Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2014, Article ID 434239, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/434239
Research Article

Antioxidant Potential of the Polyherbal Formulation “ImmuPlus”: A Nutritional Supplement for Horses

1Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
2Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura-Unità di Ricerca per la Zootecnia Estensiva, 85054 Muro Lucano, Italy

Received 13 January 2014; Revised 15 April 2014; Accepted 15 April 2014; Published 4 May 2014

Academic Editor: Kazim Sahin

Copyright © 2014 Stefano Cecchini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. N. Ames, M. K. Shigenaga, and T. M. Hagen, “Mitochondrial decay in aging,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1271, no. 1, pp. 165–170, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Lykkesfeldt and O. Svendsen, “Oxidants and antioxidants in disease: oxidative stress in farm animals,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 173, no. 3, pp. 502–511, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Knight, “Review: free radicals, antioxidants, and the immune system,” Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 145–158, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Bendich, “Physiological role of antioxidants in the immune system,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 2789–2794, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. De la Fuente, “Effects of antioxidants on immune system ageing,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, supplement 3, pp. S5–S8, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  6. H. Sies, “Biochemistry of oxidative stress,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 25, pp. 1058–1071, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  7. H. Bean, C. Schuler, R. E. Leggett, and R. M. Levin, “Antioxidant levels of common fruits, vegetables, and juices versus protective activity against in vitro ischemia/reperfusion,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 409–415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant and pro-oxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 22, pp. 749–760, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  9. C. Soffler, “Oxidative stress,” Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 135–157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Kirschvink, B. D. Moffarts, and P. Lekeux, “The oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in horses,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 177, no. 2, pp. 178–191, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Kirschvink, T. Art, B. de Moffarts et al., “Relationship between markers of blood oxidant status and physiological variables in healthy and heaves-affected horses after exercise,” Equine Veterinary Journal, no. 34, pp. 159–164, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. de Moffarts, N. Kinchvink, T. Art et al., “Impact of training and exercise on intensity on blood antioxidant markers in healthy Standardbred horses,” Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology, vol. 3, pp. 211–220, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  13. C. A. Williams, D. S. Kronfeld, T. M. Hess et al., “Comparison of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in endurance horses in three 80 km races,” Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology, vol. 2, pp. 153–157, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  14. P. J. Robson, T. D. Alston, and K. H. Myburgh, “Prolonged suppression of the innate immune system in the horse following an 80 km endurance race,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 133–137, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. H. Burrell, J. L. N. Wood, K. E. Whitwell, N. Chanter, M. E. Mackintosh, and J. A. Mumford, “Respiratory disease in thoroughbred horses in training: the relationships between disease and viruses, bacteria and environment,” Veterinary Record, vol. 139, no. 13, pp. 308–313, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Piccione, C. Giannetto, S. Marafioti, C. Faggio, D. Alberghina, and F. Fazio, “Training-induced modifications of circadian rhythmicity of peroxidative parameters in horses,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol. 96, pp. 978–984, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Hancke, R. Burgos, D. Cáceres, F. Brunetti, A. Durigon, and G. Wikman, “Reduction of serum hepatic transaminases and CPK in sport horses with poor performance treated with a standardized Schizandra chinensis fruit extract,” Phytomedicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 237–240, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. O'Neill, S. McKee, and A. F. Clarke, “Immunological and haematinic consequences of feeding a standardised Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract to healthy horses,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 222–227, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. A. Williams and E. D. Lamprecht, “Some commonly fed herbs and other functional foods in equine nutrition: a review,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 21–31, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. P. A. Devasagayam and K. B. Sainis, “Immune system and antioxidants, especially those derived from Indian medicinal plants,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 639–655, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. F. F. Benzie and J. J. Strain, “The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 239, no. 1, pp. 70–76, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Oyaizu, “Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine,” The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 44, pp. 307–315, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. S. Blois, “Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical,” Nature, vol. 181, no. 4617, pp. 1199–1200, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. ISO, “Determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea—part 1: content of total polyphenols in tea—colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent,” ISO 14502-1, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. Zhishen, T. Mengcheng, and W. Jianming, “The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals,” Food Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 555–559, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Sies, W. Stahl, and A. Sevanian, “Nutritional, dietary and postprandial oxidative stress,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 969–972, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Scartezzini and E. Speroni, “Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 23–43, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. N. Smarsh, N. Liburt, J. Streltsova, K. McKeever, and C. A. Williams, “Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in intensely exercising horses administered nutraceutical extracts,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 42, supplement 38, pp. 317–322, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. R. Desai, J. P. Kamat, and K. B. Sainis, “An immunomodulator from tinospora cordifolia with antioxidant activity in cell-free systems,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Chemical Sciences, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 713–719, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. Shukla, M. Vashistha, and S. N. Singh, “Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheat grass,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. N. Rege, U. M. Thatte, and S. A. Dahanukar, “Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 13, pp. 275–229, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Ghosal, V. K. Tripathi, and S. Chauhan, “Active constituents of Emblica officinalis: part 1-the chemistry and antioxidative effects of two new hydrolysable tannins, Emblicanin A and B,” Indian Journal of Chemistry B: Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 941–948, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Alam, M. Hossain, M. I. Khalil, M. Moniruzzaman, S. A. Sulaiman, and S. H. Gan, “High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 11, article 65, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Premanath and N. Lakshmidevi, “Studies on Anti-oxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Miers.) leaves using in vitro models,” Journal of American Science, vol. 6, pp. 736–743, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  35. J.-W. Li, S.-D. Ding, and X.-L. Ding, “Comparison of antioxidant capacities of extracts from five cultivars of Chinese jujube,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 3607–3613, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Y. Qusti, A. N. Abo-khatwa, and M. A. Bin Lahwa, “Screening of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected food items cited in the Holly Quran,” EJBS, vol. 2, pp. 40–51, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  37. J.-H. Yang, H.-C. Lin, and J.-L. Mau, “Antioxidant properties of several commercial mushrooms,” Food Chemistry, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 229–235, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G.-C. Yen and H.-Y. Chen, “Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus