Table of Contents
X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 867049, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/867049
Review Article

Focusing Polycapillary Optics and Their Applications

Center for X-Ray Optics, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY 12222, USA

Received 23 April 2010; Revised 26 August 2010; Accepted 18 October 2010

Academic Editor: Ali Khounsary

Copyright © 2010 Carolyn A. MacDonald. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. B. Hirsch and J. N. Kellar, “An X ray micro-beam technique: I—collimation,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 369–374, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. R. V. Pound and G. A. Rebka, “Gravitational red-shift in nuclear resonance,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 439–441, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. L. Marton, “X ray fiber optics,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 194–195, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. P. J. Mallozzi, H. M. Epstein, R. G. Jung et al., “Laser-generated plasmas as a source of X ray for medical applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1891–1895, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. W. T. Vetterling and R. V. Pound, “Measurements on an X ray light pipe at 5.9 and 14.4 keV,” Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1084–1089, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. Mosher and S. J. Stephanakis, “X ray light pipes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 105–107, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. Y. M. Aleksandrov, K. A. Valiev, L. V. Velikov et al., “Transport of soft X radiation along an optical waveguide,” Soviet Technical Physics Letters, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 105–106, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  8. V. A. Arkad’ev, M. A. Kumakhov, and L. I. Ognev, “Total external reflection of γ rays from a surface,” Soviet Technical Physics Letters, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 540–542, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  9. V. A. Arkad'ev, M. A. Kumakhov, and R. F. Fayazov, “Theoretical capabilities of grazing-incidence X ray optics,” Soviet Technical Physics Letters, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 101–102, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  10. V. A. Arkd'ev, A. I. Kolomitsev, M. A. Kumakhov, V. V. Labuzov, and I. Y. Ponomarev, “Focusing system using multiple reflection of radiation from curved surfaces,” Soviet Technical Physics Letters, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 42, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  11. V. A. Arkd'ev, A. I. Kolomitsev, M. A. Kumakhov et al., “Wide-band X ray optics with a large angular aperture,” Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 271, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. A. Kumakhov and F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface X ray optics,” Physics Report, vol. 191, no. 5, pp. 290–350, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  13. W. M. Gibson and C. A. MacDonald, “Polycapillary Kumakhov optics: a status report,” in X Ray and UV Detectors, vol. 2278 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 156–167, July 1994.
  14. W. M. Gibson, C. A. MacDonald, and M. S. Kumakhov, “The Kumakhov lens; a new X ray and neutron optics with potential for medical applications,” in Technology Requirements for Biomedical Imaging, S. K. Mun, Ed., vol. 2580, pp. 164–169, IEEE Press, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  15. W. M. Gibson and M. A. Kumakhov, “Applications of X ray and neutron capillary optics,” in X Ray Detector Physics Applications, vol. 1736 of Proceedings of SPIE, p. 172, 1992.
  16. C. A. MacDonald, C. C. Abreu, S. Budkov et al., “Quantitative measurements of the performance of capillary X ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover and A. Walker, Eds., vol. 2011 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 275–286, 1993.
  17. J. B. Ullrich, V. Kovantsev, and C. A. MacDonald, “Measurements of polycapillary X ray optics,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 5933–5939, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. B. Rath, R Youngman, and C. A. MacDonald, “An automated test system for measuring polycapillary X ray optics,” Review of Scientific Instrumentation, vol. 65, pp. 3393–3398, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. B. Ullrich, I. Y. Ponomarev, M. V. Gubarev, N. Gao, Q. F. Xiao, and W. M. Gibson, “Development of monolithic capillary optics for X ray diffraction applications,” in X Ray and UV Detectors, R. B. Hoover and R. B. Tate, Eds., vol. 2278 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 148–155, 1994.
  20. C. A. Macdonald, “Applications and measurements of polycapillary X ray optics,” Journal of X Ray Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 32–47, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. C. Abreu and C. A. MacDonald, “Beam collimation, focusing, filtering and imaging with polycapillary X ray and neutron optics,” Physica Medica, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 79–89, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  22. V. A. Arkadiev and D. I. Gruev, “Principal possibilities of Kumakhov lenses,” in X Ray and UV Detectors, vol. 2278 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 200–209, July 1994.
  23. M. A. Kumakhov, “Status of X ray capillary optics,” in X Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. C. Walker Jr., Eds., vol. 2515 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 86–102, 1995.
  24. V. A. Arkadiev, A. A. Bzhaumikhov, H. E. Gorny, and N. S. Ibraimov, “Experimental investigation of Kumakhov lenses,” in X Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. C. Walker Jr., Eds., vol. 2515 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 103–113, 1995.
  25. M. A. Kumakhov, “Development of X ray and neutron capillary optics,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover and A. B. C. Walker Jr., Eds., vol. 3113 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 362–368, 1997.
  26. M. A. Kumakhov, “X ray capillary optics: history of development and present status,” in Kumakhov Optics and Application: Selected Research Papers on Kumakhov Optics and Application of 1998–2000, M. A. Kumakhov, Ed., vol. 4155 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 2–12, 2000.
  27. C. A. MacDonald and W. M. Gibson, “Polycapillary optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch et al., Eds., vol. 5 of Atmospheric Optics, Modulators, Fiber Optics, X Ray and Neutron Optics, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Cappuccio and S. B. Dabagov, “Capillary optics as an X ray condensing lens: an alignment procedure,” in Kumakhov Optics and Application: Selected Research Papers on Kumakhov Optics and Application 1998–2000, M. A. Kumakhov, Ed., vol. 4155 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 40–47, 2000.
  29. D. Li, F. R. Sugiro, and C. A. MacDonald, “Source-optic optimization for compact monochromatic imaging,” in X Ray Sources and Optics, C. A. MacDonald, A. T. Macrander, T. Ishikawa, C. Morawe, and J. L. Woo, Eds., vol. 5537 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 105–114, 2004.
  30. T. Sun and X. Ding, “Study on the measurement of properties of polycapillary X ray lens,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 226, no. 4, pp. 651–658, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Bingölbali and C. A. MacDonald, “Quality assessment system for curved crystal X ray optics,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 267, no. 5, pp. 832–841, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. M. Owens, J. B. Ullrich, I. Y. Ponomarev et al., “Polycapillary X ray optics for macromolecular crystallography,” in Hard X Ray/Gamma-Ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications, R. B. Hoover and F. B. Doty, Eds., vol. 2859, pp. 200–209, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  33. W. Zhou, D. N. Mahato, and C. A. MacDonald, “Analysis of powder X ray diffraction resolution using collimating and focusing polycapillary optics,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 18, pp. 5047–5056, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. R. E. Ban Gridken and A. A. Markowicz, Handbook of X Ray Spectrometry, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1993.
  35. A. Thompson, D. Atlword, E. Gullikson et al., X Ray Data Booklet, CXRO, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 2002.
  36. A. Bingölbali, W. Zhou, D. N. Mahato, and C. A. MacDonald, “Focused beam powder diffraction with polycapillary and curved crystal optics,” in Advances in X Ray/EUV Optics and Components III, A. M. Khounsary, C. Morawe, and S. Goto, Eds., vol. 7077 of Proceedings of SPIE, 2008.
