Table of Contents
VLSI Design
Volume 8, Issue 1-4, Pages 87-91

Theory and Modeling of Lasing Modes in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

1Beckma Institute and Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of lllinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 6180, USA
2Microelectronics Center, Department of Eledtrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1084, USA

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The problem of obtaining the lasing modes and corresponding threshold conditions for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is formulated as a frequency-dependent eigenvalue problem in required gain amplitudes and corresponding fields. Both index and gain guiding are treated on an equal footing. The complex gain eigenvalues define necessary but not sufficient conditions for lasing. The actual lasing frequencies and modes that the VCSEL can support are then determined by matching the gain necessary for the optical system in both magnitude and phase to the gain available from the laser's electronic system. Examples are provided.