Veterinary Medicine International http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Prevalence of Needlestick Injury and Its Potential Risk among Veterinarians in Nigeria Mon, 17 Oct 2016 14:27:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/7639598/ A cross sectional study using multistage sampling method by means of structured interviewer administered questionnaire was designed to estimate the rate of occurrence of needlestick injuries among veterinarians involved in clinical practice and to evaluate needle handling practices and risk factors. The study was carried out during the months of August–November 2015. Out of the 215 veterinarians that participated in the survey, 171 (79.5%) reported to have suffered needlestick injuries (NSIs). In the multivariable model, only male sex (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–6.0, and ) and working with poultry daily (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–6.2, and ) were significantly associated with NSI. Most (111, 64.9%) veterinarians had discomfort including pain, headache, fever, worry, and local numbness from NSIs; however, none was hospitalised. Only 1 (0.6%) had lost time at work. The approach to needlestick injury avoidance was poor and most (98.8%) NSIs were not reported. The findings of this research call for comprehensive health and injection safety programs for veterinarians involved in clinical practice. Philip Paul Mshelbwala, J. Scott Weese, and Jibrin Manu Idris Copyright © 2016 Philip Paul Mshelbwala et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:46:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/4698602/ Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y), balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm), were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (). With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (). After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka), cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly. Silvia Mazzola, Clara Palestrini, Simona Cannas, Eleonora Fè, Gaia Lisa Bagnato, Daniele Vigo, Diane Frank, and Michela Minero Copyright © 2016 Silvia Mazzola et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd Sun, 28 Aug 2016 12:43:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/6186078/ Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study () but not at study completion (). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. Thomas R. Tucker III, Sharif S. Aly, John Maas, Josh S. Davy, and Janet E. Foley Copyright © 2016 Thomas R. Tucker III et al. All rights reserved. Bayesian Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Rose Bengal, Complement Fixation, and Indirect ELISA Tests for the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Ethiopia Tue, 09 Aug 2016 14:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/8032753/ Test evaluation in the absence of a gold standard test was conducted for the diagnosis and screening of bovine brucellosis using three commercially available tests including RBPT, CFT, and I-ELISA in National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC) Ethiopia. A total of 278 sera samples from five dairy herds were collected and tested. Each serum sample was subjected to the three tests and the results obtained were recorded and the test outcomes were cross-classified to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the tests using Bayesian model. Prior information generated on the sensitivity and specificity of bovine brucellosis from published data was used in the model. The three test-one population Bayesian model was modified and applied using WinBug software with the assumption that the dairy herds have similar management system and unknown disease status. The Bayesian posterior estimate for sensitivity was 89.6 (95% PI: 79.9–95.8), 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3–99.1), and 94 (95% PI: 87.8–97.5) and for specificity was 84.5 (95% PI: 68–94.98), 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7–98.8), and 88.5 (95% PI: 81–93.8) for RBT, I-ELISA, and CFT, respectively. In this study I-ELISA was found with the best sensitivity and specificity estimates 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3–99.1) and 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7–98.8), compared to both CFT and RBPT. T. Getachew, G. Getachew, G. Sintayehu, M. Getenet, and A. Fasil Copyright © 2016 T. Getachew et al. All rights reserved. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon Mon, 01 Aug 2016 12:18:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/4834851/ Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. J. Awah-Ndukum, J. Temwa, V. Ngu Ngwa, M. M. Mouiche, D. Iyawa, and P. A. Zoli Copyright © 2016 J. Awah-Ndukum et al. All rights reserved. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico Thu, 09 Jun 2016 12:32:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/3478746/ bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan’s Zoo and Mazatlán’s Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased. Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo, Martin López-Valenzuela, Nora Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Silvia Cota-Guajardo, Mayra López-Salazar, and Edith Montiel-Vázquez Copyright © 2016 Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo et al. All rights reserved. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine Sun, 22 May 2016 08:50:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/4601893/ The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC) with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3) and β-2-globulins (Group 3) were found modified (). IgG values were statistically different () 6–8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2) and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3). IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1), 15.0% (Group 2), and 52.8% (Group 3). Speed Leish ™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status. Chiara Starita, Alessandra Gavazza, and George Lubas Copyright © 2016 Chiara Starita et al. All rights reserved. Serological and Molecular Evidence of Q Fever in Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh Sat, 30 Apr 2016 13:52:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/9098416/ The objective of this study was to know the herd and animal level prevalence of Q fever in domestic ruminants in some selected districts in Bangladesh. Randomly collected 111 bulk milk and 94 sera samples of cattle, sheep, and goats were tested by indirect ELISA (iELISA). DNA extracted from 23 aborted fetal membranes was analyzed by real time (rt) PCR. The positive cut-off value of iELISA in bulk milk and individual animal sera was ≥30% and ≥40%, respectively. The overall herd level prevalence of Q fever in dairy cattle was 15.6%. The prevalence of Q fever in dairy cattle was significantly higher in Sirajganj in comparison to Satkhira District (). The overall seroprevalence of Q fever in domestic ruminants was 5.06%. Although statistically insignificant, the seroprevalence of Q fever was relatively higher in sheep (9.52%) in comparison to goats (3.33%) and cattle (3.57%). Out of 23 aborted fetal membranes, only one sheep placenta was positive in rt PCR. Q fever is present in all of the three important species of domestic ruminants in Bangladesh. It may have some role in sheep abortion as the seroprevalence is relatively higher and also one sheep placenta is rt PCR positive. Md. Arifur Rahman, Md. Mahbub Alam, Md. Aminul Islam, A. K. Fazlul Haque Bhuiyan, and A. K. M. Anisur Rahman Copyright © 2016 Md. Arifur Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens 1, 4, and 7 in Podenco Ibicenco (Ibizan Hounds) from Ibiza Island Mon, 29 Feb 2016 19:14:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/1048257/ The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens (DEA) 1, 4, and 7 in Ibizan hounds, to compare the results with the prevalence of DEA in Spanish greyhounds, and to determine the risk of sensitization following the first transfusion of blood not typed for DEA 1 and the probability of an acute hemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion using untyped DEA 1 blood. DEA 1, 4, and 7 status was determined in 92 Ibizan hounds. Results were compared with the previously reported prevalence in Spanish greyhounds. The risks of sensitization and of a hemolytic transfusion reaction were determined amongst Ibizan hounds and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds. The prevalence of DEA 1, 4, and 7 was 75%, 98.9%, and 25%, respectively. There was a significantly higher expression of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in Spanish greyhounds. The probability of sensitization of a recipient dog to DEA 1 with transfusions amongst Ibizan hounds was 18.5% and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds was 13.7%. The probability of an acute hemolytic reaction in each group was 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively. There is a higher prevalence of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in other sighthounds. Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio, Luis Miguel Viñals Flórez, Blanca Serra Gómez de la Serna, Maria del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Luciana Baggiani, and Roberta Perego Copyright © 2016 Eva Spada et al. All rights reserved. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves Sun, 21 Feb 2016 13:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/2129362/ Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, ) or CPAP (Group 2, ) as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations. C. G. Donnelly, C. T. Quinn, S. G. Nielsen, and S. L. Raidal Copyright © 2016 C. G. Donnelly et al. All rights reserved. Protozoan Parasites of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Significance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran Sun, 21 Feb 2016 12:57:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/3263868/ Backgrounds. Wild rodents are reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, and leishmaniasis. The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods. A total of 52 rodents were collected from different parts of Boyer-Ahmad district, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, using Sherman live traps. Each rodent was anesthetized with ether, according to the ethics of working with animals, and was dissected. Samples were taken from various tissues and stool samples were collected from the contents of the colon and small intestines. Moreover, 2 to 5 mL of blood was taken from each of the rodents and the sera were examined for anti-Leishmania antibodies, by ELISA, or anti-T. gondii antibodies, by modified agglutination test (MAT). DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of each rodent and PCR was used to identify the DNA of T. gondii. Results. Of the 52 stool samples of rodents studied by parasitological methods, intestinal protozoa infection was seen in 28 cases (53.8%). From 52 rodents, 19 (36.5%) were infected with Trichomonas, 10 (19.2%) with Giardia muris, and 11 (21.2%) with Entamoeba spp. Also, 10 cases (19.2%) were infected with Blastocystis, 3 (5.8%) were infected with Chilomastix, 7 (13.5%) were infected with Endolimax, 1 (1.9%) was infected with Retortamonas, 3 (5.77%) were infected with T. gondii, and 6 (11.54%) were infected with Trypanosoma lewisi. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the sera of 5 (9.61%) cases. Results of the molecular study showed T. gondii infection in 3 (5.77%) of the rodents. Findings of this study showed that rodents in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwestern Iran, are infected with several blood and intestinal parasites; some of them might be potential risks to residents and domestic animals in the region. Zeinab Seifollahi, Bahador Sarkari, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Qasem Asgari, Mohammad Javad Ranjbar, and Samaneh Abdolahi Khabisi Copyright © 2016 Zeinab Seifollahi et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures Mon, 15 Feb 2016 12:24:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/4096801/ Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates. Patrícia F. Castro, Denise T. Fantoni, Bruna C. Miranda, and Julia M. Matera Copyright © 2016 Patrícia F. Castro et al. All rights reserved. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies on Prenatal Differentiation of Exocrine Pancreas in Buffalo Mon, 15 Feb 2016 12:24:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/2414769/ The study was conducted on pancreas of 24 buffalo fetuses collected from abattoir and Veterinary clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The buffalo fetuses were divided into three groups after measuring their CVRL, namely, group I (CVRL between 0 and 20 cm), group II (CVRL above 20 cm and up to 40 cm), and group III (CVRL above 40 cm) and their approximate age was calculated. The tissues were processed for light and ultrastructural studies. In group I, at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days), the pancreas comprised tubules and solid nest of undifferentiated epithelial cells. At 7.5 cm CVRL (63 days) acinar cells with zymogen granules were observed. These acinar cells varied in shape from columnar to pyramidal. At 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days), parenchyma began to organize into lobes and lobules. The centroacinar cells were observed at 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days). In group II, at 28.3 cm CVRL (137 days), there was extensive branching of tubules that resulted in highly branched ductal tree connecting exocrine secretary units to the duct system. The interlobular and intralobular ducts were well observed at this age yet the intercalated ducts were not completely developed. In group III, exocrine pancreas showed a massive growth at 48 cm CVRL (182 days) with distinct pancreatic lobes and lobules. At 54 cm CVRL (195 days), well developed pancreatic architecture was seen with the presence of extensive development of exocrine part organized in lobes and lobules with interlobular and intralobular ducts whereas the intercalated ducts were observed in 80 cm CVRL (254 days). Divya Gupta, Varinder Uppal, Neelam Bansal, and Anuradha Gupta Copyright © 2016 Divya Gupta et al. All rights reserved. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs Thu, 11 Feb 2016 17:17:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/5780408/ Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal’s clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. Ana Margarida Alho, António Fiarresga, Miguel Landum, Clara Lima, Óscar Gamboa, José Meireles, José Sales Luís, and Luís Madeira de Carvalho Copyright © 2016 Ana Margarida Alho et al. All rights reserved. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle Wed, 10 Feb 2016 07:54:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/3976125/ The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. Tongku N. Siregar, Juli Melia, Rohaya, Cut Nila Thasmi, Dian Masyitha, Sri Wahyuni, Juliana Rosa, Nurhafni, Budianto Panjaitan, and Herrialfian Copyright © 2016 Tongku N. Siregar et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effect of Two Purification Methods on the Immunogenicity of Recombinant Outer Membrane Protein H of Pasteurella multocida Serovar A:1 Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:33:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/2579345/ Recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) of Pasteurella multocida strain X-73 can be purified using affinity chromatography but this adversely affects its immunogenicity. The current study presents the results from an intervention study comparing the immunogenicity of rOmpH purified using electroelution with rOmpH purified using affinity chromatography and native OmpH purified using electroelution and a nonimmunized control group. Chickens immunized with rOmpH purified using electroelution produced the highest ELISA antibody levels against P. multocida strains. Chickens in each of the 5 treatment groups were split into two subgroups for challenge with two different P. multocida strains. The average number of adhesions to CEF cells was statistically significantly lower in sera from chickens immunized with rOmpH or native OmpH purified using electroelution than in those of the three other treatment groups. The survival amongst chickens immunized with rOmpH or native OmpH purified using electroelution indicated high levels of protection. In contrast, survival probability was zero or low in the groups immunized with rOmpH purified using affinity chromatography and in the nonimmunized group. These findings show that the rOmpH purified using electroelution retains its immunogenicity and stimulates high levels of protection in chickens against P. multocida infection. Arunee Thanasarasakulpong, Pichayanut Poolperm, Weerapongse Tangjitjaroen, Thanya Varinrak, Takuo Sawada, Dirk Pfeiffer, and Nattawooti Sthitmatee Copyright © 2016 Arunee Thanasarasakulpong et al. All rights reserved. Brazilian Spotted Fever with