Veterinary Medicine International The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Brucellosis among Indigenous Cattle in the Adamawa and North Regions of Cameroon Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted on cattle in the North and Adamawa Regions of Cameroon to investigate the status of bovine brucellosis and identify potential risk factors. The diagnosis was carried out using the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA), while questionnaires were used to evaluate risk factors for bovine brucellosis in cattle. The Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic tests’ sensitivity and specificity. The overall individual level () and herd level () seroprevalence were 5.4% (0.4–10.5) and 25.6% (16.2–35.0), respectively. Bayesian analysis revealed sensitivity of 58.3% (26.4–92.7) and 89.6% (80.4–99.4) and specificity of 92.1% (88.7–95.2) and 95.7% (91.1–99.7) for RBPT and i-ELISA, respectively. Management related factors such as region, locality, herd size, and knowledge of brucellosis and animal related factors such as sex and age were significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis. Zoonotic brucellosis is a neglected disease in Cameroon. The study highlights the need for control measures and the need to raise public awareness of the zoonotic occurrence and transmission of bovine brucellosis in the country. An integrated disease control strategy mimicking the one health approach involving medical personnel, veterinarians, related stakeholders, and affected communities cannot be overemphasized. J. Awah-Ndukum, M. M. M. Mouiche, H. N. Bayang, V. Ngu Ngwa, E. Assana, K. J. M. Feussom, T. K. Manchang, and P. A. Zoli Copyright © 2018 J. Awah-Ndukum et al. All rights reserved. Serological Investigation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in East Shewa and Arsi Zones, Oromia Region, Ethiopia Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is an economically important disease of small ruminants with a rapidly expanding geographical distribution. There are fragmented reports to the occurrence and distribution of the disease in Ethiopia. A total of 700 serum samples were collected from goats and sheep to detect the presence of antibody against PPR virus using Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (C-ELISA). An overall PPR seropositivity was reported to be 48.43% in the area. There is no statistically significant difference in the seroprevalence of the disease between sheep and goats (50.85% and 46.68%), respectively. However, there was statistically significant variation in the seroprevalence of the disease in young (33.9%) and adult (55.8%) age categories. The seroprevalence in male and female was 42.07% and 50.09%, respectively, where the variation was statistically not significant . High seroprevalence of Peste des petites ruminants in the study area indicated the virus circulation and endemicity of the disease. The disease causes substantial economic losses by affecting the livelihood of the farmers. Therefore, control measures should be put in place to minimize the loss associated with the disease. Getachew Gari, Biressaw Serda, Dejene Negesa, Fethu Lemma, and Hagos Asgedom Copyright © 2017 Getachew Gari et al. All rights reserved. Leptospira Seroprevalence in Domestic Dogs and Cats on the Caribbean Island of Saint Kitts Mon, 27 Nov 2017 09:09:31 +0000 Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease that affects humans and many animal species. Knowledge of prevalence of Leptospira in a given geographic region supports the implementation of effective control/prevention programmes and thus reduces the transmission risks. This study provides Leptospira seroprevalence and serovar distribution in dogs and cats on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Convenient serum samples from domestic dogs () and cats () were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using 21 Leptospira serovars belonging to 17 serogroups. Seroprevalence was recorded at 73.2% in dogs (95% confidence interval CI: 62.5–80.1%). Agglutinating antibodies to Leptospira were present against 13 of the 21 serovars tested by MAT. The highest seroprevalence was observed for serovar Autumnalis (56.4%) followed by Icterohaemorrhagiae (27.7%), Canicola (17.8%), Djasiman (14.9%), Bratislava (11.9%), Pyrogenes (11.9%), and Pomona (7.9%). A very low seroprevalence (4%, 95% CI: 0.5–14%) was observed in cats. This data confirms that dogs in Saint Kitts have a high-level exposure to a diverse set of Leptospira serovars. Nicola Pratt, Anne Conan, and Sreekumari Rajeev Copyright © 2017 Nicola Pratt et al. All rights reserved. Study of a Two-Step Centrifugation Protocol for Concentrating Cells and Growth Factors in Bovine Platelet-Rich Plasma Mon, 30 Oct 2017 08:36:03 +0000 There is a lack of information about the methods used for bovine platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/platelet-rich gel (PRG) procurement, including information on platelet (PLT), white blood cell (WBC) in PRP, and growth factor release from PRG supernatants. The aims