VLSI Design

VLSI Design / 1998 / Article
Special Issue

Computational Electronics

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Volume 8 |Article ID 81752 | 5 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/1998/81752

Theory and Modeling of Lasing Modes in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

Abstract

The problem of obtaining the lasing modes and corresponding threshold conditions for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is formulated as a frequency-dependent eigenvalue problem in required gain amplitudes and corresponding fields. Both index and gain guiding are treated on an equal footing. The complex gain eigenvalues define necessary but not sufficient conditions for lasing. The actual lasing frequencies and modes that the VCSEL can support are then determined by matching the gain necessary for the optical system in both magnitude and phase to the gain available from the laser's electronic system. Examples are provided.

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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