Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Volume 2018, Article ID 5349894, 24 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5349894
Review Article

Network Protocols, Schemes, and Mechanisms for Internet of Things (IoT): Features, Open Challenges, and Trends

1Department of Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Kozani 50100, Greece
2Computer Science Department, The University of Sheffield International Faculty, CITY College, Thessaloniki 54626, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Thomas D. Lagkas; ku.ca.dleiffehs@sakgal.t

Received 29 March 2018; Revised 30 July 2018; Accepted 9 August 2018; Published 13 September 2018

Academic Editor: Juan F. Valenzuela-Valdés

Copyright © 2018 Anna Triantafyllou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C.-W. Tsai, C.-F. Lai, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Future internet of things: open issues and challenges,” Wireless Networks, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 2201–2217, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Miorandi, S. Sicari, F. de Pellegrini, and I. Chlamtac, “Internet of things: vision, applications and research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1497–1516, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. O. Mavropoulos, H. Mouratidis, A. Fish, and E. Panaousis, “ASTo: a tool for security analysis of IoT systems,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA '17), pp. 395–400, June 2017. View at Scopus
  4. R. Khan, S. U. Khan, and R. Zaheer, “Future internet: the internet of things architecture, possible applications and key challenges,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT' 12), pp. 257–260, December 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. S. Dhillon, H. Huang, and H. Viswanathan, “Wide-area wireless communication challenges for the internet of things,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 168–174, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. Gazis, “A survey of standards for machine-to-machine and the internet of things,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 482–511, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: a survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2347–2376, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. G. Sheng, S. S. Yang, Y. F. Yu, A. V. Vasilakos, J. A. McCann, and K. K. Leung, “A survey on the ietf protocol suite for the internet of things: standards, challenges, and opportunities,” IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 91–98, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Mainetti, L. Patrono, and A. Vilei, “Evolution of wireless sensor networks towards the Internet of Things: a survey,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM '11), pp. 16–21, September 2011. View at Scopus
  10. P. Barker and M. Hammoudeh, “A survey on low power network protocols for the internet of things and wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems (ICFNDS ’17), pp. 44:1–44:8, New York, NY, USA, July 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. T. Salman and R. Jain, Networking Protocols and Standards for Internet of Things, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. O. Bello, S. Zeadally, and M. Badra, “Network layer inter-operation of Device-to-Device communication technologies in Internet of Things (IoT),” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 57, pp. 52–62, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Javed, M. W. Iqbal, and H. Abbas, “Internet of things (IoT) design considerations for developers and manufacturers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops '17), pp. 834–839, May 2017. View at Scopus
  14. H. P. E. D. LP, “Internet of things research study,” Tech. Rep., 2015, http://files.asset.microfocus.com/4aa5-4759/en/4aa5-4759.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, V. Sundramoorthy, and D. Fitton, “Smart objects as building blocks for the internet of things,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Turgut and L. Boloni, “Value of information and cost of privacy in the internet of things,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 62–66, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Yang, D. Forte, and M. M. Tehranipoor, “Protecting endpoint devices in IoT supply chain,” in Proceedings of the 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD '15), pp. 351–356, November 2015. View at Scopus
  18. P. Sarigiannidis, E. Karapistoli, and A. A. Economides, “VisIoT: a threat visualisation tool for IoT systems security,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW '15), pp. 2633–2638, June 2015. View at Scopus
  19. D. Kandris, G. Tselikis, E. Anastasiadis, E. Panaousis, and T. Dagiuklas, “COALA: a protocol for the avoidance and alleviation of congestion in wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 17, no. 11, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. O. Mavropoulos, H. Mouratidis, A. Fish, E. Panaousis, and C. Kalloniatis, “A conceptual model to support security analysis in the internet of things,” Computer Science and Information Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 557–578, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. McClellan, J. A. Jimenez, and G. Koutitas, Smart Cities: Applications, Technologies, Standards, and Driving Factors, Springer International Publishing, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Barbaresso, G. Cordahi, D. Garcia, C. Hill, A. Jendzejec, and K. Wright, “Usdot's intelligent transportation systems (its) its strategic plan 2015-2019,” Tech. Rep., 2014. View at Google Scholar
  23. E. Borgia, “The internet of things vision: key features, applications and open issues,” Computer Communications, vol. 54, pp. 1–31, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Ancillotti, R. Bruno, and M. Conti, “The role of communication systems in smart grids: architectures, technical solutions and research challenges,” Computer Communications, vol. 36, no. 17-18, pp. 1665–1697, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Gowrishankar, M. Y. Prachita, and A. Prakash, “IoT based heart attack detection, heart rate and temperature monitor,” in International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 170, no. 5, pp. 26–30, Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), New York, USA, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. Z. Li, J. Wang, R. Higgs, L. Zhou, and W. Yuan, “Design of an intelligent management system for agricultural greenhouses based on the internet of things,” in Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering and 15th IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (CSE and EUC '17), vol. 2, pp. 154–160, July 2017. View at Scopus
  27. I. Lee and K. Lee, “The Internet of Things (IoT): applications, investments, and challenges for enterprises,” Business Horizons, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 431–440, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. H. Ngu, M. Gutierrez, V. Metsis, S. Nepal, and Q. Z. Sheng, “IoT middleware: a survey on issues and enabling technologies,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Razzaque, M. Milojevic-Jevric, A. Palade, and S. Clarke, “Middleware for Internet of things: a survey,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 70–95, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Eisenhauer, P. Rosengren, and P. Antolin, “A development platform for integrating wireless devices and sensors into ambient intelligence systems,” in Proceedings of the 6th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, pp. 1–3, IEEE, Rome, Italy, June 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Xively, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://xively.com/.
