Table of Contents
X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation
Volume 2008 (2008), Article ID 318171, 10 pages
Research Article

High Definition X-Ray Fluorescence: Principles and Techniques

X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc., 15 Tech Valley Drive, East Greenbush, NY 12061, USA

Received 28 December 2007; Accepted 10 March 2008

Academic Editor: Ladislav Pina

Copyright © 2008 Z. W. Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well-established and powerful tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of virtually any material. It is widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical, forensic, and scientific research applications to measure the concentration of elemental constituents or contaminants. The fluorescing atoms can be excited by energetic electrons, ions, or photons. A particular EDXRF method, monochromatic microfocus X-ray fluorescence (MμEDXRF), has proven to be remarkably powerful in measurement of trace element concentrations and distributions in a large variety of important medical, environmental, and industrial applications. When used with state-of-the-art doubly curved crystal (DCC) X-ray optics, this technique enables high-sensitivity, compact, low-power, safe, reliable, and rugged analyzers for insitu, online measurements in industrial process, clinical, and field settings. This new optic-enabled MμEDXRF technique, called high definition X-ray fluorescence (HD XRF), is described in this paper.