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VLSI Design
Volume 6 (1998), Issue 1-4, Pages 363-366

Modeling Light-Extraction Characteristics of Packaged Light-Emitting Diodes

1Thomas J. Watson, Sr., Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
2Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300, China

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We employ a Monte Carlo ray-tracing technique to model light-extraction characteristics of light-emitting diodes. By relaxing restrictive assumptions on photon traversal history, our method improves upon available analytical models for estimating light-extraction efficiencies from bare LED chips, and enhances modeling capabilities by realistically treating the various processes which photons can encounter in a packaged LED. Our method is not only capable of calculating extraction efficiencies, but can also provide extensive statistical information on photon extraction processes, and predict LED spatial emission characteristics.