  32. G. Eleftherakis, D. Pappas, T. Lagkas, K. Rousis, and O. Paunovski, “Architecting the IoT paradigm: a middleware for autonomous distributed sensor networks,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 11, no. 12, Article ID 139735, 17 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. Open Source for Internet of Things, “About openremote,” accessed: 2018-07-19, http://www.openremote.com/about/.
  34. KAA, “Overview,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.kaaproject.org/overview/.
  35. J. Persson, “Open source release of iot app environment calvin,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.ericsson.com/research-blog/open-source-calvin/.
  36. M. Franceschinis, C. Pastrone, M. A. Spirito, and C. Borean, “On the performance of ZigBee Pro and ZigBee IP in IEEE 802.15.4 networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob '13), pp. 83–88, October 2013. View at Scopus
  37. P. Thubert, “An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4,” Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet-Draft draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-13, Nov. 2017, work in Progress, https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-13.
  38. J. Nieminen, T. Savolainen, M. Isomaki, B. Patil, Z. Shelby, and C. Gomez, “IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy,” Tech. Rep. RFC 7668, 2015, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7668.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. P. B. Mariager, J. T. Petersen, Z. Shelby, M. Van De Logt, and D. Barthel, “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) Ultra Low Energy (ULE),” Tech. Rep. RFC 8105, 2017, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8105.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. L. F. D. C. Vega, I. Robles, and R. Morabito, “IPv6 over 802.11ah,” Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet-Draft draft-delcarpio-6lo-wlanah-00, work in Progress, https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-delcarpio-6lo-wlanah-00.
  41. M. Vukovic, “Internet programmable iot: On the role of apis in iot: The internet of things (ubiquity symposium),” Ubiquity, vol. 2015, no. 3, pp. 3:1–3:10, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. Muzzley, “Integrating with muzzley,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://muzzley.com/documentation.
  43. Insteon, “Insteon,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.insteon.com/google-home. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. Indigo Domestics, “Home,” accessed: 2018-07-19, http://www.indigodomo.com/.
  45. Zetta, “An api-first internet of things platform,” accessed: 2018-07-19, http://www.zettajs.org/.
  46. O. Mazhelis and P. Tyrvainen, “A framework for evaluating Internet-of-Things platforms: application provider viewpoint,” in Proceedings of the IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT '14), pp. 147–152, March 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. JS Foundation, “Node-red,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://nodered.org/.
  48. ioBroker, accessed: 2018-07-19, http://iobroker.net/.
  49. TIBCO Software Inc, “Flogo project,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.flogo.io/.
  50. Eclipse Foundation, “Eclipse-kura,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.eclipse.org/kura/.
  51. Arduino Project’S Foundation, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.arduino.cc/.
  52. Espressif Systems, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.espressif.com/en/products/hardware/esp8266ex/overview.
  53. Particle, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.particle.io/products/hardware/electron-cellular-2g-3g-lte/.
  54. A. Gerber, “Choosing the best hardware for your next iot project,” 05 2017, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/iot-lp101-best-hardware-devices-iot-project/index.html.
  55. Raspberry Pi Foundation, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.raspberrypi.org/.
  56. BeagleBoard.org Foundation, accessed: 2018-07-19, http://beagleboard.org/black.
  57. Qualcomm, accessed: 2018-07-19, https://developer.qualcomm.com/hardware/dragonboard-410c.
  58. NXP, “Community boards,” accessed: 2018-07-19, https://www.nxp.com/support/developer-resources/hardware-development-tools/community-boards:COMMUNITY-BOARDS.