  37. F. A. Hoffman, N. Gao, S. M. Owens, W. M. Gibson, C. A. MacDonald, and S. M. Lee, “Polycapillary optics for in-situ process diagnotstics,” in In Situ Process Diagnostics and Intelligent Materials Processing, Materials Research Society Proceedings, P. A. Rosenthal, W. M. Duncan, and J. A. Woollam, Eds., vol. 502, pp. 133–138, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  38. F. A. Hofmann, C. A. Freinberg-Trufas, S. M. Owens, S. D. Padiyar, and C. A. MacDonald, “Focusing of synchrotron radiation with polycapillary optics,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 133, no. 1-4, pp. 145–150, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  39. A. Erko, F. Schäfers, A. Firsov, W. B. Peatman, W. Eberhardt, and R. Signorato, “The BESSY X ray microfocus beamline project,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 59, no. 10-11, pp. 1543–1548, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. A. Al-Ebraheem, A. Mersov, K. Gurusamy, and M. J. Farquharson, “Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, vol. 619, no. 1–3, pp. 338–343, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  41. V. G. Mihucz, G. Silversmit, I. Szalóki et al., “Removal of some elements from washed and cooked rice studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron based confocal micro-X ray fluorescence,” Food Chemistry, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 290–297, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Janssens, K. Proost, and G. Falkenberg, “Confocal microscopic X ray fluorescence at the HASYLAB microfocus beamline: characteristics and possibilities,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 59, no. 10-11, pp. 1637–1645, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. G. Silversmit, B. Vekemans, S. Nikitenko et al., “Polycaillary based μ-XAS and confocal μ-XANES at a bending magnet source of the ESRF,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 190, Article ID 012036, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. Erko, N. Langhoff, A. A. Bjeoumikhov, and V. I. Beloglasov, “High-order harmonic suppression by a glass capillary array,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 467-468, pp. 832–835, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. V. Rossi Albertini, B. Paci, A. Generosi, S. B. Dabagov, O. Mikhin, and M. A. Kumakhov, “On the use of polycapillary structures to improve laboratory Energy-Dispersive X ray Diffractometry and Reflectometry,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1203–1207, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. Q. F. Xiao, I. Y. Ponomarev, A. I. Kolomitsev, and J. C. Kimball, “Numerical simulations for capillary-based X ray optics,” in X Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, Ed., Proceedings of SPIE, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  47. C. C. Abreu, D. G. Kruger, C. A. MacDonald, C. A. Mistretta, W. W. Peppler, and Q. F. Xiao, “Measurements of capillary X ray optics with potential for use in mammographic imaging,” Medical Physics, vol. 22, no. 11, part 1, pp. 1793–1801, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. Suparmi, Cari, L. Wang, H. Wang, W. M. Gibson, and C. A. MacDonald, “Measurement and analysis of leaded glass capillary optic performance for hard X ray applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 5363–5368, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  49. C. A. MacDonald and W. M. Gibson, “Applications and advances in polycapillary optics,” X Ray Spectrometry, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 258–268, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. A. Liu, “The X ray distribution after a focussing polycapillary—a shadow simulation,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 243, no. 1, pp. 223–226, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. D. Hampai, G. Cappuccio, G. Cibin, S. B. Dabagov, and V. Sessa, “Modeling of X ray transport through polycapillary optics,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, vol. 580, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, G. Cappuccio, and G. Cibin, “X ray propagation through polycapillary optics studied through a ray tracing approach,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 62, no. 6-7, pp. 608–614, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. L. Xiaoyan, LI. Yude, T. Guotai, and S. Tianxi, “Evaluation of transmitting performance of cylindrical polycapillary,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 572, no. 2, pp. 729–733, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. F. R. Sugiro, S. D. Padiyar, C. A. MacDonald, and C. A. MacDonald, “Characterization of pre- and post-patient X ray polycapillary optics for mammographic imaging,” in Advances in Laboratory-Based X Ray Sources and Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker II, and S. Goto, Eds., vol. 4144 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 204–215, 2000.
  55. L. Wang, B. K. Rath, W. M. Gibson, J. C. Kimball, and C. A. MacDonald, “Performance study of polycapillary optics for hard X rays,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 3628–3638, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  56. H. Wang, L. Wang, W. M. Gibson, and C. A. MacDonald, “Focused beam powder diffraction with polycapillary and curved crystal optics,” in X Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker II, and S. Goto, Eds., vol. 3444 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 643–651, July 1998.