of this study were to compare and to correlate the PLT, WBC, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-), and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) concentrations in bovine whole blood, plasma, and four PRP layers and their respective PRG supernatants: A and B (obtained by a single centrifugation tube method at 720/5 min) and C and D (obtained by a double centrifugation tube method, by using two centrifugation episodes at 720/5 min). PLT and WBC counts were significantly higher in PRP-C, followed by whole blood, PRP-A, PRP-B, and PRP-D. TGF- concentrations were significantly higher in PRG-B supernatants and its correspondent PRP-B lysate when compared to the other PRG supernatants and plasma. Supernatants from PRG-A, PRG-B, and PRG-D had equivalent TGF- concentrations. PDGF-BB concentrations were not statistically different between the hemoderivatives. Significant Pearson correlations were noted between PLT counts and WBC counts (0.8) and between PLT counts and PLT distribution width (0.6). Further studies should be performed to assess the potential clinical applications of these PRPs. Claudia M. Gutiérrez, Catalina López, Carlos E. Giraldo, and Jorge U. Carmona Copyright © 2017 Claudia M. Gutiérrez et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigen 1 in 7,414 Dogs in Italy Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The study aim was to establish the prevalence of DEA 1, the most immunogenic and clinically important blood group in canine blood transfusion, in 7,414 dogs from Italy. The potential sensitization risk following a first transfusion and the acute reaction risk following a second transfusion given without a cross-matching and blood typing test were also calculated. Dogs tested were purebred (4,798) and mongrel (2,616); 38.8% were DEA 1 negative and 61.2% were DEA 1 positive. High prevalence for DEA 1 positive blood type was found in Ariegeois and English Setter, whereas German Shepherd and Boxer had higher DEA 1 negative blood type. Breeds with blood type never reported before included French Brittany Spaniel and Pug showing a high prevalence of DEA 1 positive type, while French Bulldog and West Highland White Terrier were more often DEA 1 negative. Just 48.8% of purebred and 13.9% of mongrel dogs were considered as prospective blood donors based upon their blood type. Most of the breeds had a sensitization risk of 20.0–25.0%. Rottweiler and Ariegeois had less risk of sensitization (9.4 and 4.2%) and the minor risk of an acute transfusional reaction (0.9–0.2%). The prevalence of DEA 1 positive and negative dogs in Italy agrees with most of the data already reported in the literature. Anyela Andrea Medina Valentin, Alessandra Gavazza, and George Lubas Copyright © 2017 Anyela Andrea Medina Valentin et al. All rights reserved. Contamination Levels and Identification of Bacteria in Milk Sampled from Three Regions of Tanzania: Evidence from Literature and Laboratory Analyses Tue, 08 Aug 2017 07:26:19 +0000 Milk in Tanzania has been reported to be contaminated with large number of bacteria. This is because (1) milk is obtained from animals with unknown health status, (2) good milking and handling practices are to a large extent not observed, and (3) marketing and distribution are done in informal channels. These factors are potential causes of milk-borne diseases and milk quality loss. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional risks in milk as reported in literature over a period of 20 years and through analyses of samples collected during the present study. The issues highlighted in literature were high bacteria and coliform counts exceeding standard levels in East Africa, prevalence of bacteria and drug residues in milk, and adulteration. Based on performed analyses, total bacterial count colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/ml) and total coliform count  cfu/ml, also greater than recommended levels, were found. Ten bacteria types were isolated from milk samples (five, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, and Klebsiella spp. are reported in Tanzanian for the first time). Two drugs tetracycline and sulphur were detected. Therefore, it is worth noting that integrated research is needed to evaluate the situation and address these challenges. G. Msalya Copyright © 2017 G. Msalya. All rights reserved. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225–250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP) slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose). Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol. Evon S. Ereifej, Seth M. Meade, Cara S. Smith, Keying Chen, Nanette Kleinman, and Jeffrey R. Capadona Copyright © 2017 Evon S. Ereifej et al. All rights reserved. Proinflammatory and Anabolic Gene Expression Effects of Platelet-Rich Gel Supernatants on Equine Synovial Membrane Explants Challenged with Lipopolysaccharide Thu, 06 Jul 2017 08:09:45 +0000 Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations are used in horses with osteoarthritis (OA). However, some controversies remain regarding the ideal concentration of platelets and leukocytes to produce an adequate anti-inflammatory and anabolic response in the synovial membrane. The aims of this study were to study the influence of leukoconcentrated platelet-rich gel (Lc-PRG) and leukoreduced platelet-rich gel (Lr-PRG) supernatants on the quantitative expression of some proinflammatory and anabolic genes in equine synovial membrane explants (SMEs) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SMEs from six horses were cultured over 96 h. Then, SMEs were harvested for RNA extraction and quantitative gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR for nuclear factor kappa B (NFB), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 (ADAMTS-4), collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1), and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). The 25% and 50% Lc-PRG supernatants led to downregulation of NFB, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, COL1A1, COL2A1, and COMP in SMEs. Lr-PRG supernatants (particularly at the 50% concentration) induced downregulation of NFB, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and COL1A1 and upregulation of COL2A1 and COMP. Lr-PRG supernatants should be used for the treatment of inflammatory arthropathies in horses because they have anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects in the synovial membrane. Jorge U. Carmona, Diana L. Ríos, Catalina López, María E. Álvarez, and Jorge E. Pérez Copyright © 2017 Jorge U. Carmona et al. All rights reserved. Role of Personality in Behavioral Responses to New Environments in Captive Asiatic Lions (Panthera leo persica) Tue, 30 May 2017 09:36:41 +0000 Studying personality in captive animals may enable the development of individual-based management decisions, which may improve animal welfare. Asiatic lions at London Zoo represent an opportunity to research an understudied species’ response to new environments since they have experienced social and physical changes, such as new enclosures and increased social interaction with humans. This project aimed to investigate the role of personality in behavioral responses to these changes. Lion personality questionnaires completed by keepers and direct focal animal observations were used to create personality profiles. Time budgets and enclosure use were determined and compared between control nights and event nights and between the lions’ previous enclosure and their new one. The results showed a lack of difference in time budget and enclosure use between control and social event nights, and the spread of participation index values revealed that the lions use their enclosures unevenly. Personality profiles identified various traits that could assist with individual-based management decisions. As the first study to assess Asiatic lions personality, this research contributes to the creation of consistent and valid methodology for evaluating captive animal personality that may improve husbandry and welfare protocols for individual lions, leading to the improved health and success of the species. Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Anna Viau, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Daniele Vigo, Silvia Michela Mazzola, and Richard Preziosi Copyright © 2017 Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino et al. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting Herd Status for Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Northern Thailand Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The objective of this case-control study was to identify farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy cows in northern Thailand. Spatial analysis was performed to identify geographical clustering of case-farms located in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces in northern Thailand. To identify management factors affecting bTB status, a matched case-control study was conducted with 20 case-farms and 38 control-farms. Case-farms were dairy farms with at least single intradermal tuberculin test- (SIT-) reactor(s) in the farms during 2011 to 2015. Control-farms were dairy farms with no SIT-reactors in the same period and located within 5 km from case-farms. Questionnaires were administered for data collection with questions based on epidemiological plausibility and characteristics of the local livestock industry. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. A significant geographic cluster was identified only in Chiang Mai province (). The risk factor associated with presence of SIT-reactors in dairy herds located in this region was purchasing dairy cows from dealers (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.66–20.58, and ). From this study, it was concluded that geographic clustering was identified for dairy farms with SIT-reactors in these provinces, and the cattle movements through cattle dealers increased the risks for SIT-reactor farm status. Tawatchai Singhla, Sukolrat Boonyayatra, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Kimberly L. VanderWaal, Julio Alvarez, Srinand Sreevatsan, Somphorn Phornwisetsirikun, Jamnong Sankwan, Mongkol Srijun, and Scott J. Wells Copyright © 2017 Tawatchai Singhla et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Acepromazine Alone or in Combination with Methadone, Morphine, or Tramadol on Sedation and Selected Cardiopulmonary Variables in Sheep Wed, 05 Apr 2017 07:43:55 +0000 The sedative and selected cardiopulmonary effects of acepromazine alone or in combination with methadone, morphine, or tramadol were compared in sheep. Six ewes were randomly assigned to treatments: A (0.05 mg/kg acepromazine), AM (A plus 0.5 mg/kg methadone), AMO (A plus 0.5 mg/kg morphine), and AT (A plus 5 mg/kg tramadol). Parameters were assessed before sedative drug administration (baseline) and every 15 minutes thereafter, for two hours. Treatments A and AM were associated with increases in sedation score for 60 minutes and treatments AMO and AT for 30 minutes; however, there were no significant differences between treatments. There was a decrease in mean arterial pressure compared to baseline values in treatment A at 15, 45, 60, and 90 minutes, in treatment AM at 15 minutes, and in treatment AT from 45 to 120 minutes. Arterial blood carbon dioxide pressure increased at all time points in all treatments. Arterial oxygen pressure decreased in treatment AMO at 15, 30, and 120 minutes and in treatment AT at 15–45, 105, and 120 minutes, compared to baseline. Acepromazine alone causes a level of sedation similar to that observed when it is coadministered with opioids methadone, morphine, and tramadol. These combinations did not cause clinical cardiopulmonary changes. Lilian Toshiko Nishimura, Isadora Oliveira Junqueira Villela, Leonardo Lamarca Carvalho, Luisa Pucci Bueno Borges, Marcos Augusto Machado Silva, and Ewaldo Mattos-Junior Copyright © 2017 Lilian Toshiko Nishimura et al. All rights reserved. Caprine Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cell: Multilineage Potential, Characterization, and Growth Kinetics in Breeding and Anestrous Stages Sun, 05 Mar 2017 06:39:18 +0000 The endometrial layer of the uterus contains a population of cells with similar characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, caprine endometrial mesenchymal stromal stem cells (En-MSCs) characters and differentiation potential to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic cell lines as well as their growth kinetics in breeding and anestrous stages were evaluated. En-MSCs were enzymatically isolated from endometrial layer of the uterus of adult goats and were cultured and subcultured until passage 4. The growth kinetics and population doubling time (PDT) of caprine En-MSCs in breeding and anestrous stages were determined. En-MSCs in passage 4 were used for the karyotyping and differentiation into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. The PDT in anestrus phase was 40.6 h and in cyclic goats was 53 h. En-MSCs were fibroblast-like in all passages. The number of chromosomes was normal () with no chromosomal instability. Chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation of En-MSCs was confirmed by staining with Alcian blue, Alizarin red, and Oil Red O, respectively. Caprine En-MSCs demonstrated to be an alternative source of MSCs for cell therapy purposes in regenerative medicine. Amin Tamadon, Davood Mehrabani, Younes Zarezadeh, Farhad Rahmanifar, Mehdi Dianatpour, and Shahrokh Zare Copyright © 2017 Amin Tamadon et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log10/ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log10/ml) with significant differences . The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) . The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town. Nigatu Disassa, Berhanu Sibhat, Shimelis Mengistu, Yimer Muktar, and Dinaol Belina Copyright © 2017 Nigatu Disassa et al. All rights reserved. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius) could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State) using microscopical (blood film) and molecular technique (PCR). A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males) were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities () but not between the different sexes (). PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended. Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Ahmed A. H. Kadle, and Hamisi Said Nyingilili Copyright © 2017 Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Pasteurella multocida A Lipopolysaccharide, as an Adhesin in an In Vitro Model of Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Sun, 29 Jan 2017 06:32:18 +0000 The role of the P. multocida lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a putative adhesin during the early stages of infection with this bacterium in the respiratory epithelium of rabbits was investigated. By light microscopy and double enzyme labeling of nasal septa tissues, the amount of bacteria attached to the respiratory epithelium and the amount of LPS present in goblet cells at different experimental times were estimated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and LPS labeling with colloidal gold particles were also used to determine the exact location of LPS in the cells. Septa that were challenged with LPS of P. multocida and 30 minutes later with P. multocida showed more adherent bacteria and more severe lesions than the other treatments. Free LPS was observed in the lumen of the nasal septum, forming bilamellar structures and adhering to the cilia, microvilli, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasm of epithelial ciliated and goblet cells. The above findings suggest that P. multocida LPS plays an important role in the process of bacterial adhesion and that it has the ability of being internalized into host cells. Carolina Gallego, Stefany Romero, Paula Esquinas, Pilar Patiño, Nhora Martínez, and Carlos Iregui Copyright © 2017 Carolina Gallego et al. All rights reserved. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products Thu, 26 Jan 2017 13:41:07 +0000 Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended. Paul Ssajjakambwe, Gloria Bahizi, Christopher Setumba, Stevens M. B. Kisaka, Patrick Vudriko, Collins Atuheire, John David Kabasa, and John B. Kaneene Copyright © 2017 Paul Ssajjakambwe et al. All rights reserved. Subsequent Fertility of Goats with Prenatal Mortality Diagnosed by Ultrasound and Treated by PGF2α and Oxytetracycline Mon, 02 Jan 2017 12:29:52 +0000 Thirteen Saanen and Saanen crossbred female goats, between the ages of 6 months and 7, years were presented to the clinic, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, for sonographic pregnancy diagnosis. Transabdominal ultrasound was performed using 3.5 MHz probe which revealed non-viable fetuses as judged by absence of heart beats and movements. Twelve goats were given single i/m injection of PGF2α analogue and 5% oxytetracycline. Ten goats responded to the treatment and six of them became pregnant and gave birth within the normal gestational period. One goat was diagnosed as non-pregnant, one goat developed hydrometra, and the subsequent fertility of two goats was unknown. Two full-term goats did not respond to treatment. Another dose of PGF2α was administered to them and again they did not respond. Manual attempts were done to deliver the full-term goat with dilated cervix and they were unsuccessful. Cesarean section and hysterectomy were then performed for the three full-term goats with unfavorable outcome. It can be concluded that ultrasound is a rapid, reliable, and nonhazardous procedure for the diagnosis of fetal mortality in goats and PGF2α treatment in conjunction with oxytetracycline is an efficient treatment. A. S. Aban, R. M. Abdelghafar, M. E. Badawi, and A. M. Almubarak Copyright © 2017 A. S. Aban et al. All rights reserved. Circadian Rhythm and Stress Response in Droppings of Serinus canaria Sun, 25 Dec 2016 14:15:03 +0000 Serinus canaria is a widespread domestic ornamental songbird, whose limited knowledge of biology make compelling studies aimed to monitor stress. Here, a commercial enzyme immunoassay was adopted to measure immunoreactive corticosterone (CORT) in single Serinus canaria dropping sample, to monitor the daily fecal excretion of CORT in birds bred singly or in-group and to detect the effect promoted by aviary or small transport cage restraint. A robust daily rhythm of CORT was recorded in animals held on short-day light cycle, independent of bred conditions (single or group), which persisted when space availability was modified in single bred animal (transfer in aviary and transport cages). By contrast, a significant change in CORT excretion was recorded when group bred animals are restrained in a smaller cage. The daily rhythm in CORT excretion in response to manipulation showed the greatest response at the beginning of the light period, followed by the absence of the peak usually recorded at the end of the dark phase. These data indicated that EIA could be used as a reliable noninvasive approach to monitor the stress induced by restraint conditions in Serinus canaria. Maura Turriani, Nicola Bernabò, Barbara Barboni, Gianluca Todisco, Luigi Montini, and Paolo Berardinelli Copyright © 2016 Maura Turriani et al. All rights reserved. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Sun, 25 Dec 2016 13:28:15 +0000 Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced () tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys. Tamer A. Sharafeldin, Qingshan Chen, Sunil K. Mor, Sagar M. Goyal, and Robert E. Porter Copyright © 2016 Tamer A. Sharafeldin et al. All rights reserved. Blood Pressure, Serum Glucose, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides in Dogs with Different Body Scores Mon, 12 Dec 2016 09:32:34 +0000 The objective of this research was to determine the frequency for the occurrence of MS in dogs, using the criteria determined, and to correlate the criteria of dogs that would characterize the MS with different body condition score (BCS). 