Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2012, Article ID 708216, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/708216
Review Article

Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype-1: A Review of Disease Distribution, Clinical Symptoms, and Laboratory Diagnostics

1National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
2College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, VMRI Building 3, Ames, IA 50011, USA

Received 17 November 2011; Revised 3 January 2012; Accepted 4 January 2012

Academic Editor: Suresh Tikoo

Copyright © 2012 Nichole L. Hines and Cathy L. Miller. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is capable of infecting a wide range of avian species leading to a broad range of clinical symptoms. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending on the virus strain and host species. Classification systems have been designed to group isolates based on their genetic composition. The genetic composition of the fusion gene cleavage site plays an important role in virulence. Presence of multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site allows enzymatic cleavage of the fusion protein enabling virulent viruses to spread systemically. Diagnostic tests, including virus isolation, real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and sequencing, are used to characterize the virus and identify virulent strains. Genetic diversity within APMV-1 demonstrates the need for continual monitoring for changes that may arise requiring modifications to the molecular assays to maintain their usefulness for diagnostic testing.