  57. D. H. Bilderback, “Review of capillary X ray optics from the 2nd international capillary optics meeting,” X Ray Spectrometry, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 195–207, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. D. Bittel and J. C. Kimball, “Surface roughness and the scattering of glancing-angle X rays: application to X ray lenses,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 877–883, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. J. Harvey, “X ray optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, Ed., vol. 2, chapter 11, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  60. Cari, C. A. MacDonald, W. M. Gibson et al., “Characterization of a long focal length polycapillary optic for high energy X rays,” in Advances in Laboratory-Based X Ray Sources and Optics, C. A. MacDonald and A. M. Khounsary, Eds., vol. 4144 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 183–192, 2000.
  61. B. K. Rath, L. Wang, B. E. Homan, F. Hofmann, W. M. Gibson, and C. A. MacDonald, “Measurements and analysis of radiation effects in polycapillary X ray optics,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 7424–7435, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  62. A. Bjeoumikhov, N. Langhoff, S. Bjeoumikhova, and R. Wedell, “Capillary optics for micro X ray fluorescence analysis,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 76, no. 6, Article ID 063115, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. S. Dittrich, Energy sensitive measurements of X Ray beam focusing with polycapillary optics, M.S. thesis, University at Albany, 2006.
  64. H. von Berlischpe, Focused beam applications polycapillary X ray optics, M.S. thesis, University at Albany, 2005.
  65. J. Lohbreier, Fluorescence and diffraction measurements with polycapillary X ray optics, M.S. thesis, University at Albany, 2004.
  66. L. Wang, W. M. Gibson, C. A. MacDonald et al., “Potential of polycapillary X ray optics in medical imaging applications,” in EUV, X Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker III, and S. P. Vernon, Eds., vol. 3767 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 102–112, 1999.
  67. M. A. Kumakhov, “Status of experimental works in the field of X ray capillary optics,” in X Ray and UV Detectors, vol. 2278 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 180–190, July 1994.
  68. S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Applied Optics, vol. 39, no. 19, pp. 3338–3343, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  69. S. B. Dabagov and H. Uberall, “On X ray channeling in narrow guides,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 266, no. 17, pp. 3881–3887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. S. V. Kukhlevsky, G. Nyitray, V. L. Kantsyrev, and J. Kaiser, “Detailed structure of fs pulses passing through straight and tapered optical waveguides,” Optics Communications, vol. 192, no. 3–6, pp. 225–229, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. S. LaBrake, Glass capillary X ray waveguides, Doctoral Dissertation, University at Albany, 2003.
  72. A. Bjeoumikhov, S. Bjeoumikhova, H. Riesemeier, M. Radtke, and R. Wedell, “Propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures,” Physics Letters A, vol. 366, no. 4-5, pp. 283–288, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. S. V. Kukhlevsky, F. Flora, A. Marinai et al., “Diffraction of X ray beams in capillary waveguides,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 276–282, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. A. Bjeoumikhov, “Observation of peculiarities in angular distributions of X ray radition after propagation through nanocapill structure,” Physics Letters A, vol. 360, pp. 405–410, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. B. Dabagov, “Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nanocapillaries,” Physics-Uspekhi, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1053–1075, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. K. Janssens, W. De Nolf, G. Van Der Snickt et al., “Recent trends in quantitative aspects of microscopic X ray fluorescence analysis,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 464–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. K. Tsuji, K. Nakano, H. Hayashi, K. Hayashi, and C. U. Ro, “X ray spectrometry,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 4421–4454, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  78. K. H. A. Janssens, F. C. V. Adams, and A. Rindby, Eds., Microscopic X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  79. Y. Yan and W. M. Gibson, “Polycapillary optics and X ray analytical techniques,” Advances in X Ray Analysis, vol. 45, pp. 298–304, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  80. S. P. Formica and S. M. Lee, “X ray fluorescence system for thin film composition analysis during deposition,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 491, no. 1-2, pp. 71–77, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. Z. Luo, B. Geng, J. Bao et al., “High-throughput X ray characterization system for combinatorial materials studies,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 76, no. 9, Article ID 095105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. L. Borgese, A. Zacco, E. Bontempi et al., “Use of total reflection X ray fluorescence (TXRF) for the evaluation of heavy metal poisoning due to the improper use of a traditional ayurvedic drug,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 787–790, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  83. S. V. Nikitina, A. S. Shcherbakov, and N. S. Ibraimov, “X ray fluorescence analysis on the base of polycapillary Kumakhov optics,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 2950–2956, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  84. G. Buzanich, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli et al., “A portable micro-X ray fluorescence spectrometer with polycapillary optics and vacuum chamber for archaeometric and other applications,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1252–1256, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. G. Vittiglio, S. Bichlmeier, P. Klinger et al., “A compact μ-XRF spectrometer for (in situ) analyses of cultural heritage and forensic materials,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 213, pp. 693–698, 2004, 5th Topical Meeting on Industrial Radiation andRadioisotope Measurement Applications. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. B. Kanngießer, N. Kemf, and W. Malzer, “Spectral and lateral resolved characterisation of X ray microbeams,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 198, no. 3-4, pp. 230–237, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. E. Langer, S. Dabritz, W. Hauffe, and M. Haschke, “Advances in X ray excitation of Kossel patterns by a focusing polycapillary lens,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 1, pp. 240–244, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  88. A. G. Revenko, “Specific features of X ray fluorescence analysis techniques using capillary lenses and synchrotron radiation,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 62, no. 6-7, pp. 567–576, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. J. M. Feldkamp, C. G. Schroer, J. Patommel et al., “Compact X ray microtomography system for element mapping and absorption imaging,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 78, no. 7, Article ID 073702, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  90. P. Bleuet, P. Gergaud, L. Lemelle et al., “3D chemical imaging based on a third-generation synchrotron source,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 518–527, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. Ž. Šmit, K. Janssens, K. Proost, and I. Langus, “Confocal μ-XRF depth analysis of paint layers,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 219-220, no. 1–4, pp. 35–40, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. M. Žitnik, P. Pelicon, N. Grlj et al., “Three-dimensional imaging of aerosol particles with scanning proton microprobe in a confocal arrangement,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 9, Article ID 094104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. N. Grassi, C. Guazzoni, R. Alberti, T. Klatka, and A. Bjeoumikhov, “External scanning micro-PIXE for the characterization of a polycapillary lens: measurement of the collected X ray intensity distribution,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 268, no. 11-12, pp. 1945–1948, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. R. Alberti, A. Bjeoumikhov, N. Grassi et al., “Use of silicon drift detectors for the detection of medium-light elements in PIXE,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, vol. 266, no. 10, pp. 2296–2300, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. T. Sun, Z. Liu, Y. Li et al., “Quantitative analysis of single aerosl particles with confocal micro-X ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, vol. 622, no. 1, pp. 295–297, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  96. A. Castoldi, C. Guazzoni, R. Hartmann, C. Ozkan, L. Strüder, and A. Visconti, “Application of controlled-drift detectors to spectroscopic X ray imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS-MIC '07), pp. 1003–1008, November 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. K. Tsuji, K. Nakano, and X. Ding, “Development of confocal micro X ray fluorescence instrument using two X ray beams,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 62, no. 6-7, pp. 549–553, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. W. M. Gibson and C. A. MacDonald, “Summary of X ray and neutron optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, Ed., vol. 3, chapter 37, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  99. T. Sun, Y. Xie, Z. Liu, T. Liu, T. Hu, and X. Ding, “Application of a combined system of polycapillary X ray lens and toroidal mirror in micro-X ray-absorption fine-structure facility,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 99, no. 9, Article ID 094907, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. P.-W. Li and R.-C. Bi, “Applications of polycapillary X ray optics in protein crystallography,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 806–811, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  101. F. A. Hofmann, W. M. Gibson, C. A. MacDonald, D. A. Carter, J. X. Ho, and J. R. Ruble, “Polycapillary optic-source combinations for protein crystallography,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 330–335, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. C. A. MacDonald, S. M. Owens, and W. M. Gibson, “Polycapillary X ray optics for microdiffraction,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 160–167, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  103. S. M.. Owens, F. A. Hoffman, C. A. MacDonald, and W. M. Gibson, “Microdiffraction using collimating and convergent beam polycapillary optics,” Advances in X Ray Analysis, vol. 41, pp. 314–318, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  104. J. X. Ho, E. H. Snell, R. C. Sisk et al., “Stationary crystal diffraction with a monochromatic convergent X ray source and application for macromolecular crystal data collection,” Acta Crystallographica D, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 200–214, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. C. Kirchlechner, K. J. Martinschitz, R. Daniel et al., “X ray diffraction analysis of three-dimensional residual stress fields reveals origins of thermal fatigue in uncoated and coated steel,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 774–777, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. S. T. Misture and M. Haller, “Application of polycapillary optics for parallel beam powder diffraction,” Advances in X Ray Analysis, vol. 43, pp. 248–253, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  107. C. A. MacDonald, N. Mail, W. M. Gibson, S. M. Jorgensen, and E. L. Ritman, “Micro gamma camera optics with high sensitivity and resolution,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, M. J. Flynn, Ed., vol. 5745 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 1–6, 2005.
  108. S. M. Jorgensen, M. S. Chmelik, D. R. Eaker, C. A. MacDonald, and E. L. Ritman, “Polycapillary X ray optics- based integrated micro-SPECT/CT scanner,” in Developments in X Ray Tomography IV, U. Bonse, Ed., vol. 5535 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 36–42, 2004.
  109. D. N. Mahato and C. A. MacDonald, “Potential for focused beam orthovoltage therapy,” in Penetrating Radiation Systems and Applications XI, F. P. Doty, H. B. Barber, H. Roehrig, and R. C. Schirato, Eds., vol. 7806 of Proceedings of SPIE, 2010.
  110. H. Chen, R. G. Downing, D. F. R. Mildner et al., “Guiding and focusing neutron beams using capillary optics,” Nature, vol. 357, no. 6377, pp. 391–393, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  111. Q. F. Xiao, H. Chen, V. A. Sharov et al., “Neutron focusing optic for submillimeter materials analysis,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 3399–3402, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. D. F. R. Mildner, H. H. Chen-Mayer, and R. G. Downing, “Characteristic of a polycapillary neutron focusing lens,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced in Neutron Optics and Related Research Facilities, Japan, March 1996.
  113. R. F. Barth, A. H. Soloway, and R. G. Fairchild, “Boron neutron capture therapy for cancer,” Scientific American, vol. 263, no. 4, pp. 100–106, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  114. A. J. Peurrung, “Capillary optics for neutron capture therapy,” Medical Physics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 487–494, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. R. Mayer, J. Welsh, and H. Chen-Mayer, “Focused neutron beam dose deposition profiles in tissue equivalent materials: a pilot study of BNCT,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Neutron Techniques, Crete, Greece, June 1996.
  116. C. H. Russell, W. M. Gibson, M. V. Gubarev et al., “Application of polycapillary optics for hard X ray astronomy,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover and A. B. C. Walker II, Eds., vol. 3113 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 369–377, 1997.
  117. C. H. Russell, M. Gubarev, J. Kolodziejczak, M. Joy, C. A. MacDonald, and W. M. Gibson, “Polycapillary X ray optics for X ray Astronomy,” in Advances in X Ray Analysis, vol. 43, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  118. B. K. Rath, F. B. Hagelberg, B. E. Homan, and C. A. MacDonald, “Synchrotron white beam thermal loading on polycapillary X ray optics,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 401, no. 2-3, pp. 421–428, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar