
 The number of agents in the MASs. 

and  The idle and busy states of an agent, respectively. 

and  The probabilities of packet forwarding of an agent at the idle state and the busy state, respectively. 

 The probability of packet forwarding at idle state of an agent. The probability of packet no forwarding at the idle state of an agent is . 

 The probability of packet no forwarding at the busy (backlogged) state of an agent. The probability of packet forwarding at busy state of an agent is 

 The state transition matrix of the Markov chain of an agent. 
