Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2010, Article ID 676451, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/676451
Research Article

Investigation into the Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection in Calves among Small-Holder Dairy and Traditional Herds in Tanzania

1Directorate of Veterinary Services, Veterinary Investigation Centre (VIC), P.O. Box 1068, Arusha 255, Tanzania
2Department of Animal Production, Tanga Dairy Trust (TADAT), P.O. Box 1720, Tanga 255, Tanzania

Received 16 September 2010; Accepted 10 November 2010

Academic Editor: David W. Horohov

Copyright © 2010 Emanuel S. Swai and Luuk Schoonman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Fayer and B. L. P. Ungar, “Cryptosporidium spp. and cryptosporidiosis,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 458–483, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Z. Chako, J. W. Tyler, L. G. Schultz, L. Chiguma, and B. T. Beerntsen, “Cryptosporidiosis in people: it's not just about the cows,” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. J. Plutzer and P. Karanis, “Genetic polymorphism in Cryptosporidium species: an update,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 165, no. 3-4, pp. 187–199, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. E. R. Houpt, O. Y. Bushen, N. E. Sam et al., “Short report: asymptomatic Cryptosporidium hominis infection among human immundeficiency virus-infected patients in Tanzania,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 520–522, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. A. Castro-Hermida, Y. A. González-Losada, and E. Ares-Mazás, “Prevalence of and risk factors involved in the spread of neonatal bovine cryptosporidiosis in Galicia (NW Spain),” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. E. Ramirez, L. A. Ward, and S. Sreevatsan, “A review of the biology and epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 773–785, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. V. F. Del Coco, M. A. Córdoba, and J. A. Basualdo, “Cryptosporidium infection in calves from a rural area of Buenos Aires, Argentina,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 158, no. 1-2, pp. 31–35, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. J. A. Matovelo, T. Landsverk, and G. Amaya PoSada, “Cryptosporidiosis in Tanzanian goat kids: scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations,” Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 322–326, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Esrony, D. M. Kambarage, M. M. A. Mtambo, A. P. Muhairwa, and L. J. M. Kusiluka, “Intestinal protozoan parasites of pigs reared under different management systems in Morogoro, Tanzania,” Journal of Applied Animal Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. M. A. Mtambo, J. B. Sebatwale, D. M. Kambarage et al., “Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle and wildlife in Morogoro region, Tanzania,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3-4, pp. 185–190, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. P. Cegielski, Y. R. Ortega, S. McKee et al., “Cryptosporidium Enterocytozoon, and Cyclospora infections in pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea in Tanzania,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 314–321, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. S. Swai, N. P. French, E. D. Karimuribo et al., “Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga regions of Tanzania,” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Schoonman, Epidemiology of leptospirosis and other zoonotic diseases in cattle in Tanzania and their relative risk to public health, Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, Reading, UK, 2007.
  14. Epi-infoTM, User’s manual, version 6.04d, Centers for disease control, version 6.04d, Atlanta, Ga, USA and Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 6–20, 1996.
  15. K. W. Angus, “Cryptosporidiosis in ruminants,” in Cryptosporidiosis of Man and Animals, J. P. Dubey, C. A. Speer, and R. Fayer, Eds., pp. 83–104, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Thrusfield, Veterinary Epidemiology, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 2000.
  17. S. C. Clarke and M. McIntyre, “Acid-fast bodies in faecal smears stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique,” British Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. P. Casemore, “Laboratory methods for diagnosing cryptosporidiosis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 445–451, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Lema, Study of Aetiologies of neonatal calf diarrhoea in selected farms in Tanzania, Ph.D. thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany, 1990.
  20. C. A. Scott, H. V. Smith, M. M. A. Mtambo, and H. A. Gibbs, “An epidemiological study of Cryptosporidium parvum in two herds of adult beef cattle,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 277–289, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Soltane, K. Guyot, E. Dei-Cas, and A. Ayadi, “Cryptosporidium parvum (Eucoccidiorida: Cryptosporiidae) in calves: results of a longitudinal study in a dairy FARM in Sfax, Tunisia,” Parasite, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 309–312, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Nizeyi, M. Cranfield, and T. Graczyk, “Cattle near the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis for local community and free-ranging gorillas,” Parasitology Research, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 380–385, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. K. Kang'Ethe, B. McDermott, G. M. M'Ibui, T. F. Randolph, and A. K. Langat, “Investigation into the prevalence of bovine cryptosporidiosis among small-holder dairy households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 84, supplement 11, pp. S76–S82, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Maldonado-Camargo, E. R. Atwill, J. A. Saltijeral-Oaxaca, and L. C. Herrera-Alonso, “Prevalence of and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum in Holstein Freisian dairy calves in central México,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 95–107, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. M. El-Shazly, A. Gabr, M. S. E. Mahmoud, S. S. A. Aziz, and W. A. Saleh, “The use of Ziehl-Neelsen stain, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nested polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent, -compromised patients,” Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 155–166, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Santín, J. M. Trout, L. Xiao, L. Zhou, E. Greiner, and R. Fayer, “Prevalence and age-related variation of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy calves,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 103–117, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. K. Kaushik, S. Khurana, A. Wanchu, and N. Malla, “Evaluation of staining techniques, antigen detection and nested PCR for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in HIV seropositive and seronegative patients,” Acta Tropica, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. D. Moodley, T. F. H. G. Jackson, V. Gathiram, and J. Van den Ende, “A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining procedures for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 314–317, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Chartier, M. P. Mallereau-Pellet, R. Mancassola, and D. Nussbaum, “Détection des oocystes des Cryptosporidium dans les fèces de caprins: comparaison entre un test d’agglutination au latex et trois autres techniques conventionnelles,” Veterinary Research, vol. 33, pp. 169–77, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. Potters and M. Van Esbroeck, “Negative staining technique of Heine for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp: a fast and simple screening technique,” The Open Parasitology Journal, vol. 4, pp. 1–4, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. A. Bakheit, D. Torra, L. A. Palomino et al., “Sensitive and specific detection of Cryptosporidium species in PCR-negative samples by loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification and confirmation of generated LAMP products by sequencing,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 158, no. 1-2, pp. 11–22, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. L. Xiao and Y. Feng, “Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 309–323, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. M. Santín and D. S. Zarlenga, “A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to simultaneously distinguish Cryptosporidium species of veterinary and public health concern in cattle,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 166, no. 1-2, pp. 32–37, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. J. B. Wilson, S. A. McEwen, R. C. Clarke, K. E. Leslie, D. Waltner-Toews, and C. L. Gyles, “A case-control study of selected pathogens including verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in calf diarrhea on an Ontario veal farm,” Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 184–188, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Silverlås, U. Emanuelson, K. de Verdier, and C. Björkman, “Prevalence and associated management factors of Cryptosporidium shedding in 50 Swedish dairy herds,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 90, no. 3-4, pp. 242–253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. S. Gow and C. Waldner, “An examination of the prevalence of and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in cows and calves from western Canadian cow-calf herds,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 137, no. 1-2, pp. 50–61, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus