Hindawi https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda Sun, 28 May 2017 10:48:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijb/2017/4604789/ Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda. Atek Atwiine Kagirita, Andrew Baguma, Tonny Jimmy Owalla, Joel Bazira, and Samuel Majalija Copyright © 2017 Atek Atwiine Kagirita et al. All rights reserved. Biophysical Mechanisms Mediating Fibrin Fiber Lysis Sun, 28 May 2017 10:43:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2748340/ The formation and dissolution of blood clots is both a biochemical and a biomechanical process. While much of the chemistry has been worked out for both processes, the influence of biophysical properties is less well understood. This review considers the impact of several structural and mechanical parameters on lytic rates of fibrin fibers. The influences of fiber and network architecture, fiber strain, FXIIIa cross-linking, and particle transport phenomena will be assessed. The importance of the mechanical aspects of fibrinolysis is emphasized, and future research avenues are discussed. Nathan E. Hudson Copyright © 2017 Nathan E. Hudson. All rights reserved. The Effect of Drying Parameters on the Quality of Pork and Poultry-Pork Kabanosy Produced according to the Traditional Specialties Guaranteed Recipe Sun, 28 May 2017 10:14:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/1597432/ The aim of this study was to determine the effect of differentiated air relative humidity during the drying process on selected quality features of TSG (traditional specialties guaranteed) pork and poultry-pork kabanosy. After heat treatment and 24-hour cooling at 4–6°C, the products were placed in three chambers at 15°C with differentiated air relative humidity: 60, 70, and 80%, respectively. The drying process was carried out until all variants of kabanosy achieved the required final yield of the product (<68%). Color components, water activity and shear force, water, protein, fat, and salt content, and the TBARS indicator values were determined. The drying process might be shortened (~50%) by a reduction of humidity in the drying chamber from 80 to 60%. The changes in the content of chemical components in pork kabanosy compared to poultry-pork ones demonstrated the different dynamics of the drying of the two types of kabanosy and the need for the selection of optimum drying conditions relative to raw material composition. Marta Chmiel, Lech Adamczak, Katarzyna Wrońska, Dorota Pietrzak, and Tomasz Florowski Copyright © 2017 Marta Chmiel et al. All rights reserved. Global Analysis of a Novel Nonlinear Stochastic SIVS Epidemic System with Vaccination Control Sun, 28 May 2017 10:07:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/8098475/ This paper proposes a stochastic SIVS epidemic system with nonlinear saturated infection rate under vaccination and investigates the dynamics predicted by the model. By using Itô’s formula and Lyapunov methods, we first study the existence and uniqueness of global positive solution. Then we investigate the stochastic dynamics of the system and obtain the thresholds which govern the extinction and the spread of the epidemic disease. Results show that large stochastic noises can lead to the extinction of epidemic diseases; that is, stochastic disturbances can suppress the outbreak of epidemic diseases. Finally, we carry out a series of numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of our theoretical findings. Xiaona Leng, Tao Feng, and Xinzhu Meng Copyright © 2017 Xiaona Leng et al. All rights reserved. AAA Rupture and Psoas Hematoma due to Type II Endoleak from Inferior Mesenteric Artery “Unusual” Collaterals Sun, 28 May 2017 10:05:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2017/8607437/ Although endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in the abdominal aorta has reduced the perioperative mortality when compared with open repair, the need for reintervention after complications such as endoleak may be presented in up to 20% of the cases. Type II endoleak from branch vessels is often benign but can potentially be associated with progressive abdominal aortic aneurysm growth and sac expansion. We present a rare case of a patient who presented with sac expansion and psoas hematoma due to Type II endoleak from “unusual” collaterals of IMA and was treated successfully with endoleak microembolization and percutaneous decompression of the hematoma. Panagiotis G. Theodoridis, Dimitrios N. Staramos, Nikolaos Ptochis, Ioannis A. Papailiou, Ilias Dodos, Nikolaos Iatrou, Anastasios G. Potouridis, and Konstantinos Dervisis Copyright © 2017 Panagiotis G. Theodoridis et al. All rights reserved. Joint Power Allocation and Beamforming in Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks under Per-Node Power Constraint Sun, 28 May 2017 09:53:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcmc/2017/5681236/ Two-way relay networks (TWRN) have been intensively investigated over the past decade due to their ability to enhance the performance assessment of networks in terms of cellular coverage and spectral efficiency. Yet, power control in such systems is a nontrivial issue, particularly in multirelay networks where relays are deployed to ensure a required Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper, we envision to address this critical issue by minimizing the sum-power with respect to per-node power consumption and acceptable users’ rates. To tackle this, we employ a variable transformation to turn the fractional quadratically