Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review of Recent Issues and Challenges

Table 3

Effect of noise, errors, and protocols.

S. No.Area of researchFindingsNoise effectBit error rateProtocol usage

01Challenges: Building Scalable and Distributed Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) for Aquatic Applications,Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is not efficient due to large propagation delays, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is not suitable due to the narrow bandwidth and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is suitable for underwater acoustic networks. While contention-based protocols are not appropriate for underwater communications.N/AN/A (TDMA) is not efficient; (FDMA) is not suitable. (CDMA) is suitable

02Prospects and Problems of Wireless Communication for Underwater Sensor NetworksAcoustic communication also has less attenuation in deep and thermally stable oceans. Shallow water effects acoustic communication by temperature gradients, ambient noises regarding surface and multi-path effect because of reflection and refraction.Decreases by ambient noisesless attenuation in deep and thermally stable oceansN/A

03Analyzing the Performance of Channel in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN)Multi-path propagation results in fading and phase fluctuations, Doppler Effect is observed due to the movement of both the sender and receiver nods. Speed of sound and underwater noise are other factors that influences the performance of acoustic channel.Decreases by ambient noisesFading and phase fluctuations, Doppler EffectN/A

04Optimized packet size selection in underwater wireless sensor network communicationsEffect of bit error rate, interference, collision, retransmission leading selection of optimal packet size is also considered and achieves improvement in all metric e.g., throughput, energy consumption, resource utilization and packet latency underutilization of optimal packet size selection.N/ALess bit errors in small packetsN/A

05Choosing the packet size in multi-hop underwater networksData packets are large enough as compared to the control packets and because of control and data packet collision entire data packet is discarded that causes of huge number of retransmissions and energy dissipation.N/AError due to control and data packet collision entire data packet discardedCDMA, DACAP

06Challenges for efficient communication in underwater acoustic sensor networksA major cause that makes acoustic signal weak is called multi-path effect, that becomes cause of inter-symbol interference also makes acoustic data transmission difficult and erroneous. Vertical acoustic channel is less affected by multi-path effect as compared to horizontal acoustic channel.N/AInterference and multi-path effectN/A

07Ocean ambient noise: Its measurement and its significance to marine animalsLarge number of ships present at large distance from communication system in ocean produce high traffic noise in acoustic communication, if sound propagation is good enough. Ships consider main source of anthropogenic ambient noise.N/ADecreases due to ships noiseN/A

08SEA 6 Technical report: Underwater ambient noiseTurbulence can be defined as surface disturbance due to waves or tides that generates low frequencies that results continuous noise in acoustic communication. Underlying noise is considered as thermal noise in the absence of all other sources of noise, including self-noise. Thermal noise is directly proportional to the frequency which is used for acoustic communication.surface disturbance of waves or tides generates low frequencies that results in noise in acoustic communicationErrors due to noiseN/A

09Doppler estimation and correction for shallow underwater acoustic communicationsBecause of channel flaws, Wireless signals practice a diversity of degradations. For example, electromagnetic signal affects by interference, reflections, and attenuation, acoustic signals regarding underwater are also affected by same kind of factors.N/AHigh BER due to interference, reflections, and attenuationN/A

10Study on Doppler effects estimate in underwater acoustic communicationTwo types of influences are observed on acoustic channel because of Doppler Effect, first is pulse width that will be compressed or stretched and second is frequency offset as a result of frequency offset compressing or expending of signal time domain occurs.N/ADoppler Effect, frequency offsetN/A

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