Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2011, Article ID 457327, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/457327
Review Article

Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its Amelioration

1Department of Medicine, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India
2Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India
3Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom 281122, UP, India

Received 12 January 2011; Accepted 21 January 2011

Academic Editor: Cristina Castillo Rodríguez

Copyright © 2011 R. C. Patra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [107 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Natacha Coppieters, and Mike Dragunow, “Epigenetics in alzheimer's disease: A focus on dna modifications,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 17, no. 31, pp. 3398–3412, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Namrata Govil, Shaista Chaudhary, Mohammad Waseem, and Suhel Parvez, “Postnuclear Supernatant: An In Vitro Model for Assessing Cadmium-Induced Neurotoxicity,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 402–409, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pauling Chu, Chia-Chao Wu, Chun-Chi Chen, and Kuo-Cheng Lu, “Parathyroidectomy leads to decreased blood lead levels in patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism,” Bone, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1032–1038, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Deepak Pant, Deepika Joshi, Manoj K. Upreti, and Ravindra K. Kotnala, “Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in E waste: A hybrid technology,” Waste Management, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 979–990, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ling Wang, Chun Zhou, Zhen He, Zheng-Guang Wang, Jia-Lin Wang, and Yu-Feng Wang, “Wolbachia Infection Decreased the Resistance of Drosophila to Lead,” Plos One, vol. 7, no. 3, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark F. McCarty, “Zinc and multi-mineral supplementation should mitigate the pathogenic impact of cadmium exposure,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 642–648, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eva Tvrda, Zuzana Knazicka, and Norbert Lukac, “Selected heavy metals versus antioxidant parameters in bull seminal plasma - A comparative study,” Journal Of Environmental Science And Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substanc Es & Environmental Engineering, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1261–1266, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anand Kumar, Haritha, Ambica, Anilkumar, and Gopala Reddy, “Toxicopathological interaction of lead and cadmium and amelioration with n-acetyl-l-cysteine,” Veterinary World, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 823–827, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eva Tvrda, Zuzana Knazicka, Jana Lukacova, Monika Schneidgenova, Zofia Goc, Agnieszka Gren, Csaba Szabo, Peter Massanyi, and Norbert Lukac, “The impact of lead and cadmium on selected motility, prooxidant and antioxidant parameters of bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa,” Journal Of Environmental Science And Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substanc, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1292–1300, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abhay K. Singh, Ratna Chattopadhyay, Baidyanath Chakravarty, and Koel Chaudhury, “Markers of oxidative stress in follicular fluid of women with endometriosis and tubal infertility undergoing IVF,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 42, pp. 116–124, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Latifah M. Mujaibel, and Narayana Kilarkaje, “Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and its association with oxidative stress and apoptosis in lead-exposed hepatocytes,” Environmental Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hao Wu, Ruijing Xuan, Yingjun Li, Xiaomin Zhang, Weixin Jing, and Lan Wang, “Biochemical, histological and ultrastructural alterations of the alimentary system in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense subchronically exposed to cadmium,” Ecotoxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rong-zhen Zhong, and Dao-wei Zhou, “Oxidative Stress and Role of Natural Plant Derived Antioxidants in Animal Reproduction,” Journal of Integrative Agriculture, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1826–1838, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mustafa Mohammadi, Rana Ghaznavi, Rana Keyhanmanesh, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Roya Naderi, and Hossein Mohammadi, “Voluntary Exercise Prevents Lead-Induced Elevation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Markers in Male Rat Blood,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, pp. 1–5, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robin A. Bernhoft, “Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, pp. 1–7, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saeed Tariq, Mohamed A. Fahim, and Ernest Adeghate, “Vitamin E modifies the ultrastructure of testis and epididymis in mice exposed to lead intoxication,” Annals Of Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 272–277, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Samta Sharma, Sadhana Shrivastava, and Sangeeta Shukla, “Reversal of lead-induced toxicity due to the effect of antioxidants,” Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 177–187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • N. Pant, G. Kumar, A. D. Upadhyay, Y. K. Gupta, and P. K. Chaturvedi, “Correlation between lead and cadmium concentration and semen quality,” Andrologia, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Manoj Kumar Velaga, Charan Kumar Basuri, Kendra S. Robinson Taylor, Prabhakara Rao Yallapragada, Sharada Rajanna, and Bettaiya Rajanna, “Ameliorative effects of Bacopa monniera on lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain,” Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 357–364, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shakila Tobwala, Hsiu-Jen Wang, Joshua Carey, William Banks, and Nuran Ercal, “Effects of Lead and Cadmium on Brain Endothelial Cell Survival, Monolayer Permeability, and Crucial Oxidative Stress Markers in an in Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier,” Toxics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 258–275, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Justin A. Colacino, Anna E. Arthur, Kelly K. Ferguson, and Laura S. Rozek, “Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress,” Environmental Research, vol. 131, pp. 6–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Temidayo O. Omobowale, Ademola A. Oyagbemi, Akinleye S. Akinrinde, Adebowale B. Saba, Oluwabusola T. Daramola, Blessing S. Ogunpolu, and James O. Olopade, “Failure of recovery from lead induced hepatoxicity and disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defence system in Wistar rats,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1202–1211, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ferbal Ozkan-Yilmaz, Arzu Ozluer-Hunt, Suna Gul Gunduz, Mehmet Berkoz, and Serap Yalin, “Effects of dietary selenium of organic form against lead toxicity on the antioxidant system in Cyprinus carpio,” Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 355–363, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Esther Garcia-Esquinas, Marina Pollan, Maria Tellez-Plaza, Kevin A. Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Eliseo Guallar, Jason G. Umans, Jeunliang Yeh, Lyle G. Best, and Ana Navas-Acien, “Cadmium Exposure and Cancer Mortality in a Prospective Cohort: The Strong Heart Study,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 363–370, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wylly Ramsés García-Niño, and José Pedraza-Chaverrí, “Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • V. Kumar, V. K. Tripathi, S. Jahan, M. Agrawal, A. Pandey, V. K. Khanna, and A. B. Pant, “Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells—PC12,” Molecular Neurobiology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rania Abdel Rahman Elgawish, and Heba M.A. Abdelrazek, “Effects of lead acetate on testicular function and caspase–3 expression with respect to the protective effect of cinnamon in albino rats,” Toxicology Reports, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bruno Nunes, Ricardo Campinho Capela, Tânia Sérgio, Carina Caldeira, Fernando Gonçalves, and Alberto Teodorico Correia, “Effects of chronic exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium on biomarkers of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mustafa Mohammadi, Rana Ghaznavi, Rana Keyhanmanesh, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Roya Naderi, and Hossein Mohammadi, “Caloric Restriction Prevents Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rat Liver,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, pp. 1–5, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amro Ali El-Tohami, and Ehab Kamal Ali, “Effect of vitamin e supplementation on testicular tissues of mice exposed to sub-chronic lead intoxication,” Trends in Medical Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 33–43, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Vinodini Nithyananda Madom Anantharaya, Rashmi Kaup Shiva, Nayanatara Arun Kumar, Sneha Bhoja Shetty, Suman Veerappa Budihal, Mangalore Ramesh Bhat, and Kunal, “Pre and post-Treatment effects: Estimation of serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation levels on Moringa olifera extract induced cadmium exposed rats,” Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 846–849, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohamed F. El-Sayed, Sary Kh. Abdel-Ghafar, Mohamed A. Adly, Amin Abdo Salim, and Walaa M. Abdel-Samei, “The ameliorative effects of DMSA and some vitamins against toxicity induced by lead in the testes of albino rats. II,” The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology, vol. 71, pp. 60–65, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abeer M. Abdel Aziz, Sameera Sh Hamed, and Mohammad A. Gaballah, “Possible relationship between chronic telogen effluvium and changes in lead, cadmium, zinc, and iron total blood levels in females: A case-control study,” International Journal of Trichology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 100–106, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pramod Kumar Singh, Rajendra Nath, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Akash Rawat, Suresh Babu, and Rakesh Kumar Dixit, “Attenuation of lead neurotoxicity by supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in Wistar rats,” Nutritional Neuroscience, pp. 1–10, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adrian L. Lopresti, “Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ADHD: possible causes and the potential of antioxidant-targeted therapies,” ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Manju Bhargavi Gumpu, Swaminathan Sethuraman, Uma Maheswari Krishnan, and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan, “A Review on Detection of Heavy Metal Ions In Water – An Electrochemical Approach,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Aida I. El Makawy, Ihab S. Ashoush, and Omaima M. Abd-Elmoneim, “Evaluation of mango byproduct extracts as antioxidant against Pb-acetate-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in mice,” Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chiara Frazzoli, Beatrice Bocca, and Alberto Mantovani, “The One Health Perspective in Trace Elements Biomonitoring,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, vol. 18, no. 7-8, pp. 344–370, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mayada R. Farag, R. M. Abd EL-Aziz, H. A. Ali, and Sahar A. Ahmed, “Evaluating the ameliorative efficacy of Spirulina platensis on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cadmium-intoxicated rats,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • E. Marettov, M. Maretta, and J. Legáth, “Toxic effects of cadmium on testis of birds and mammals: A review,” Animal Reproduction Science, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shaista Chaudhary, Sidra Iram, Sheikh Raisuddin, and Suhel Parvez, “Manganese pre-treatment attenuates cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 29, pp. 284–288, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fatma Gokce Apaydin, Suna Kalender, Hatice Bas, Filiz Demir, and Yusuf Kalender, “Lead Nitrate Induced Testicular Toxicity in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats: Protective Role of Sodium Selenite,” Brazilian Archives Of Biology And Technology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, and Natalia Pawlas, “Heavy metals in the cell nucleus - Role in pathogenesis,” Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Norah Basopo, and Thamsanqa Ngabaza, “Pollutants, Snails, Oxidative-Stress, Organophosphates, Metals,” Advances in Biological Chemistry, vol. 05, no. 06, pp. 225–233, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jurgita Sulinskiene, Dale Baranauskiene, Rima Naginiene, and Leonid Lvanov, “Protective effect of zinc ions against lead and nickel induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in mice liver,” Trace Elements And Electrolytes, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hesham Noaman Mustafa, “Potential alleviation of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale on lead-induced testicular toxicity: An ultrastructural study,” Folia Biologica (Poland), vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 269–278, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marco E. M. Peluso, Armelle Munnia, Roger W. Giese, Dolores Catelan, Stefano Rocca, Serafina Farigu, Antonio Leoni, Marco Bruzzone, Marcello Ceppi, and Annibale Biggeri, “Exocyclic DNA adducts in sheep with skeletal fluorosis resident in the proximity of the Portoscuso-Portovesme industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy,” Toxicol. Res., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 986–993, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rausan Zamir, Anowar Hosen, M. Obayed Ullah, and Nilufar Nahar, “Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminant of Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations Formulated in Bangladesh,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, pp. 1–9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jintana Sirivarasai, Sukhumpun Kaojarern, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Pachara Panpunuan, Krittaya Petchpoung, Aninthita Tatsaneeyapant, Krongtong Yoovathaworn, Thunyachai Sura, Sming Kaojarern, and Piyamit Sritara, “Environmental Lead Exposure, Catalase Gene, and Markers of Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress Relation to Hypertension: An Analysis Based on the EGAT Study,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, pp. 1–9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wentao Xu, and Wentao Xu, “Identification and Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution Using Nucleic Acid-Mediated Technologies,” Functional Nucleic Acids Detection in Food Safety, pp. 383–416, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bilal Sula, Engin Deveci, Hüseyin Özevren, Cenap Ekinci, and Bilal Elbey, “Immunohistochemical and histopathological changes in the skin of rats after administration of lead acetate,” International Journal of Morphology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 918–922, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Faiza Rao, Yiwen Zhai, and Fei Sun, “Punicalagin Mollifies Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Imbalance in Male Reproductive System,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1269, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Janka Vaškova, Klara Krempaska, and Ladislav Vaško, “Humic acids as therapeutic compounds in lead intoxication,” Current Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 159–167, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Motunrayo Ganiyat Akande, Muftau Shittu, Chidiebere Uchendu, and Lukuman Surakat Yaqub, “Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead,” Veterinary Research Communications, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shahdat Hossain, Sujan Bhoumick, Sabrin Jahan, Liza Rozario, Marzan Sarkar, Saiful Islam, Mafroz Ahmed Basunia, Azizur Rahman, Bazlul Karim Choudhury, and Hussain Shahjalal, “Maternal Lead exposure decreases the levels of brain development and cognition- related proteins with concomitant upsurges of oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis in the offspring rats,” NeuroToxicology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giovana M. Ourique, Etiane M.H. Saccol, Tanise S. Pês, Werner G. Glanzner, Sun Hee Schiefelbein, Viviane M. Woehl, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Maria A. Pavanato, Paulo B.D. Gonçalves, and Kátia P. Barreto, “Protective effect of vitamin E on sperm motility and oxidative stress in valproic acid treated rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hamid Sepehri, and Farzaneh Ganji, “The protective role of ascorbic acid on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of maternal lead exposure,” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 74, pp. 5–10, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Emanuela Medda, Anna Minoprio, Lorenza Nisticò, Beatrice Bocca, Valeria Simonelli, Mariarosaria D’Errico, Angelo Calcagnile, Alessandro Giuliani, Virgilia Toccaceli, Luisa Minghetti, Alessandro Alimonti, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Filomena Mazzei, and Eugenia Dogliotti, “The response to oxidative stress and metallomics analysis in a twin study: the role of the environment,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Oluwatobi T. Somade, Samuel K. Olorode, Tunde O. Olaniyan, Opeyemi Faokunla, and Tsai-Ching Hsu, “Quercetin, a polyphenolic phytochemical prevents sodium azide-induced extra-hepatic oxidative stress in rats,” Cogent Biology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1200798, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Mohd Noor Mohd Hezmee, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Yusof Sabri, and Mohd Ali Rajion, “The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health,” Veterinary World, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 660–671, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Okoro Roseline, M Dumevi Rexford, Twumasi Peter, A Tandoh Marina, A Borbi Makafui, R Ajoke Adigun, and Owusu Tenkorang Emmanuel, “Assessment of the levels of cadmium and lead in soil and vegetable samples from selected dumpsites in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 1608–1616, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M. Habibian, S. J. Moosavi, and P. Farzanegi, “Regular Exercise Combined With Curcumin Supplementation: Protective Effects against Lead-Induced Cerebellar Oxidative Damage in an Animal Model,” Neurophysiology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ruma Raghuvanshi, Archana Chaudhari, and G. Nareshkumar, “Amelioration of Cadmium and Mercury induced Liver and Kidney damage in rats by genetically engineered probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 producing pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) with oral supplementation of citric acid,” Nutrition, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Natalia Pawlas, Anna Płachetka, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Agnieszka Mikołajczyk, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Michał Dobrakowski, and Sławomir Kasperczyk, “Telomere length, telomerase expression, and oxidative stress in lead smelters,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1961–1970, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dilara Ozkan, Melih Dagdeviren, Selma Katalay, Adem Guner, and N. Ülkü Karabay Yavaşoğlu, “Multi-Biomarker Responses After Exposure to Pollution in the Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) in the Aegean Coast of Turkey,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Mohammed Noor Mohd Hezmee, Yusuf Abba, Md Sabri Md Yusof, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohamed Ali Rajion, and Mashaan Abbas Al-Zuhairy, “Prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa against lead acetate induced changes in spermiogram, reproductive hormones and gonadal histology of rats,” Veterinary World, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1305–1311, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wentao Xupp. 1–473, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Habiba M. Musa, Sunday Amos Onikanni, and Abiodun Ayodele Ojo, “Ameliorative potential of Aframomum melegueta extract in cadmium-induced hepatic damage and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 94–99, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ashita Sharma, Mandeep Kaur, Jatinder Kaur Katnoria, and Avinash Kaur Nagpal, “Heavy Metal Pollution:,” Toxicity and Waste Management Using Bioremediation, pp. 1–26, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hatice Bas, and Suna Kalender, “Antioxidant Status, Lipid Peroxidation and Testis-histoarchitecture Induced by Lead Nitrate and Mercury Chloride in Male Rats,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 59, no. 0, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Imon Rahman, Ridwan Islam, Saquiba Yesmine, and Sauda Binte Sunjida, “Assessing the quality of household and drinking water in tongi industrial zone of Bangladesh and its toxicological impact on healthy sprague dawley rats,” Journal of Applied Pharmacy, vol. 8, no. 3, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nouf Abdulkareem Omer Alkharashi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, and Ali A. Alshatwi, “Sulforaphane mitigates cadmium-induced toxicity pattern in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohammad Mohajeri, Mehdi Rezaee, and Amirhossein Sahebkar, “Cadmium-induced toxicity is rescued by curcumin: A review,” BioFactors, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hyun Soo Kim, Sang Min Lee, Yeo Jin Kim, Wonhee Jang, and Young Rok Seo, “Integrative toxicogenomic analysis for elucidating molecular interference on DNA integrity and repair system with underlying signaling networks in response to low-level lead acetate in rat liver model,” Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 179–188, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jose Macias-Barragan, Selene G. Huerta-Olvera, Ivan Hernandez-Cañaveral, Ana Laura Pereira-Suarez, and Margarita Montoya-Buelna, “Cadmium and α-lipoic acid activate similar de novo synthesis and recycling pathways for glutathione balance,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pritha Das, and Sudipta Pal, “Lead (Pb), a threat to protein metabolic efficacy of liver, kidney and muscle in mice,” Comparative Clinical Pathology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohamed El-Boshy, Ahmad Ashshi, Mazen Gaith, Naeem Qusty, Thalat Bokhary, Nagwa AlTaweel, and Mohamed Abdelhady, “Studies on the protective effect of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against cadmium toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, and immunosuppressive and hematological disorders in rats,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea E. Cassidy-Bushrow, Alexandra R. Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Sung Kyun Park, Lawrence F. Bielak, Christine Austin, Christine Cole Johnson, and Manish Arora, “Burden of higher lead exposure in African-Americans starts in utero and persists into childhood,” Environment International, vol. 108, pp. 221–227, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hejing Hu, Yannan Zhang, Yanfeng Shi, Lin Feng, Junchao Duan, and Zhiwei Sun, “Microarray-based bioinformatics analysis of the combined effects of SiNPs and PbAc on cardiovascular system in zebrafish,” Chemosphere, vol. 184, pp. 1298–1309, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Victor U. Nna, Godwin A. Ujah, Mahaneem Mohamed, Kingsley B. Etim, Benedict O. Igba, Ele R. Augustine, and Eme E. Osim, “Cadmium chloride–induced testicular toxicity in male wistar rats; prophylactic effect of quercetin, and assessment of testicular recovery following cadmium chloride withdrawal,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 94, pp. 109–123, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mariagrazia Rinaldi, Herbert Marini, Domenico Puzzolo, Vincenzo Trichilo, Francesco Squadrito, Letteria Minutoli, Antonio Micali, Elena Bianca Adamo, Antonina Pisani, and Domenica Altavilla, “Cadmium, organ toxicity and therapeutic approaches: A review on brain, kidney and testis damage,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 24, no. 35, pp. 3879–3893, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Suping Xing, Zongpeng Li, and Fenghua Zhang, “Antagonistic effects of lycopene on cadmium-induced hippocampal dysfunctions in autophagy, calcium homeostatis and redox,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 27, pp. 44720–44731, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Peter Massanyi, Nikola Knizatova, Martin Massanyi, Lubomir Pavlik, and Robert Stawarz, “Biogenic and Risk Elements in Reproductive Organs of Female Cats and Dogs,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 107–110, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Odamesan Akpere, Anietie Archibong Ansa, and James Atekha Imasuen, “Semen traits, testicular morphometry and histopathology of cadmium-exposed rabbit bucks administered methanolic extract of phoenix dactylifera fruit,” Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 207–215, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Okwu, Ene, Ujowundu, Achilike, Nwaogu, and Iheme, “Lead-induced oxidative stress and chemoprotective role of dietary supplements on Wistar albino rats,” Annual Research and Review in Biology, vol. 13, no. 6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ankit Nariya, Alpesh Patel, Ambar Pathan, Naumita Shah, Shiva Chettiar, and Devendrasinh Jhala, “Cadmium induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes culture and its amelioration by vitamin C,” Annual Research and Review in Biology, vol. 20, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Aleksandra Buha, David Wallace, Vesna Matovic, Amie Schweitzer, Branislav Oluic, Dusan Micic, and Vladimir Djordjevic, “Cadmium Exposure as a Putative Risk Factor for the Development of Pancreatic Cancer: Three Different Lines of Evidence,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, pp. 1–8, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nitika Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Vivek Kumar Gupta, and Bechan Sharma, “Biochemical and Molecular Bases of Lead-Induced Toxicity in Mammalian Systems and Possible Mitigations,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Neha Verma, Anita Yadav, Surbhi Bal, Ranjan Gupta, and Neeraj Aggarwal, “In Vitro Studies on Ameliorative Effects of Limonene on Cadmium-Induced Genotoxicity in Cultured Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xijuan Tan, Zhuming Wang, and Zhenliang Wang, “A Facile Acidic Digestion Method for Cosmetic Lead and Cadmium Determination by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Haeyeon Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Pyoung-Joong Kim, Eun-Ji Won, and Young-Mi Lee, “Response of antioxidant enzymes to Cd and Pb exposure in water flea Daphnia magna : Differential metal and age — Specific patterns,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol. 209, pp. 28–36, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Asım Hocaoğlu, Fatma Yülek, Utku Serkant, Şaban Şimsek, Elif Damar Güngör, and Yasin Toklu, “Blood lead and cadmium in age related macular degeneration in a Turkish urban population,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 48, pp. 16–19, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paula Kostecka-Sochoń, Barbara M. Onopiuk, and Ewa Dąbrowska, “Protective Effect of Increased Zinc Supply against Oxidative Damage of Sublingual Gland in Chronic Exposure to Cadmium: Experimental Study on Rats,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2018, pp. 1–8, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. Abdelkrim, S. H. Jebara, O. Saadani, and M. Jebara, “ Potential of efficient and resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in lead uptake and plant defence stimulation in Lathyrus sativus under lead stress ,” Plant Biology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cristina Monteiro, José Miguel P. Ferreira de Oliveira, Francisco Pinho, Verónica Bastos, Helena Oliveira, Francisco Peixoto, and Conceição Santos, “Biochemical and transcriptional analyses of cadmium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in human osteoblasts,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, pp. 1–13, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M Alagawany, M E Abd El-Hack, M R Farag, S S Elnesr, M S El-Kholy, I M Saadeldin, and A A Swelum, “Dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract enhances productive and reproductive performances, blood profile, immune function, and antioxidant status in laying Japanese quails exposed to lead in the diet,” Poultry Science, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mehmet Bulduk, Gökhan Oto, Ali Cinar, Serkan Yildirim, Fatih Caglar Celikezen, Emin Sengul, and Tasdemir, “An Investigation of Protective Effects of Litium Borate on Blood and Histopathological Parameters in Acute Cadmium-Induced Rats,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 182, no. 2, pp. 287–294, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xing-Jiu Huang, Xing Chen, Meng Yang, Pei-Hua Li, Jian Wang, Jian-Hua Sun, and Xing-Jiu Huang, “PTS in Aquatic Environment,” Persistent Toxic Substances Monitoring, pp. 15–46, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adriana A. Cortés-Gómez, Patricia Morcillo, Francisco A. Guardiola, Cristobal Espinosa, María A. Esteban, Alberto Cuesta, Marc Girondot, and Diego Romero, “Molecular oxidative stress markers in olive ridley turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) and their relation to metal concentrations in wild populations,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 233, pp. 156–167, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ademola C. Famurewa, Abumchukwu J. Ejezie, Chioma S. Ugwu-Ejezie, Ebele J. Ikekpeazu, and Fidelis E. Ejezie, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced oxidative stress-mediated nephrotoxicity and inflammation in rats,” Journal of Applied Biomedicine, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, “Protective effect of tea against lead and cadmium-induced oxidative stress—a review,” BioMetals, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Palas Samanta, Hyungjoon Im, Joorim Na, and Jinho Jung, “Integrated Biomarker Responses in Livers of the Pale Chub Zacco platypus for Risk Assessment of a Stream Contaminated by Wastewater Effluents,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yahya AL Naggar, Khaled Dabour, Saad Masry, Ahmed Sadek, Elsaied Naiem, and John P. Giesy, “Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to CdO or PbO nanoparticles or their binary mixture on the honey bee (Apis millefera L.),” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Xiaojun Niu, Ailing Dong, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, and Lan Wang, “Effects of cadmium on oxidative stress activities in plasma of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Azubuike Peter Ebokaiwe, Omaka Ndukaku Omaka, Uchechukwu Okorie, Obinna Oje, Chima Egedeigwe, Amobi Ekwe, and Nnaemeka Joshua Nnaji, “Assessment of heavy metals around Abakaliki metropolis and potential bioaccumulation and biochemical effects on the liver, kidney, and erythrocyte of rats,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, pp. 1–23, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ambar Pathan, Alpesh Patel, Divya Chandel, Ankit Nariya, Naumita Shah, Shiva Chettiar, Jignasha Dattani, Mandava Rao, and Devendrasinh Jhala, “Ameliorative effects of curcumin against lead induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes culture,” Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adrian J. Green, and Antonio Planchart, “The neurological toxicity of heavy metals: A fish perspective,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar