurement, vol. 1, pp. 385–401, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  25. E. J. Corwin, J. Brownstead, N. Barton, S. Heckard, and K. Morin, “The impact of fatigue on the development of postpartum depression,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 577–586, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. Mosack and E. R. Shore, “Screening for depression among pregnant and postpartum women,” Journal of Community Health Nursing, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 37–47, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Spielberger, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y), Mind Garden, Red Wood City, Calif, USA, 1983.
  28. L. M. Collins and B. P. Flaherty, “Latent class models for longitudinal data,” in Applied Latent Class Analysis, J. Hagenaars and A. McCutcheon, Eds., pp. 287–303, Cambridge Univerity Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. Heinen, Latent Class and Discrete Latent Trait Models: Similarities and Differences, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1996.
  30. B. Muthén, “Latent variable analysis: growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data,” in The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methodology for the Social Sciences, Kaplan, Ed., pp. 345–368, Sage, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  31. B. Muthén and L. Muthén, Mplus User's Guide, Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 1998–2008.
  32. A. Raftery, “Bayesian model selection in social research (with discussion),” in Sociological Methodology, P. Marsden, Ed., pp. 111–196, Blackwell, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  33. R. Schwartz, “Estimating the dimension of a model,” Annals of Statistics, vol. 6, pp. 461–464, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  34. Y. Lo, N. R. Mendell, and D. B. Rubin, “Testing the number of components in a normal mixture,” Biometrika, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 767–778, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. S. Nagin, “Analyzing developmental trajectories: a semiparametric, group-based approach,” Psychological Methods, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 139–157, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Yehuda, “Post-traumatic stress disorder,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 2, pp. 108–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Nicolaidis, M. Curry, B. McFarland, and M. Gerrity, “Violence, mental health, and physical symptoms in an academic internal medicine practice,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 819–827, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. C. Kennedy and L. Bennett, “Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: is cumulative violence exposure a barrier to school performance and participation?” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 750–773, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Alegría, D. J. Pérez, and S. Williams, “The role of public policies in reducing mental health status disparities for people of color,” Health Affairs, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 51–64, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. B. Bent-Goodley, “Eradicating domestic violence in the African American Community,” Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 316–330, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  41. W. Wells and J. Horney, “Weapon effects and individual intent to do harm: influences on the escalation of violence,” Criminology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 265–296, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. McCauley, D. E. Kern, K. Kolodner, L. R. Derogatis, and E. B. Bass, “Relation of low-severity violence to women's health,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 687–691, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. G. Krug, J. A. Mercy, L. L. Dahlberg, and A. B. Zwi, “The world report on violence and health,” Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9339, pp. 1083–1088, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. A. Mercy, M. L. Rosenberg, K. E. Powell, C. V. Broome, and W. L. Roper, “Public health policy for preventing violence,” Health Affairs, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 7–29, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus