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VLSI Design
Volume 6, Issue 1-4, Pages 61-64

Quantum Contributions and Violations of the Classical Law of Mass Action

1Scientific Research Associates, Inc., Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA
2Applied Research Laboratory, State College, Pennsylvania, USA

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The law of mass action refers to the product of concentration of reactants, which for a particular material is a function only of temperature. For non-degenerate semiconductors the law of mass action is represented by the product NP=NCNV exp- EG/KBT. Through solutions to the quantum Liouville equation, it is determined that the law of mass action is generally invalid.