Table of Contents
Urban Studies Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 368047, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/368047
Research Article

Youth Exposure to Violence in an Urban Setting

1Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, Tidewater 2301, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
2Department of Family Medicine, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, 1000 S. Fremont Avenue, Unit 22, Alhambra, CA 91803, USA
3Institute for Health and Society, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA

Received 10 June 2014; Revised 3 October 2014; Accepted 15 October 2014; Published 10 November 2014

Academic Editor: Enda Murphy

Copyright © 2014 David Seal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health People 2020: Understanding and Improving Health, Washington, DC, USA, 2nd edition, 2010.
  2. W. R. Hammond and I. Arias, “Broadening the approach to youth violence prevention through public health,” Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. CDC (2012a), “Facts at a glance: Youth violence,” National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention, 2013, http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/yv_datasheet_2012-a.pdf.
  4. G. M. Zimmerman and S. F. Messner, “Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 435–442, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Finkelhor, H. Turner, R. Ormrod, and S. L. Hamby, “Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth,” Pediatrics, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 1411–1423, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. M. Fitzpatrick and J. P. Boldizar, “The prevalence and consequences of exposure to violence among African-American youth,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 424–430, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. M. Fitzpatrick, D. R. Wright, B. F. Piko, and M. LaGory, “Depressive symptomatology, exposure to violence, and the role of social capital among African American adolescents,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 262–274, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Gorman-Smith and P. Tolan, “The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among inner-city youth,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 101–116, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. F. Lambert, R. C. Boyd, N. L. Cammack, and N. S. Ialongo, “Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. C. O’Leary, D. A. Frank, W. Grant-Knight et al., “Suicidal ideation among urban nine and ten year olds,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. C. Bell and E. J. Jenkins, “Traumatic stress and children,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 175–186, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Boynton-Jarrett, E. Hair, and B. Zuckerman, “Turbulent times: effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 95, pp. 77–86, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. E. Howard, S. Feigelman, X. M. Li, S. Cross, and L. Rachuba, “The relationship among violence victimization, witnessing violence, and youth distress,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 455–462, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Lancaster, “Violence as a public health problem,” Family & Community health, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 79, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. L. L. Dahlberg, “Youth violence in the United States: major trends, risk factors, and prevention approaches,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 259–272, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. U. Bronfenbrenner, The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1979.
  17. R. Agnew, “A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 123–155, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. D. Warner and S. K. Fowler, “Strain and violence: testing a general strain theory model of community violence,” Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 511–521, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. J. Sampson, S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls, “Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5328, pp. 918–924, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Q. Wilson and G. Kelling, “The police and neighborhood safety: broken windows,” The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 127, pp. 29–38, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  21. R. J. Sampson and S. W. Raudenbush, “Seeing disorder: Neighborhood stigma and the social construction of ‘broken windows’,” Social Psychology Quarterly, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 319–342, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. N. Le, I. Arifuku, L. Vuong, G. Tran, D. F. Lustig, and F. Zimring, “Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations,” The American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 48, no. 1-2, pp. 77–88, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. S. Leff, D. E. Thomas, N. A. Vaughn et al., “Using community-based participatory research to develop the PARTNERS youth violence prevention program,” Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 207–216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. A. Zimmerman, S. E. Stewart, S. Morrel-Samuels, S. Franzen, and T. M. Reischl, “Youth empowerment solutions for peaceful communities: combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum,” Health Promotion and Practice, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 425–439, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. A. Yonas, P. O'Campo, J. G. Burke, and A. C. Gielen, “Exploring local perceptions of and responses to urban youth violence,” Health Promotion Practice, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. I. Herrenkohl, J. Lee, and J. D. Hawkins, “Risk versus direct protective factors and youth violence: seattle social development project,” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. S41–S56, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. J. Sampson, J. D. Morenoff, and S. Raudenbush, “Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 224–232, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. L. Buka, T. L. Stichick, I. Birdthistle, and F. J. Earls, “Youth exposure to violence: prevalence, risks, and consequences,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 298–310, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. L. Gibson, S. Z. Morris, and K. M. Beaver, “Secondary exposure to violence during childhood and adolescence: does neighborhood context matter?” Justice Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 30–57, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. de Coster, K. Heimer, and S. M. Wittrock, “Neighborhood disadvantage, social capital, street context, and youth violence,” The Sociological Quarterly, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 723–753, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. W. Seal, K. Beyer, J. Flores et al., Medical College of Wisconsin Youth Violence Prevention Initiative: Summary Report—Development Phase, 2008–2010, Institute for Health and Society, Medical College of Wisconsin, MCW Consortium on Public and Community Health, Milwaukee, Wis, USA, 2010, http://www.mcw.edu/FileLibrary/Groups/ViolencePreventionInitiative/Reports/VPIReports/VPI.DevelopmentPhaseSummaryReport.Final.20101119.pdf.
  32. Milwaukee Homicide Review Commission, Homicides and Nonfatal Shootings Data Report for Milwaukee, Milwaukee Homicide Review Commission, Milwaukee, Wis, USA, 2012, http://city.milwaukee.gov/ImageLibrary/Groups/cityHRC/reports/2012AnnualReportFinalon7-10-13.pdf.
  33. CDC, “Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. S. Mishefske and D. J. Peterson, Evidence for Action: A Report on Violence and Health in Milwaukee, MCW Consortium on Health, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2011, http://www.mcw.edu/FileLibrary/Groups/ViolencePreventionInitiative/Reports/VPIReports/EvidenceforActionReportFinal.pdf.
  35. M. V. Levine, Racial Disparities, Socioeconomic Status, and Racialized Politics in Milwaukee and Wisconsin: An Analysis of Senate Factors Five and Six of the Voting Rights Act, 2012, Expert report submitted on behalf of plaintiffs in Frank v. Walker, Civil Action No. 2:11-cv-01128(LA), https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/assets/2012.05.18_marc_levine_expert_report.pdf.
  36. W. Frey, New Racial Segregation Measures for Large Metropolitan Areas: Analysis of 1990–2010 Decennial Census, University of Michigan Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, 2010, http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/census/segregation2010.html.
  37. J. M. Corbin and A. Strauss, “Grounded theory research: procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria,” Qualitative Sociology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–21, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Strauss and J. Corbin, “Grounded theory methodology,” in Handbook of Qualitative Research, N. K. Denzin and Y. Lincoln, Eds., pp. 273–285, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. M. Hall and P. E. Stevens, “Rigor in feminist research,” Advances in Nursing Science, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 16–29, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Sandelowski, “The problem of rigor in qualitative research,” Advances in Nursing Science, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 27–37, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Kilroy, “Intra-urban spatial inequality: cities as “urban regions”,” World Development Report: Reshaping Economic Geography, 2007, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2009/Resources/4231006-1204741572978/Kilroy2.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  42. N. Kabeer, “Social exclusion, poverty and discrimination: towards an analytical framework,” IDS Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 83–97, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Hagedorn, “The business of drug dealing in Milwaukee,” Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1–30, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  44. J. M. Hagedorn, People and Folks: Gangs, Crime, and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City, Lakeview Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
  45. A. B. Brenner, M. A. Zimmerman, J. A. Bauermeister, and C. H. Caldwell, “The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 792–806, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Finkelhor, R. K. Ormrod, and H. A. Turner, “Polyvictimization and trauma in a national longitudinal cohort,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 149–166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Jain and A. K. Cohen, “Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors,” Prevention Science, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 606–617, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. O. Walker, B. S. Sterling, M. M. Hoke, and K. A. Dearden, “Applying the concept of positive deviance to public health data: a tool for reducing health disparities,” Public Health Nursing, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 571–576, 2007. View at Google Scholar