an Approach in Veterinary Medicine and One Health Perspective Sun, 10 Jan 2016 09:39:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/2430945/ There is increasing interaction between man and pathogens transmitted by arthropods, especially by ticks. It is on this background that a holistic approach stands out, for the sake of Public Health. Brazilian Spotted Fever is an endemic disease at the country’s southeast, with Amblyomma sculptum as its major contributor, followed by A. aureolatum and potentially Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Dogs have been considered sentinels, and in some areas the disease in dogs can precede human disease. Considering the importance of this disease for human health, the serological evidence in dogs, and the transmission of ticks between dogs and their owners, this review aimed to elucidate the importance of the epidemiological investigation, the diagnosis in dogs, and the role of veterinarians in Public Health to control vector-borne zoonotic diseases. We encourage veterinarians to include this rickettsial infection in the diagnosis of febrile diseases of common occurrence in dogs. Sabrina Destri Emmerick Campos, Nathalie Costa da Cunha, and Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny Copyright © 2016 Sabrina Destri Emmerick Campos et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Faecal Shedding of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Dogs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria Sun, 03 Jan 2016 14:09:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2016/4591238/ Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrhoeal illness in man and animals worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with faecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in dogs in FCT Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 276 dog faecal samples were examined using Modified Acid Fast (MAF) technique and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Fifteen (5.4%) and 51 (18.5%) out of the 276 dog faecal samples examined were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and coproantigens, respectively. There was a fair agreement (0.371) between the two tests used in this study. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was highest in 4 dogs (21.0%) between 3 and 9 months of age. Ten diarrhoeic dogs (30.3%) and 31 dogs from rural settlements were more infected (22.46%) with Cryptosporidium oocysts. There was statistical association between prevalence of Cryptosporidium and confinement of dogs (OR = 0.41; 95% CI on OR: 0.21 < OR < 0.80). However, there was no statistical association () between prevalence of Cryptosporidium and age, diarrhoeic status of the dogs, sex, breed, and location. A total of 62.7% respondents did not have prior knowledge about dogs harbouring organisms that can infect humans. The finding of this research is of public health significance. Gbemisola Magaret Olabanji, Beatty Viv Maikai, and Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin Copyright © 2016 Gbemisola Magaret Olabanji et al. All rights reserved. Social Network Analysis of Cattle Movement in Sukhothai Province, Thailand: A Study to Improve Control Measurements Thu, 31 Dec 2015 06:48:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/587252/ The aim of this study is to analyse the pattern of cattle movement in Sukhothai province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire was applied to 308 respondents related to cattle farming using one-step snowball sampling. The results showed that most of the nodes are farmers who move their animals in the province. The average normalized degree centrality and normalized closeness centrality were low (<0.01 and 0.04, resp.). We found that traders are the nodes with a high value of centrality. This corresponds with the cutpoint analysis results that traders are outstanding. In conclusion, the relevant authorities should focus on the nodes such as traders for controlling disease. However, a measure to detect disease in the early stages needs to be implemented. Supot Noopataya, Sukanya Thongratsakul, and Chaithep Poolkhet Copyright © 2015 Supot Noopataya et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece Thu, 24 Dec 2015 14:11:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/764193/ This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. Nektarios D. Giadinis, Elias Papadopoulos, Shawkat Q. Lafi, Vasiliki Papanikolopoulou, Sofia Karanikola, Anastasia Diakou, Vergos Vergidis, Lihua Xiao, Evi Ioannidou, and Harilaos Karatzias Copyright © 2015 Nektarios D. Giadinis et al. All rights reserved. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions Mon, 21 Dec 2015 05:56:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/983621/ Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. Justin Shmalberg and Mushtaq A. Memon Copyright © 2015 Justin Shmalberg and Mushtaq A. Memon. All rights reserved. Effect of Propolis on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs Sun, 13 Dec 2015 08:15:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/672643/ This study evaluates clinically the effect of propolis paste on healing of cutaneous wound in dogs. Under general anesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, two full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created in each side of the chest in five dogs, one dorsal and one ventral, with 10 cm between them. These wounds were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (10 wounds) and propolis group (10 wounds). Both groups were represented in each dog. The wounds were cleaned with normal saline solution and dressed with macrogol ointment in control group and propolis paste in propolis group, twice daily till complete wound healing. Measurement of the wound area (cm2) was monitored planimetrically at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after injury. The data were analyzed statistically. The results revealed a significant reduction in the wound surface area in the propolis group after 14 and 21 days compared to control group. The wound reepithelization, contraction, and total wound healing were faster in propolis group than in control group during five weeks of study. In conclusion, propolis paste has a positive impact on cutaneous wound healing and it may be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals. Ashraf M. Abu-Seida Copyright © 2015 Ashraf M. Abu-Seida. All rights reserved. Testicular and Related Size Evaluations in Nigerian Sahel Goats with Optimal Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserve Tue, 08 Dec 2015 09:32:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/357519/ Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that would be associated with optimal cauda epididymal sperm counts (ESC) in Sahel goats based on postmortem evaluations. A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18–30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12–25) kg. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated. ESC was determined from homogenized tissue using a manual cytometer. At the cut-off ESC of >1.1 × 109 sperm heads, 66 (52.80%) of the goats had optimal ESC which was associated with testicular weight of 59.90 ± 16.10 (31.40–86.20) g, gonadosomatic index of 3.51 ± 0.69 (2.00–4.50) g/kg, and scrotal circumference of 19.07 ± 1.29 (17.00–21.80) cm. The size variables of the scrotum and testis correlated with one another and with the ESC. These findings provide data that may be used to anticipate adequate antemortem sperm reserve based on testicular size during preliminary selection of sires for breeding from a sexually mature Sahel buck population. Y. Abba and I. O. Igbokwe Copyright © 2015 Y. Abba and I. O. Igbokwe. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis) Thu, 03 Dec 2015 12:48:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/575101/ Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick test. Onset time, duration, and degree of analgesia and ataxia were recorded after each treatment. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature, and haematobiochemical parameters were recorded after all treatments. Time to onset and duration of analgesia, respectively, were as follows: tramadol  min and  min; tramadol-lidocaine  min and  min; lidocaine  min and  min. Onset time and duration were significantly longer with tramadol than the other treatments. Duration was significantly longer with tramadol-lidocaine than lidocaine. Ataxia was mildly observed in tramadol-lidocaine and was moderate in lidocaine. HR, RR, and rectal temperature did not differ significantly from baseline after any treatment. Haematobiochemical parameters returned to basal levels by 24 h after all treatments. This combination might be clinically useful to provide analgesia in buffalo for long-duration surgical procedures. Ayman Atiba, Alaa Ghazy, Naglaa Gomaa, Tarek Kamal, and Mustafa Shukry Copyright © 2015 Ayman Atiba et al. All rights reserved. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Superovulation Effect on Follicular Development after Autologous Ovarian Transplantation in Mice Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:56:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/236436/ The effect of superovulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on autologous transplanted ovaries in the lumbar muscles of mice was histomorphometrically evaluated using the indices of number and volume of different kind of follicles and volume of corpora lutea, ovary, and stroma. Angiogenesis was observed after mouse ovarian transplantation on days 14 and 21 after ovarian grafting. After transplantation, the total number and volume of primary and secondary follicles reduced, while PMSG superovulation increased the total number and total volume of tertiary follicles and also the ovarian volume after transplantation. Transplantation increased the average size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Therefore, primary and secondary follicles can survive after autologous transplantation but their reservations diminished by increasing the time of transplantation. However, number of tertiary follicles and their response to superovulation increased over time after transplantation. Amin Tamadon, Alireza Raayat Jahromi, Farhad Rahmanifar, Mohammad Ayaseh, Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi, and Reza Moghiminasr Copyright © 2015 Amin Tamadon et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica Mon, 16 Nov 2015 14:00:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/236278/ A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses () was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The general condition of the horses () in terms of their body and coat was between regular and poor, and hematocrit and hemoglobin average values were low (19% and 10.65 g/dL, resp.). Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 32 (24.6%) of the samples. Twenty-six samples (20.0%) gave positive results for B. caballi and 60 (46.2%) for T. equi; 10 horses (7.7%) showed mixed infection, when analyzed by PCR. Using c-ELISA, it was found that 90 (69.2%) horses had antibodies against B. caballi and 115 (88.5%) against T. equi, while 81 (62.3%) showed mixed reactions. There were no factors associated with the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. These results contrast with results previously obtained in equines in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. María Fernanda Posada-Guzmán, Gaby Dolz, Juan José Romero-Zúñiga, and Ana Eugenia Jiménez-Rocha Copyright © 2015 María Fernanda Posada-Guzmán et al. All rights reserved. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia Wed, 05 Aug 2015 12:09:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/264528/ A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 () and SAT2 (). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes. T. K. W. Sikombe, A. S. Mweene, John Muma, C. Kasanga, Y. Sinkala, F. Banda, M. Mulumba, E. M. Fana, C. Mundia, and M. Simuunza Copyright © 2015 T. K. W. Sikombe et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Candida parapsilosis Infection Model in Immunosuppressed ICR Mice and Assessing the Antifungal Efficiency of Fluconazole Thu, 09 Jul 2015 12:45:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/370641/ This study was to establish a systemic C. parapsilosis infection model in immunosuppressed ICR mice induced by cyclophosphamide and evaluate the antifungal efficiency of fluconazole. Three experiments were set to confirm the optimal infectious dose of C. parapsilosis, outcomes of infectious model, and antifungal efficiency of fluconazole in vivo, respectively. In the first experiment, comparisons of survival proportions between different infectious doses treated groups showed that the optimal inoculum for C. parapsilosis was 0.9 × 105 CFU per mouse. The following experiment was set to observe the outcomes of infection at a dose of 0.9 × 105 CFU C. parapsilosis. Postmortem and histopathological examinations presented fugal-specific lesions in multiorgans, especially in kidneys, characterized by inflammation, numerous microabscesses, and fungal infiltration. The CFU counts were consistent with the histopathological changes in tissues. Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance was observed with increases of proinflammatory cytokines and no responses of anti-inflammatory cytokines in sera and kidneys. In the last experiment, model based evaluation of fluconazole indicated that there were ideal antifungal activities for fluconazole at dosages of 10–50 mg/kg/d. Data demonstrates that the research team has established a systemic C. parapsilosis infection model in immunosuppressed ICR mice, affording opportunities for increasing our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and treatment. Yu’e Wu, Fangui Min, Jinchun Pan, Jing Wang, Wen Yuan, Yu Zhang, Ren Huang, and Lixin Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yu’e Wu et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Study of Pet Owner Adherence in Behaviour, Cardiology, Urology, and Oncology Fields Mon, 22 Jun 2015 11:41:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/618216/ Successful veterinary treatment of animals requires owner adherence with a prescribed treatment plan. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the level of adherence of the owners of patients presented for behavioural, cardiological, urological, and oncological problems. At the end of the first examination, each owner completed a questionnaire. Then, the owners were called four times to fill out another questionnaire over the phone. With regard to the first questionnaire, statistically significant data concern behavioral medicine and cardiology. In the first area the owner’s worry decreases during the follow-up and the number of owners who would give away the animal increases. In cardiology, owners who think that the pathology harms their animal’s quality of life decreased significantly over time. With regard to the 9 additional follow-up questions, in behavioural medicine and urology the owner’s discomfort resulting from the animal’s pathology significantly decreases over time. Assessment of adherence appears to be an optimal instrument in identifying the positive factors and the difficulties encountered by owners during the application of a treatment protocol. Zita Talamonti, Chiara Cassis, Paola G. Brambilla, Paola Scarpa, Damiano Stefanello, Simona Cannas, Michela Minero, and Clara Palestrini Copyright © 2015 Zita Talamonti et al. All rights reserved. Computed Tomographic Tenography of Normal Equine Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath: An Ex Vivo Study Mon, 22 Jun 2015 08:55:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/903169/ Aim of this study was to document the normal computed tomographic tenography findings of digital flexor tendon sheath. Six ex vivo normal equine forelimbs were used. An axial approach was used to inject 185 mg/mL of iopamidol in a total volume of 60 mL into the digital flexor tendon sheaths. Single-slice helical scans, with 5 mm thickness, spaced every 3 mm, for a pitch of 0.6, and with bone algorithm reconstruction, were performed before and after injections of contrast medium. To obtain better image quality for multiplanar reconstruction and 3D reformatting, postprocessing retroreconstruction was performed to reduce the images to submillimetre thickness. Computed tomographic tenography of digital flexor tendon sheaths could visualize the following main tendon structures for every forelimb in contrast-enhanced images as low densities surrounded by high densities: superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, manica flexoria, mesotendons, and synovial recess. Results of this study suggest that computed tomographic tenography can be used with accuracy and sensitivity to evaluate the common disorders of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath and the intrathecal structures. Luca Lacitignola, Pasquale De Luca, Alessandro Guarracino, and Antonio Crovace Copyright © 2015 Luca Lacitignola et al. All rights reserved.