271 dogs with different body scores were studied, with 101 dogs with BCS 4-5; 101 dogs with BCS 6-7; and 69 dogs with BCS 8-9. Among the dogs studied, 62 (22,87%) had two or more inclusion criteria for MS. Of these, 28 had BCS 6-7, while 34 dogs had BCS 8-9. Therefore, 27,72% of overweight dogs had inclusion criteria for MS and 49,27% of obese ones had two or more inclusion criteria for MS. When only overweight and obese dogs were considered as a total population, it was observed that 36,47% got inclusion criteria for the MS. No dog with BCS 4-5 showed two or more inclusion criteria for MS. The metabolic syndrome, according to the parameters for inclusion defined in the literature, was observed in 22,87% of the animals studied and in 36% of dogs overweight or obese. Furthermore, MS was most common in obese (49%) compared to overweight dogs (27%). Mauro José Lahm Cardoso, Rafael Fagnani, Carolina Zaghi Cavalcante, Marcelo de Souza Zanutto, Ademir Zacarias Júnior, Luciane Holsback da Silveira Fertonani, Jéssica Ragazzi Calesso, Maíra Melussi, Helena Pinheiro Costa, and Eduardo Yudi Hashizume Copyright © 2016 Mauro José Lahm Cardoso et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Needlestick Injury and Its Potential Risk among Veterinarians in Nigeria Mon, 17 Oct 2016 14:27:24 +0000 A cross sectional study using multistage sampling method by means of structured interviewer administered questionnaire was designed to estimate the rate of occurrence of needlestick injuries among veterinarians involved in clinical practice and to evaluate needle handling practices and risk factors. The study was carried out during the months of August–November 2015. Out of the 215 veterinarians that participated in the survey, 171 (79.5%) reported to have suffered needlestick injuries (NSIs). In the multivariable model, only male sex (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–6.0, and ) and working with poultry daily (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–6.2, and ) were significantly associated with NSI. Most (111, 64.9%) veterinarians had discomfort including pain, headache, fever, worry, and local numbness from NSIs; however, none was hospitalised. Only 1 (0.6%) had lost time at work. The approach to needlestick injury avoidance was poor and most (98.8%) NSIs were not reported. The findings of this research call for comprehensive health and injection safety programs for veterinarians involved in clinical practice. Philip Paul Mshelbwala, J. Scott Weese, and Jibrin Manu Idris Copyright © 2016 Philip Paul Mshelbwala et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:46:33 +0000 Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y), balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm), were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (). With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (). After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka), cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly. Silvia Mazzola, Clara Palestrini, Simona Cannas, Eleonora Fè, Gaia Lisa Bagnato, Daniele Vigo, Diane Frank, and Michela Minero Copyright © 2016 Silvia Mazzola et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd Sun, 28 Aug 2016 12:43:22 +0000 Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study () but not at study completion (). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. Thomas R. Tucker III, Sharif S. Aly, John Maas, Josh S. Davy, and Janet E. Foley Copyright © 2016 Thomas R. Tucker III et al. All rights reserved. Bayesian Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Rose Bengal, Complement Fixation, and Indirect ELISA Tests for the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Ethiopia Tue, 09 Aug 2016 14:26:37 +0000 Test evaluation in the absence of a gold standard test was conducted for the diagnosis and screening of bovine brucellosis using three commercially available tests including RBPT, CFT, and I-ELISA in National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC) Ethiopia. A total of 278 sera samples from five dairy herds were collected and tested. Each serum sample was subjected to the three tests and the results obtained were recorded and the test outcomes were cross-classified to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the tests using Bayesian model. Prior information generated on the sensitivity and specificity of bovine brucellosis from published data was used in the model. The three test-one population Bayesian model was modified and applied using WinBug software with the assumption that the dairy herds have similar management system and unknown disease status. The Bayesian posterior estimate for sensitivity was 89.6 (95% PI: 79.9–95.8), 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3–99.1), and 94 (95% PI: 87.8–97.5) and for specificity was 84.5 (95% PI: 68–94.98), 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7–98.8), and 88.5 (95% PI: 81–93.8) for RBT, I-ELISA, and CFT, respectively. In this study I-ELISA was found with the best sensitivity and specificity estimates 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3–99.1) and 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7–98.8), compared to both CFT and RBPT. T. Getachew, G. Getachew, G. Sintayehu, M. Getenet, and A. Fasil Copyright © 2016 T. Getachew et al. All rights reserved. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon Mon, 01 Aug 2016 12:18:00 +0000 Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. J. Awah-Ndukum, J. Temwa, V. Ngu Ngwa, M. M. Mouiche, D. Iyawa, and P. A. Zoli Copyright © 2016 J. Awah-Ndukum et al. All rights reserved. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico Thu, 09 Jun 2016 12:32:46 +0000 bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan’s Zoo and Mazatlán’s Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased. Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo, Martin López-Valenzuela, Nora Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Silvia Cota-Guajardo, Mayra López-Salazar, and Edith Montiel-Vázquez Copyright © 2016 Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo et al. All rights reserved. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine Sun, 22 May 2016 08:50:13 +0000 The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC) with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3) and β-2-globulins (Group 3) were found modified (). IgG values were statistically different () 6–8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2) and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3). IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1), 15.0% (Group 2), and 52.8% (Group 3). Speed Leish ™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status. Chiara Starita, Alessandra Gavazza, and George Lubas Copyright © 2016 Chiara Starita et al. All rights reserved. Serological and Molecular Evidence of Q Fever in Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh Sat, 30 Apr 2016 13:52:42 +0000 The objective of this study was to know the herd and animal level prevalence of Q fever in domestic ruminants in some selected districts in Bangladesh. Randomly collected 111 bulk milk and 94 sera samples of cattle, sheep, and goats were tested by indirect ELISA (iELISA). DNA extracted from 23 aborted fetal membranes was analyzed by real time (rt) PCR. The positive cut-off value of iELISA in bulk milk and individual animal sera was ≥30% and ≥40%, respectively. The overall herd level prevalence of Q fever in dairy cattle was 15.6%. The prevalence of Q fever in dairy cattle was significantly higher in Sirajganj in comparison to Satkhira District (). The overall seroprevalence of Q fever in domestic ruminants was 5.06%. Although statistically insignificant, the seroprevalence of Q fever was relatively higher in sheep (9.52%) in comparison to goats (3.33%) and cattle (3.57%). Out of 23 aborted fetal membranes, only one sheep placenta was positive in rt PCR. Q fever is present in all of the three important species of domestic ruminants in Bangladesh. It may have some role in sheep abortion as the seroprevalence is relatively higher and also one sheep placenta is rt PCR positive. Md. Arifur Rahman, Md. Mahbub Alam, Md. Aminul Islam, A. K. Fazlul Haque Bhuiyan, and A. K. M. Anisur Rahman Copyright © 2016 Md. Arifur Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens 1, 4, and 7 in Podenco Ibicenco (Ibizan Hounds) from Ibiza Island Mon, 29 Feb 2016 19:14:41 +0000 The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens (DEA) 1, 4, and 7 in Ibizan hounds, to compare the results with the prevalence of DEA in Spanish greyhounds, and to determine the risk of sensitization following the first transfusion of blood not typed for DEA 1 and the probability of an acute hemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion using untyped DEA 1 blood. DEA 1, 4, and 7 status was determined in 92 Ibizan hounds. Results were compared with the previously reported prevalence in Spanish greyhounds. The risks of sensitization and of a hemolytic transfusion reaction were determined amongst Ibizan hounds and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds. The prevalence of DEA 1, 4, and 7 was 75%, 98.9%, and 25%, respectively. There was a significantly higher expression of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in Spanish greyhounds. The probability of sensitization of a recipient dog to DEA 1 with transfusions amongst Ibizan hounds was 18.5% and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds was 13.7%. The probability of an acute hemolytic reaction in each group was 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively. There is a higher prevalence of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in other sighthounds. Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio, Luis Miguel Viñals Flórez, Blanca Serra Gómez de la Serna, Maria del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Luciana Baggiani, and Roberta Perego Copyright © 2016 Eva Spada et al. All rights reserved. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves Sun, 21 Feb 2016 13:18:59 +0000 Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, ) or CPAP (Group 2, ) as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations. C. G. Donnelly, C. T. Quinn, S. G. Nielsen, and S. L. Raidal Copyright © 2016 C. G. Donnelly et al. All rights reserved.