  59. I. Yaqoob, E. Ahmed, I. A. T. Hashem et al., “Internet of things architecture: recent advances, taxonomy, requirements, and open challenges,” IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 10–16, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. Sarigiannidis, E. Karapistoli, and A. A. Economides, “Modeling the internet of things under attack: a G-network approach,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1964–1977, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Savolainen, J. Soininen, and B. Silverajan, “IPv6 addressing strategies for IoT,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3511–3519, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Raza, P. Misra, Z. He, and T. Voigt, “Building the Internet of Things with bluetooth smart,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 57, no. supplement C, pp. 19–31, 2017, special Issue on Internet of Things and Smart Cities security, privacy and new technologies. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. P. Rajendhar, P. P. Kumar, and R. Venkatesh, “Zigbee based wireless system for remote supervision and control of a substation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Research in Electrical Sciences (IICIRES '17), pp. 1–4, June 2017. View at Scopus
  64. L. F. Del Carpio, P. Di Marco, P. Skillermark, R. Chirikov, and K. Lagergren, “Comparison of 802.11ah, BLE and 802.15.4 for a Home Automation Use Case,” International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 243–253, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. Pateromichelakis, M. Shariat, A. U. Quddus, and R. Tafazolli, “On the evolution of multi-cell scheduling in 3GPP LTE/LTE-A,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 701–717, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Gohil, H. Modi, and S. K. Patel, “5G technology of mobile communication: a survey,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP '13), pp. 288–292, Gujarat, India, March 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. U. Raza, P. Kulkarni, and M. Sooriyabandara, “Low power wide area networks: an overview,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 855–873, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Adelantado, X. Vilajosana, P. Tuset-Peiro, B. Martinez, J. Melia-Segui, and T. Watteyne, “Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 34–40, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. M. Hassan, R. Ibrahim, K. Bingi, T. D. Chung, and N. Saad, “Application of wireless technology for control: A wirelesshart perspective,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 105, no. supplement C, pp. 240–247, 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050917302405. View at Google Scholar
  70. S. M. Hassan, R. Ibrahim, K. Bingi, T. D. Chung, and N. Saad, “Application of wireless technology for control: A wirelesshart perspective,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors (IRIS '16), vol. 105, pp. 240–247, December 2016, Tokyo, Japan, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050917302405.
  71. J. Ploennigs, U. Ryssel, and K. Kabitzsch, “Performance analysis of the Enocean wireless sensor network protocol,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA '10), pp. 1–9, September 2010. View at Scopus
  72. C. Osiegbu, S. B. Amsalu, F. Afghah, D. Limbrick, and A. Homaifar, “Design and implementation of an autonomous wireless sensor-based smart home,” in Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN '15), pp. 1–7, August 2015. View at Scopus
  73. M. Ghamari, B. Janko, R. S. Sherratt, W. Harwin, R. Piechockic, and C. Soltanpur, “A survey on wireless body area networks for ehealthcare systems in residential environments,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. I. C. R. Tardy, N. Aakvaag, B. Myhre, and R. Bahr, “Comparison of wireless techniques applied to environmental sensor monitoring,” SINTEF, p. 19, March 2017.
  75. R. M. Hinden and D. S. E. Deering, “Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification,” Tech. Rep. RFC 2460, 1998, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt. View at Google Scholar
  76. G. Montenegro, N. Kushalnagar, J. Hui, and D. Culler, “Transmission of IPv6 packets over IEEE 802.15.4 networks,” Tech. Rep. RFC 4944, 2007, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4944.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. G. Montenegro, C. Schumacher, and N. Kushalnagar, “IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs): Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals,” Tech. Rep. RFC 4919, 2007, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4919.txt. View at Google Scholar
  78. D. Dujovne, T. Watteyne, X. Vilajosana, and P. Thubert, “6TiSCH: Deterministic IP-enabled industrial internet (of things),” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 36–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. D. R. Nepomuceno and N. M. C. Tiglao, “Performance evaluation of 6TiSCH for resilient data transport in wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN '17), pp. 552–557, January 2017. View at Scopus
  80. “Ieee standard for local and metropolitan area networks–part 15.4: Low-rate wireless personal area networks (lr-wpans) amendment 1: Mac sublayer,” IEEE Std 802.15.4e-2012 (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.15.4-2011), pp. 1–225, April 2012.
  81. P. Thubert, C. Bormann, L. Toutain, and R. Cragie, “IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) Routing Header,” Tech. Rep. RFC 8138, 2017, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8138.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. J. Hui and P. Thubert, “Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks,” Tech. Rep. RFC 6282, 2011, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6282.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. E. Rescorla and N. Modadugu, “Datagram Transport Layer Security Version 1.2,” Tech. Rep. RFC 6347, 2012, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6347.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. D. Whiting, R. Housley, and N. Ferguson, “Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM),” Tech. Rep. RFC 3610, 2003, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3610.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. Y.-G. Hong and C. Gomez, “Use cases for IPv6 over Networks of Resource-constrained Nodes,” Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet-Draft draft-hong-6lo-use-cases-01, work in Progress, https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-hong-6lo-use-cases-01.
  86. A. Brandt and J. Buron, “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over ITU-T G.9959 Networks,” Tech. Rep. RFC 7428, 2015, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7428.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. S. G. 15, “Recommendation itu-t g.9959: Short range narrow-band digital radiocommunication transceivers phy and mac layer specifications,” Tech. Rep., International Telecommunication Union, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  88. Y. Choi, Y.-G. Hong, J.-S. Youn, D. Kim, and J. Choi, “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication,” Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet-Draft draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-08, Oct. 2017, work in Progress, https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-08.
  89. K. Lynn, J. Martocci, C. Neilson, and S. Donaldson, “Transmission of IPv6 over Master-Slave/Token-Passing (MS/TP) Networks,” Tech. Rep. RFC 8163, 2017, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8163.txt. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. C. Paetz, “Z-Wave Essentials,” Prof. Dr. Christian Paetz, 2017.
  91. ETSI, “Etsi ts 102 939-1: Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (dect); ultra low energy (ule); machine to machine communications; part 1: Home automation network (phase 1),” ETSI, technical specification, March 2015, http://www.etsi.org/standards-search.
  92. C. Bormann, Z. Shelby, S. Chakrabarti, and E. Nordmark, “Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs),” Tech. Rep. RFC 6775, 2012, https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6775.txt. View at Google Scholar
  93. A. Dhumane, “Routing challenges in internet of things,” CSI Magazine, vol. 03, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  94. M. Talwar, “Routing techniques and protocols for internet of things: a survey,” in Proceeding of the NCRIET-2015, pp. 417–423, 2015.
  95. T. B. A. H. Prasad, “Network routing protocols in iot,” International Journal of Advances in Electronics and Computer Science, vol. 4, no. 4, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  96. H. Prasad and S. Babu, “A survey on network routing protocols in internet of things (IOT),” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 18–22, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. H.-S. Kim, J. Ko, D. E. Culler, and J. Paek, “Challenging the IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL): a survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2502–2525, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. Zhao, A. Kumar, P. H. Joo Chong, and R. Lu, “A comprehensive study of RPL and P2P-RPL routing protocols: Implementation, challenges and opportunities,” Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1232–1256, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. H. Kharrufa, H. Al-Kashoash, Y. Al-Nidawi, M. Q. Mosquera, and A. H. Kemp, “Dynamic RPL for multi-hop routing in IoT applications,” in Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference on Wireless On-Demand Network Systems and Services (WONS '17), pp. 100–103, February 2017. View at Scopus
  100. A. Aijaz and A. H. Aghvami, “Cognitive machine-to-machine communications for internet-of-things: a protocol stack perspective,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 103–112, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. S. Basagni, C. Petrioli, R. Petroccia, and D. Spaccini, “CARP: a channel-aware routing protocol for underwater acoustic wireless networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 34, no. supplement C, pp. 92–104, 2015, Advances in Underwater Communications and Networks. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. Z. Zhou, B. Yao, R. Xing, L. Shu, and S. Bu, “E-CARP: an energy efficient routing protocol for UWSNs in the internet of underwater things,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 4072–4082, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. B. L. R. Stojkoska and K. V. Trivodaliev, “A review of Internet of Things for smart home: Challenges and solutions,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 140, pp. 1454–1464, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Dobre and F. Xhafa, “Intelligent services for big data science,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 37, no. supplement C, pp. 267–281, 2014, special Section: Innovative Methods and Algorithms for Advanced Data-Intensive Computing Special Section: Semantics, Intelligent processing and services for big data Special Section: Advances in Data-Intensive Modelling and Simulation Special Section: Hybrid Intelligence for Growing Internet and its Applications. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. C. Liu, C. Yang, X. Zhang, and J. Chen, “External integrity verification for outsourced big data in cloud and IoT: a big picture,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 49, no. supplement C, pp. 58–67, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus