Research data

Our aim at Hindawi is to foster open access to all research outputs (including data and software code, as well as articles), while ensuring that appropriate attribution is given to those who invest time, thought, and funds into their creation. We therefore encourage all authors to share the data that support the findings of their manuscripts by depositing them in a publicly available data repository wherever possible. This includes the data you provide as part of the supplementary information to your article (if you have any).


How your data can be accessed by others must be described in a data availability statement, which will be included with your the published paper.


We believe that ensuring that the data underlying the findings of a paper are publicly available wherever possible—as open as possible and as closed as necessary—will help ensure that the work you describe in an article can potentially be replicated. We therefore firmly support and endorse the FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship—that of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability. There are many benefits to sharing data—it increases not only both the utility and reliability of your work, but also its impact and visibility and your profile and credibility as a researcher.

We want to work with the research community, including our authors, editors, and reviewers, to make our data sharing policy as effective and burden free as possible. Funders, governments and research organisations from many jurisdictions are also actively encouraging or mandating data sharing by the researchers they fund, including for example the Wellcome Trust, the European Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan, and the National Earth System Science Data Sharing Infrastructure in China. A list of policies of some funders and other organisations is available from FAIRsharing. Please be sure to check the data sharing requirements of your funders before filling out the Data Availability statement. If you have any questions, please contact [email protected].

How to share your data

1. Data deposited in a repository

We prefer authors to deposit their data in a public repository that meets appropriate standards of archiving, citation and curation (see below). Having data available in a structured database carries significant benefits. Such repositories typically allow the data to be stored in native formats, which maximises the potential for analysis, reuse, and verification. This also makes it easier for users to search, filter, and analyse the data. Importantly, such repositories conform to a minimum set of best practices and provide appropriate standards of curation (e.g. a common structure and collection of metadata).

    2. Data in supplementary information files

    Alternatively, authors may provide their data in the Supplementary Information files that they submit alongside their manuscript. Authors are encouraged to also deposit this data in an appropriate repository (see below).

      3. Data available on request

      Authors can also make data available on request through a data access committee, institutional review board, or the authors themselves. In this case, they should name who should be contacted to request the data (e.g., the ethics or data access committee) and provide appropriate contact details. When authors have used third party data (i.e. from another individual or source) and therefore do not own the data, this source must be credited as appropriate and details of how to access the data should be given.

        4. Access to data is restricted

        When the data are not freely available, the authors should provide an explanation and details of any restrictions on access. Acceptable justifications for restricting access may include legal and ethical concerns, such as third-party rights, patient privacy, and commercial confidentiality.

        While Hindawi encourages authors to make their data available, it is also important that they follow the policies of their institutions and funders, including any mandates or restrictions on data sharing. If the data belong to an institution or third party, the author must secure permission to publish and/or share the data and provide appropriate attribution. Authors should anonymize data to protect privacy, where necessary.

          Note that, if needed during the review process, authors must provide datasets to the editor or editorial staff upon request whether or not the authors intend to share them on publication. In addition, please note that Hindawi is a signatory of the COPDESS Commitment to Enabling FAIR Data in the Earth, Space and Environmental Sciences, and hence when submitting to relevant journals we require authors to deposit the minimum data required to support the findings described in their manuscript in an appropriate repository. Further information on this can be found at the bottom of this page.

            How to cite your data

            When citing data, we require authors to follow the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles and ESIP Guidelines, using the unique, resolvable, and persistent identifiers provided by the repository in which the data are archived. In particular:

            • Citations should appear in the body of the article with a corresponding reference in the reference list.
            • Citations should include persistent identifiers in well-formed references to data and software.
            • Citations should include software used in the research following the FORCE11 Software Citation Principles, which recommends a similar depositing of the software in an archival repository, and citation/references that include the persistent identifiers provided by the repository.

              Composing a data availability statement

              We require authors to include a data availability statement with all Research Articles published in a Hindawi journal. This statement describes if and how others can access the data supporting the conclusions of the study, including:

              • what the nature of the data is
              • where the data can be accessed
              • why there are any restrictions on data access

                Template examples

                Below are template examples that authors may use to write a data availability statement. It will often be appropriate to combine templates and edit them as appropriate.

                1. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study have been deposited in the [NAME] repository ([DOI or OTHER PERSISTENT IDENTIFIER]).
                2. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article.
                3. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study are included within the supplementary information file(s).
                4. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study were supplied by [NAME] under license and so cannot be made freely available. Requests for access to these data should be made to [NAME, CONTACT DETAILS].
                5. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study are currently under embargo while the research findings are commercialized. Requests for data, [6/12 months] after publication of this article, will be considered by the corresponding author.
                6. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study may be released upon application to the [DATA ACCESS COMMITTEE NAME or INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD NAME], who can be contacted at [CONTACT DETAILS].
                7. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study are restricted by the [ETHICS BOARD NAME] in order to protect [PATIENT PRIVACY or ENDANGERED SPECIES]. Data are available from [NAME, CONTACT DETAILS] for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data.
                8. Previously reported [DATA TYPE] data were used to support this study and are available at [DOI or OTHER PERSISTENT IDENTIFIER]. These prior studies (and datasets) are cited at relevant places within the text as references [#-#].
                9. The [DATA TYPE] data supporting this [SYSTEMATIC REVIEW or META-ANALYSIS] are from previously reported studies and datasets, which have been cited. The processed data are available [AT REPOSITORY NAME/IN THE SUPPLEMENTARY FILES/FROM THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR UPON REQUEST].
                10. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
                11. The [DATA TYPE] data used to support the findings of this study have not been made available because [REASON].
                12. No underlying data was collected or produced in this study.
                  Please note: this template is only for those cases where there is no underlying data used to support the results and conclusions. This may apply to manuscripts on mathematics, modelling, computing and narrative reviews but not, for example, to manuscripts containing any original empirical/experimental research. Systematic review articles, meta-analyses and case reports are expected to have underlying data even if this is from a secondary source, and we encourage authors to use the most appropriate availability template from the list above (e.g.: Template 9).

                  Additional resources

                  Some other organisations and publishers who require a data availability statements have also issued guidance which authors may find helpful:

                    Subject-specific requirements

                    Data for certain disciplines should be handled in a specific way, and deposited in particular repositories. These requirements are described below.

                    Data in Earth, Space and Environmental Science journals

                    As a signatory of the COPDESS Commitment to Enabling FAIR Data in the Earth, Space and Environmental Sciences, Hindawi requires authors to make the minimum data required to support the conclusions in their manuscript fully available in a suitable community repository at the time of submission, when submitting to the following journals:

                    • Advances in Meteorology
                    • Applied and Environmental Soil Science
                    • Geofluids
                    • International Journal of Agronomy
                    • International Journal of Ecology
                    • Advances in Astronomy

                    Authors should comply with the author guidelines stated here. Where such repositories are not available, or specific legal or ethical requirements prohibit public sharing of a dataset, authors must indicate how researchers may obtain access to the data. Please note that where the data is available on request, it is not acceptable for an individual to be named as the sole contact for obtaining access to this data. In addition, the reasons for which the data cannot be made publicly available should be given. Acceptable restrictions include:

                    Where the data is available from a third party, authors must include the third-party source and verification of permission in the Data Availability Statement, as well as provide proper acknowledgment in the article.

                    • Location information or other unique data that may place vulnerable species or sites at risk (including endangered animals or plants, rare fossil or mineral locations, designated archaeological sites, and others).
                    • Data containing personal information on human subjects. Confidentiality and the specific access restrictions in this case are usually specified by an Institutional Review Board or the grant. Some additional information is available here.
                    • Where there are specific laws regarding access to certain sensitive data and the laws provide standard means for researchers to apply for access.
                    • Where the data (or software) were purchased and access is available to others through the same process. For example, if a commercial software package or data set is used, the researchers can indicate where others can obtain similar access.

                    Microarray data

                    Before publication, microarray data should be deposited in an appropriate database such as Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) or Array Express, and an entry name or accession number must be included in the manuscript prior to its publication. Microarray data should be MIAME-compliant. During the reviewing process, submitting authors are committed to provide the editor and the reviewers handling their manuscript with the login information by which they can access this information in the database.

                    Small molecule single crystal X-ray diffraction data

                    We recommend the use of SHELXL (2014 or later) for data processing, which embeds both the results file and structure factors into the finalized crystallographic information file (CIF) (see for more information).

                    We strongly recommend that all new small molecule single crystal X-ray diffraction data be deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC; prior to submission of your article. The CCDC number(s) assigned to your structure(s) should be listed in the Data Availability statement, which permits retrieval of the crystallographic data for peer review purposes and allows readers to find them once the article is published.

                    We would also ask you to check the integrity of your data using the IUCr's checkCIF service (available here: and address significant unresolved problems (typically all A- and B-alerts) in the Validation Response Form portion of the CIF. The generation of the checkCIF report and the response to A- and B-alerts can also all be done through the deposition to the CCDC.

                    If you choose to not deposit your data in the CCDC prior to submission, you must upload your CIF (and RES and HKL/FCF files if necessary), along with a PDF of the checkCIF report (link above) as Supporting Information, at the same time of uploading your manuscript. At acceptance, you should then submit your crystal data to an appropriate repository and update the Data Availability statement in your manuscript to indicate how authors can retrieve the data.

                    The Data Availability section should reference crystallographic data in the following format:

                    Crystallographic data for the structures reported in this manuscript have been deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre under the CCDC numbers: [######] (COMPOUND NAME 1), [######] (COMPOUND NAME 2), and [######] (COMPOUND NAME 3). Copies of these data can be obtained free of charge from

                      Article of the Year Award: Impactful research contributions of 2022, as selected by our Chief Editors. Discover the winning articles.