Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

USPF: Underwater Shrewd Packet Flooding Mechanism through Surrogate Holding Time

Table 2

Varying temperature effects on acoustic channel.

S. NoArea focusedFindingsSound speed effects due to temperature

01Underwater routing challengesThe higher the ocean temperature, the greater the speed of sound, but lower in cold ocean. The speed of sound advances 4 m/s when water increases by 1oC.Increase with temperature

02Underwater wireless communication problemsReflection and refraction affect the acoustic communication in shallow water regarding ambient noise and temperature gradients.Affects communication

03Underwater transmission faces hindrance by temperature variationFactors like salinity, depth, and temperature affect the speed of sound, which ultimately affect underwater transmission.Variation in speed

04Variable depth and temperature have unequal channel capacityAt a short distance, with the increase of temperature, having higher channel capacityImproves throughput

05Underwater channel simulationSea surface temperature gets higher and gets down at depth. When temperature, depth, and salinity vary they also affect the velocity of sound.Increases with temperature

06Mathematical equation for sound speed in the oceansTemperature remains a dominating factor that has effect on the sound speed.Increases with temperature