Table of Contents
X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 401854, 10 pages
Review Article

Multilayer Laue Lens: A Path Toward One Nanometer X-Ray Focusing

1Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
2National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
3Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
4Department of Advanced Materials Engineering and BK21 Education Center of Mould Technology for Advanced Materials and Parts, Chosun University, Gwangju 501–759, Republic of Korea
5Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA

Received 12 May 2010; Accepted 13 September 2010

Academic Editor: Gene Ice

Copyright © 2010 Hanfei Yan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is a novel diffractive optic for hard X-ray nanofocusing, which is fabricated by thin film deposition techniques and takes advantage of the dynamical diffraction effect to achieve a high numerical aperture and efficiency. It overcomes two difficulties encountered in diffractive optics fabrication for focusing hard X-rays: (1) small outmost zone width and (2) high aspect ratio. Here, we will give a review on types, modeling approaches, properties, fabrication, and characterization methods of MLL optics. We show that a full-wave dynamical diffraction theory has been developed to describe the dynamical diffraction property of the MLL and has been employed to design the optimal shapes for nanofocusing. We also show a 16 nm line focus obtained by a partial MLL and several characterization methods. Experimental results show a good agreement with the theoretical calculations. With the continuing development of MLL optics, we believe that an MLL-based hard x-ray microscope with true nanometer resolution is on the horizon.