constrained quadratic problem (QCQP) into semidefinite programming (SDP). This algorithm is also extended to a distributed format. Simulation results of deploying 10 relay stations reveal that the total power consumption will decrease to approximately 8 dBW for 6 bps/Hz sum-rate. Farzin Azami, Seyed Mostafa Safavi Hemami, and Abbas Akbarpour-Kasgari Copyright © 2017 Farzin Azami et al. All rights reserved. Nanoscale Mechanical Properties of Nanoindented Ni48.8Mn27.2Ga24 Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Thin Film Sun, 28 May 2017 09:51:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scanning/2017/4630156/ The structure and nanoscale mechanical properties of Ni48.8Mn27.2Ga24 thin film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering are investigated systematically. The thin film has the austenite state at room temperature with the L21 Hesuler structure. During nanoindentation, stress-induced martensitic transformation occurs on the nanoscale for the film annealed at 823 K for 1 hour and the shape recovery ratio is up to 85.3%. The associated mechanism is discussed. Xiaofei Fu, Chao Liu, Xili Lu, Xianli Li, Jingwei Lv, Famei Wang, and Liying Wang Copyright © 2017 Xiaofei Fu et al. All rights reserved. Health and Safety Considerations of Fermented Sausages Sun, 28 May 2017 09:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/9753894/ Fermented sausages are highly treasured traditional foods. A large number of distinct sausages with different properties are produced using widely different recipes and manufacturing processes. Over the last years, eating fermented sausages has been associated with potential health hazards due to their high contents of saturated fats, high NaCl content, presence of nitrite and its degradation products such as nitrosamines, and use of smoking which can lead to formation of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we review the recent literature regarding possible health effects of the ingredients used in fermented sausages. We also go through attempts to improve the sausages by lowering the content of saturated fats by replacing them with unsaturated fats, reducing the NaCl concentration by partly replacing it with KCl, and the use of selected starter cultures with desirable properties. In addition, we review the food pathogenic microorganisms relevant for fermented sausages (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Toxoplasma gondii) and processing and postprocessing strategies to inhibit their growth and reduce their presence in the products. Askild Holck, Lars Axelsson, Anette McLeod, Tone Mari Rode, and Even Heir Copyright © 2017 Askild Holck et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Deformation and Stress between Bone and Implant from Various Bite Forces by Numerical Simulation Analysis Sun, 28 May 2017 09:43:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2827953/ Endosseous oral implant is applied for orthodontic anchorage in subjects with multiple tooth agenesis. Its effectiveness under orthodontic loading has been demonstrated clinically and experimentally. This study investigates the deformation and stress on the bone and implant for different bite forces by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) methods. A numerical simulation of deformation and stress distributions around implants was used to estimate the survival life for implants. The model was applied to determine the pattern and distribution of deformations and stresses within the endosseous implant and on supporting tissues when the endosseous implant is used for orthodontic anchorage. A threaded implant was placed in an edentulous segment of a human mandible with cortical and cancellous bone. Analytical results demonstrate that maximum stresses were always located around the implant neck in marginal bone. The results also reveal that the stress for oblique force has the maximum value followed by the horizontal force; the vertical force causes the stress to have the minimum value between implant and bone. Thus, this area should be preserved clinically to maintain the structure and function of a bone implant. Hsin-Chung Cheng, Boe-Yu Peng, May-Show Chen, Chiung-Fang Huang, Yi Lin, and Yung-Kang Shen Copyright © 2017 Hsin-Chung Cheng et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Patients with Primary Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Treated Using Multimodal Therapy Sun, 28 May 2017 09:27:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2017/1404610/ Objectives. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMGCTs) are rare, which often makes them difficult to treat. Herein, we examined patients with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment. Methods. We examined 6 patients (median age: 25 years, range: 19–27 years) with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment between April 2001 and March 2015. Three patients had seminomas, 2 patients had yolk sac tumors, and 1 patient had choriocarcinoma. The median observation period was 32.5 months (range: 8–84 months). Results. Three of the 6 patients received initial operation followed by 3-4 courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) or etoposide and cisplatin (EP)). One patient developed multiple lung metastases 17 months after surgery; received salvage chemotherapy with vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin; and achieved complete remission. The remaining 3 patients received initial BEP and EP chemotherapy. Multiple lung metastases and supraclavicular lymph node metastases were detected in 2 of these patients at the initial diagnosis. The patients underwent resections to remove residual tumor after treatment, and no viable tumor cells were found. Conclusions. Reliable diagnosis and immediate multimodal treatments are necessary for patients with PMGCTs. The 6 patients treated in our hospital have never experienced recurrence after the multimodal treatment. Yutaro Tanaka, Takehiko Okamura, Takashi Nagai, Daichi Kobayashi, Takahiro Kobayashi, Hidetoshi Akita, Yoshinobu Moritoki, and Takahiro Yasui Copyright © 2017 Yutaro Tanaka et al. All rights reserved. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester Sun, 28 May 2017 09:15:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2017/8636204/ Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a “green” forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts. Shen Rong-feng, Zhang Xiaozhen, and Zhou Chengjun Copyright © 2017 Shen Rong-feng et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Bone Cyst in Cervical Vertebrae of an Adolescent Patient Sun, 28 May 2017 09:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2017/8908216/ Introduction. Spinal simple bone cysts, also known as solitary cysts, are extremely unusual benign primary bone tumors with few cases reported in the literature. Case Presentation. Incidental Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) finding of a C2 Simple bone cyst in a 13-year-old female patient is reported. Complementary studies suggested the benign nature of the lesion. Patient underwent cervical curettage followed by tumor excision. A lateral submandibular approach to the upper cervical spine was used and careful bone resection was possible with a radiofrequency assisted burr and no instrumentation or fixation was required. The stability of the defect was ensured by filling it with bone allograft and by prescribing a postsurgical plastic cervical collar to maintain neck immobilization. Histological examination supported the diagnosis of simple bone cyst. At 6–12-month follow-up the patient presented no recurrence or symptomatology. Conclusions. Solitary bone cysts are infrequent entities in the cervical vertebrae and preservation of spine stability without instrumentation to avoid neurological complications is often challenging. In this case, the proximity of the cyst to the right vertebral artery and the risk of injury were high; however the surgical approach used was successful and no recurrence or instability was evidenced on postoperative MRI. Adriana Bruges Boude, Lina González Vásquez, Fernando Alvarado-Gomez, María Constanza Bedoya, Andrés Rodríguez-Múnera, and Luis Carlos Morales-Saenz Copyright © 2017 Adriana Bruges Boude et al. All rights reserved. Flexible and Lightweight Access Control for Online Healthcare Social Networks in the Context of the Internet of Things Sun, 28 May 2017 08:45:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2017/7514867/ Online healthcare social networks (OHSNs) play an essential role in sharing information among medical experts and patients who are equipped with similar experiences. To access other patients’ data or experts’ diagnosis anywhere and anytime, it is necessary to integrate the OHSN into the Internet as part of the Internet of Things (IoT). Therefore, it is crucial to design an efficient and versatile access control scheme that can grant and revoke a user to access the OHSN. In this paper, we propose novel attribute-based encryption (ABE) features with user revocation and verifiable decryption outsourcing to control the access privilege of the users. The security of the proposed ABE scheme is given in the well-studied random oracle model. With the proposed ABE scheme, the malicious users can be excluded from the system and the user can offload most of the overhead in the decryption to an untrusted cloud server in a verifiable manner. An access control scheme for the OHSN has been given in the context of the IoT based on the proposed ABE scheme. The simulation demonstrates that our access control mechanism is practical. Zhen Qin, Jianfei Sun, Dajiang Chen, and Hu Xiong Copyright © 2017 Zhen Qin et al. All rights reserved. An Integrative Developmental Genomics and Systems Biology Approach to Identify an In Vivo Sox Trio-Mediated Gene Regulatory Network in Murine Embryos Sun, 28 May 2017 08:33:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8932583/ Embryogenesis is an intricate process involving multiple genes and pathways. Some of the key transcription factors controlling specific cell types are the Sox trio, namely, Sox5, Sox6, and Sox9, which play crucial roles in organogenesis working in a concerted manner. Much however still needs to be learned about their combinatorial roles during this process. A developmental genomics and systems biology approach offers to complement the reductionist methodology of current developmental biology and provide a more comprehensive and integrated view of the interrelationships of complex regulatory networks that occur during organogenesis. By combining cell type-specific transcriptome analysis and in vivo ChIP-Seq of the Sox trio using mouse embryos, we provide evidence for the direct control of Sox5 and Sox6 by the transcriptional trio in the murine model and by Morpholino knockdown in zebrafish and demonstrate the novel role of Tgfb2, Fbxl18, and Tle3 in formation of Sox5, Sox6, and Sox9 dependent tissues. Concurrently, a complete embryonic gene regulatory network has been generated, identifying a wide repertoire of genes involved and controlled by the Sox trio in the intricate process of normal embryogenesis. Wenqing Jean Lee, Sumantra Chatterjee, Sook Peng Yap, Siew Lan Lim, Xing Xing, Petra Kraus, Wenjie Sun, Xiaoming Hu, V. Sivakamasundari, Hsiao Yun Chan, Prasanna R. Kolatkar, Shyam Prabhakar, and Thomas Lufkin Copyright © 2017 Wenqing Jean Lee et al. All rights reserved. A Dosimetric Comparison of Dose Escalation with Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Sun, 28 May 2017 07:56:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9736362/ Background. Many studies have demonstrated that a higher radiotherapy dose is associated with improved outcomes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed a dosimetric planning study to assess the dosimetric feasibility of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in locally advanced NSCLC. Methods. We enrolled twenty patients. Five different dose plans were generated for each patient. All plans were prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning tumor volume (PTV). In the three SIB groups, the prescribed dose was 69 Gy, 75 Gy, and 81 Gy in 30 fractions to the internal gross tumor volume (iGTV). Results. The SIB-IMRT plans were associated with a significant increase in the iGTV dose (P < 0.05), without increased normal tissue exposure or prolonged overall treatment time. Significant differences were not observed in the dose to the normal lung in terms of the V5 and V20 among the four IMRT plans. The maximum dose (Dmax) in the esophagus moderately increased along with the prescribed dose (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results indicated that escalating the dose by SIB-IMRT is dosimetrically feasible; however, systematic evaluations via clinical trials are still warranted. We have designed a further clinical study (which is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02841228). Wenjuan Yang, Biao Zeng, Yanfang Qiu, Jianfeng Tan, Shilei Xu, Yilong Cai, Yujuan Zhou, Zhigang Liu, Junming Luo, and Hui Wang Copyright © 2017 Wenjuan Yang et al. All rights reserved. False Positive Transit Time Flowmetry Graft Failure in Multivessel Coronary Spasm following Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Sun, 28 May 2017 07:55:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2017/3186047/ Intraoperative Transit Time Flowmetry is currently recommended to assess graft patency during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), especially in presence of haemodynamic instability or inability to wean the patient from cardiopulmonary bypass, new regional wall motion abnormalities, or significant ventricular arrhythmias. The VeriQ™ system is one of the currently available systems, which detects imperfections that may be corrected by graft revision. In this case report, multivessel coronary spasm (CS) post-CABG interferes with these intraoperative parameters misleading initially into false results. Cardiac surgeons should bear in mind the limit of VeriQ in distinguishing between graft failure and CS. Angiography may be considered in patients with decreased graft flow despite revision of anastomosis and vasodilatory treatment for the definitive diagnosis. George Kassimis and George Krasopoulos Copyright © 2017 George Kassimis and George Krasopoulos. All rights reserved. Numerical Study on the In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Resistance of Brick Masonry Infill Panels in Steel Frames Sun, 28 May 2017 07:49:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/8494657/ Masonry infill walls are one of the main forms of interior partitions and exterior walls in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, serious damage and loss of stability of many masonry infill walls had been reported during recent earthquakes. To improve their performance, the interaction between these infill walls and the bounding frames needs to be properly investigated. Such interaction can dramatically increase the stiffness of the frame in the in-plane direction. To avoid the negative aspects of inappropriate interactions between the frame and infill wall, some kind of isolation needs to be introduced. In this paper, three different configurations have been evaluated by using the general finite element software, ABAQUS. Nonlinear pushover and time history analyses have been conducted for each of the three configurations. Results showed that isolation of the infill from the frame has a significant effect on the in-plane response of infilled frames. Furthermore, adequate out-of-plane stability of the infill wall has been achieved. The results show that masonry infill walls that have full contact at the top of the wall but isolated from columns have shown acceptable performance. Vahid Bahreini, Tariq Mahdi, and MohammadMahdi Najafizadeh Copyright © 2017 Vahid Bahreini et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of the Microenvironmental Niche to Glioblastoma Heterogeneity Sun, 28 May 2017 07:44:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9634172/ Glioblastoma is the most aggressive cancer of the brain. The dismal prognosis is largely attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the tumor, which in addition to intrinsic molecular and genetic changes is also influenced by the microenvironmental niche in which the glioma cells reside. The cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesis suggests that all cancers arise from CSCs that possess the ability to self-renew and initiate tumor formation. CSCs reside in specialized niches where interaction with the microenvironment regulates their stem cell behavior. The reciprocal interaction between glioma stem cells (GSCs) and cells from the microenvironment, such as endothelial cells, immune cells, and other parenchymal cells, may also promote angiogenesis, invasion, proliferation, and stemness of the GSCs and be likely to have an underappreciated role in their responsiveness to therapy. This crosstalk may also promote molecular transition of GSCs. Hence the inherent plasticity of GSCs can be seen as an adaptive response, changing according to the signaling cue from the niche. Given the association of GSCs with tumor recurrence and treatment sensitivity, understanding this bidirectional crosstalk between GSCs and its niche may provide a framework to identify more effective therapeutic targets and improve treatment outcome. Ivy A. W. Ho and Winston S. N. Shim Copyright © 2017 Ivy A. W. Ho and Winston S. N. Shim. All rights reserved. Sirtuin-2 Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Stress and Is Elevated in Neurodegeneration Sun, 28 May 2017 07:26:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2017/2643587/ Sirtuins are highly conserved lysine deacetylases involved in ageing, energy production, and lifespan extension. The mammalian SIRT2 has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD) where studies suggest SIRT2 promotes neurodegeneration. We therefore evaluated the effects of SIRT2 manipulation in toxin treated SH-SY5Y cells and determined the expression and activity of SIRT2 in postmortem brain tissue from patients with PD. SH-SY5Y viability in response to oxidative stress induced by diquat or rotenone was measured following SIRT2 overexpression or inhibition of deacetylase activity, along with α-synuclein aggregation. SIRT2 in human tissues was evaluated using Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and fluorometric activity assays. In SH-SY5Y cells, elevated SIRT2 protected cells from rotenone or diquat induced cell death and enzymatic inhibition of SIRT2 enhanced cell death. SIRT2 protection was mediated, in part, through elevated SOD2 expression. SIRT2 reduced the formation of α-synuclein aggregates but showed minimal colocalisation with α-synuclein. In postmortem PD brain tissue, SIRT2 activity was elevated compared to controls but also elevated in other neurodegenerative disorders. Results from both in vitro work and brain tissue suggest that SIRT2 is necessary for protection against oxidative stress and higher SIRT2 activity in PD brain may be a compensatory mechanism to combat neuronal stress. Preeti Singh, Peter S. Hanson, and Christopher M. Morris Copyright © 2017 Preeti Singh et al. All rights reserved. Group Authentication with Multiple Trials and Multiple Authentications Sun, 28 May 2017 07:19:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2017/3109624/ Group authentication aims at facilitating efficient authentication of a group of provers by a group of verifiers. A new group authentication scheme is proposed to improve the security of existent asynchronous group authentication schemes and to achieve better computational performance. The new scheme allows any groups of legitimate members to execute multiple authentication trials even under the participation of active attackers. Hung-Yu Chien Copyright © 2017 Hung-Yu Chien. All rights reserved. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Infective Endocarditis Presented with Unusual Intracardiac Mass Sun, 28 May 2017 07:17:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2017/1528416/ Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a systemic disease that is presented with different symptoms and signs. Cardiac manifestation is rare in ALL, but it is very important and needs appropriate management. It usually presents as leukemic myocardial infiltration and in the presence of cardiac mass comprehensive evaluation for other etiologies is mandatory. We reported on a 6-year-old boy in remission phase of ALL and large cardiac mass in the right atrium with obscure early symptoms and signs, in whom infective endocarditis (IE) was diagnosed and appropriate medical treatment was performed. Because the mass was sustained, surgical resection was considered for the patient. Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei, Leili Koochakzadeh, Mohammadrafie Khorgami, and Sepehr Sadeghpour Tabaei Copyright © 2017 Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei et al. All rights reserved. SCPR: Secure Crowdsourcing-Based Parking Reservation System Sun, 28 May 2017 07:16:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2017/1076419/ The crowdsourcing-based parking reservation system is a new computing paradigm, where private owners can rent their parking spots out. Security is the main concern for parking reservation systems. However, current schemes cannot provide user privacy protection for drivers and have no key agreement functions, resulting in a lot of security problems. Moreover, current schemes are typically based on the time-consuming bilinear pairing and not suitable for real-time applications. To solve these security and efficiency problems, we present a novel security protocol with user privacy called SCPR. Similar to protocols of this field, SCPR can authenticate drivers involved in the parking reservation system. However, different from other well-known approaches, SCPR uses pseudonyms instead of real identities for providing user privacy protection for drivers and designs a novel pseudonym-based key agreement protocol. Finally, to reduce the time cost, SCPR designs several novel cryptographic algorithms based on the algebraic signature technique. By doing so, SCPR can satisfy a number of security requirements and enjoy high efficiency. Experimental results show SCPR is feasible for real world applications. Changsheng Wan, Juan Zhang, and Daoli Huang Copyright © 2017 Changsheng Wan et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chitosan Edible Coating on the Biochemical and Physical Characteristics of Carp Fillet (Cyprinus carpio) Stored at −18°C Sun, 28 May 2017 07:14:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfs/2017/2812483/ The effect of an edible coating (EC) with 1.5% chitosan as an additive, on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillet, was determined evaluating the biochemical, physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and nutritional characteristics periodically during its storage in the freezer (−18°C), observing a decrease in the rate of biochemical reactions related to degradation (), hydroperoxides content (HPC) (0.8324 nM hydroperoxides/mg of protein versus 0.5540 nM/mg with regard to the EC sample), as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC) (0.5860 nM versus 0.4743 nM of reactive carbonyl groups/mg of protein of noncoated material), keeping properties for a longer period of time, and a lower protein solubility (7.8 mg of supernatant protein/mg of total protein versus 6.8 mg/mg) and less loss of moisture (8% less, with regard to EC); for the nutritional characteristics of the fillet, lysine is the limiting aminoacid in the sample without EC, while leucine is the limiting aminoacid for the EC sample. According to microbial growth, the count was 2.2 × 105 CFU/g of sample in mesophiles versus 4.7 × 104 in the EC sample. The results indicate that the use of EC added with chitosan maintains the quality of the product regarding lipid and protein oxidation until fourth month of storage, maintaining moisture content without variation for at least 3 months, and inhibits microbial growth up to 2 logarithmic units, during five months of frozen storage. Ana Gabriela Morachis-Valdez, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Imelda García-Argueta, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Daniel Díaz-Bandera, and Octavio Dublán-García Copyright © 2017 Ana Gabriela Morachis-Valdez et al. All rights reserved. Potential Challenges of Controlling Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka at a Disease Outbreak Sun, 28 May 2017 06:47:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6931497/ The present works reviewed the existing information on leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and in other countries, focusing on challenges of controlling leishmaniasis in the country, in an outbreak. Evidence from recent studies suggests that there is a possibility of a leishmaniasis outbreak in Sri Lanka in the near future. Difficulty of early diagnosis due to lack of awareness and unavailability or inadequacy of sensitive tests are two of the main challenges for effective case management. Furthermore, the absence of a proper drug for treatment and lack of knowledge about vector biology, distribution, taxonomy and bionomics, and reservoir hosts make the problem serious. The evident potential for visceralization in the cutaneous variant of L. donovani in Sri Lanka may also complicate the issue. Lack of knowledge among local communities also reduces the effectiveness of vector and reservoir host control programs. Immediate actions need to be taken in order to increase scientific knowledge about the disease and a higher effectiveness of the patient management and control programs must be achieved through increased awareness about the disease among general public and active participation of local community in control activities. Tharaka Wijerathna, Nayana Gunathilaka, Kithsiri Gunawardana, and Wasana Rodrigo Copyright © 2017 Tharaka Wijerathna et al. All rights reserved. A Qualitative Study of Quality of Life Concerns following a Melanoma Diagnosis Sun, 28 May 2017 06:41:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2017/2041872/ The goal of this study was to identify a relevant and inclusive list of quality of life issues among long-term survivors of melanoma. Individuals diagnosed with stage I-III cutaneous melanoma and had survived 1-5 years, ages 18-65 years at diagnosis, were recruited. Five focus groups were conducted with 33 participants in total. Discussions centered on participants’ experiences at diagnosis, as well as ongoing physical, emotional, and social concerns, and behavioral changes since diagnosis. The majority of participants reported shock, fear, and feeling overwhelmed at the time of diagnosis. Some reported lingering physical concerns, including pain, numbness, and lymphedema, while a few reported no lasting issues. Emotional concerns were common, with most reporting anxiety. Several also noted feeling lonely and isolated. Social concerns included alteration of activities to avoid sun exposure, issues with family communication, and frustration with the lack of appreciation of the seriousness of melanoma by others. Finally, while many participants reported changes to their sun exposure and UV-protection behaviors, some reported little to no change. The shared experiences among participants in this study confirm the unique nature of melanoma and the need for interventions designed to improve the health and quality of life of melanoma survivors. Rachel I. Vogel, Lori G. Strayer, Rehana L. Ahmed, Anne Blaes, and DeAnn Lazovich Copyright © 2017 Rachel I. Vogel et al. All rights reserved. Solving a Class of Nonlinear Inverse Problems Using a Feedback Control Approach Sun, 28 May 2017 06:38:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6843614/ Inverse problems have applications in many branches of science and engineering. In this paper we propose a new approach to solving inverse problems which is based on using concepts from feedback control systems to determine the inverse of highly nonlinear, discontinuous, and ill-conditioned input-output relationships. The method uses elements from least squares solutions that are formed within a control loop. The stability and convergence of the inverse solution are established. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Mahmoud Tarokh Copyright © 2017 Mahmoud Tarokh. All rights reserved. CNNdel: Calling Structural Variations on Low Coverage Data Based on Convolutional Neural Networks Sun, 28 May 2017 06:34:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6375059/ Many structural variations (SVs) detection methods have been proposed due to the popularization of next-generation sequencing (NGS). These SV calling methods use different SV-property-dependent features; however, they all suffer from poor accuracy when running on low coverage sequences. The union of results from these tools achieves fairly high sensitivity but still produces low accuracy on low coverage sequence data. That is, these methods contain many false positives. In this paper, we present CNNdel, an approach for calling deletions from paired-end reads. CNNdel gathers SV candidates reported by multiple tools and then extracts features from aligned BAM files at the positions of candidates. With labeled feature-expressed candidates as a training set, CNNdel trains convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to distinguish true unlabeled candidates from false ones. Results show that CNNdel works well with NGS reads from 26 low coverage genomes of the 1000 Genomes Project. The paper demonstrates that convolutional neural networks can automatically assign the priority of SV features and reduce the false positives efficaciously. Jing Wang, Cheng Ling, and Jingyang Gao Copyright © 2017 Jing Wang et al. All rights reserved. More Favorable Metabolic Impact of Three-Times-Weekly versus Daily Growth Hormone Treatment in Naïve GH-Deficient Children Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2017/8469680/ Objective. To evaluate whether two different regimens of weekly injections could lead to similar auxological and metabolic effects in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Design. 32 GHD children (25 males, mean age 10.5 ± 2.2 yr) were randomly assigned to receive daily (group A, 16 patients) or TIW (group B, 16 patients) GHT for 12 months. Methods. Auxological parameters, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), glucose and insulin during OGTT, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, the oral disposition index (DIo), the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (Homa-IR), and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Results. After 12 months, both groups showed a significant and comparable improvement in height () and IGF-I (). As regards the metabolic parameters, in both groups, we found a significant increase in fasting insulin ( and ) and Homa-IR ( and ). A significant increase in fasting glucose () and a decrease in ISI () and DIo () were only found in group A. Conclusions. The TIW regimen is effective and comparable with the daily regimen in improving auxological parameters and has a more favorable metabolic impact in GHD children. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03033121. Alessandro Ciresi, Floriana Cicciò, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Anna Maria Calcaterra, and Carla Giordano Copyright © 2017 Alessandro Ciresi et al. All rights reserved. Examination of the Microbial Spectrum in the Etiology of Erythema Nodosum: A Retrospective Descriptive Study Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/8139591/ Even though infections are the most common cause of erythema nodosum (EN), only certain microorganisms take the great interest such as streptococci in knowledge. Our aim was to examine the frequency and type of infections in EN, to determine the characteristics of patients with an infectious etiology, and to discuss the role of these microbes in EN pathology in the context of their interactions with humans. Charts of 81 patients with EN who were seen between 2003 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Identified etiological factors were classified into three groups: infectious, noninfectious, and idiopathic. While there were no significant demographic and clinical differences between the infectious and idiopathic groups, systemic symptoms () and the number of EN lesions () were significantly lower; the mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher (), but the mean aspartate aminotransferase value was significantly lower in the infectious group compared to the noninfectious group (). Besides streptococci, many other microbes, including the ones living on and inside us, were identified in the etiology of EN. There is a need for large-scale prospective studies involving control groups for a better understanding of the microbial immunopathology of EN. Ozlem Ozbagcivan, Sevgi Akarsu, Ceylan Avci, Burcu Bahar Inci, and Emel Fetil Copyright © 2017 Ozlem Ozbagcivan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Neutralization, Decoloration, and Deodorization on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Laboratory-Scale Oil Refining Process Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/7824761/ The influence of technological operations during oil refining process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils was investigated on the basis of laboratory-scale study. Under the best experimental conditions, benzo[a]pyrene decreased by 85.1%, 99.7%, and 40.8% in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils, respectively. Total of 16 analytes decreased by 55.7%, 87.5%, and 47.7%, respectively. Bleaching with activated charcoal was the most efficient procedure to reduce PAHs in crude oil. Neutralization had a modest influence on sixteen analytes; however, deodorization was only responsible for a slight decrease in the light PAHs and heavy PAHs contents. Data obtained in this study suggest that the use of activated carbon during oil refining process is highly recommended; moreover, these results provide a useful guidance for oil refining plant to reduce security risk and ensure the quality of the vegetable oil products. Yuxiang Ma, Longkai Shi, Yulan Liu, and Qiyu Lu Copyright © 2017 Yuxiang Ma et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Quantification of Paracetamol and Caffeine in Powder Blends for Tableting by NIR-Chemometry Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2017/7160675/ Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a technique widely used for rapid and nondestructive analysis of solid samples. A method for simultaneous analysis of the two components of paracetamol and caffeine from powder blends has been developed by using chemometry with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The method development was performed on samples containing 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120% active pharmaceutical ingredients, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectra of prepared powder blends were recorded and analyzed in order to develop models for the prediction of drug content. Many calibration models were applied in order to perform quantitative determination of drug content in powder, and choosing the appropriate number of factors (principal components) proved to be of highly importance for a PLS chemometric calibration. Once the methods were developed, they were validated in terms of trueness, precision, and accuracy. The results obtained by NIRS methods were compared with those obtained by HPLC reference method, and no significant differences were found. Therefore, the NIR chemometry methods were proved to be a suitable tool for predicting chemical properties of powder blends and for simultaneous determination of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Dana Maria Muntean, Cristian Alecu, and Ioan Tomuta Copyright © 2017 Dana Maria Muntean et al. All rights reserved. Strategies for Preventing Endoscopic Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease 1 Year after Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/7896160/ Objective. To assess the benefits of different treatments that aim to prevent the endoscopic recurrence of Crohn’s disease (CD) after ileal resection. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Database. All the included RCTs with an endoscopic recurrence outcome which was defined as Rutgeerts’ score ≥ i2 have a duration of more than 1 year. The quality of the included RCTs was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Pairwise treatment effects were estimated through a Bayesian random effects network meta-analysis by using the OpenBUGS 1.4 software and reported as odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% credible interval (CI). Results. Fourteen RCTs (877 participants) were included. Two strategies were superior to placebo for preventing endoscopic recurrence of CD at 1 year after surgery: infliximab (d, −5.475; 95% CI, −10.47 to –1.632) and adalimumab (d, −7.273; 95% CI, −13.84 to −2.585). Nine strategies were not effective: budesnoid, mesalazine (in both high and low dose), azathioprine, Tripterygium wilfordii, mesalazine + infliximab, ornidazole, untreated intervention, and Lactobacillus GG. Conclusions. Except for infliximab and adalimumab, other strategies included in our analysis were not effective for preventing endoscopic recurrence of CD at 1 year after ileal resection. Jin-shan Feng, Jin-yu Li, Xiu-yan Chen, Zheng Yang, and Shang-hai Li Copyright © 2017 Jin-shan Feng et al. All rights reserved. Antiherding in Financial Decision Increases Valuation of Return on Investment: An Event-Related Potential Study Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/4760930/ Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects’ responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market. Cuicui Wang, Jia Jin, João Paulo Vieito, and Qingguo Ma Copyright © 2017 Cuicui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Choking Hazards: Are Current Product Testing Methods for Small Parts Adequate? Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2017/4705618/ Choking on small parts remains one of the leading causes of death and injury in infants and toddlers. The current method of testing for small parts, created by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has become outdated and has yet to be changed despite the many deaths and injuries of children. The method uses a device called the small parts test fixture (SPTF) that is supposed to mimic the size of a fully expanded throat of a toddler. If a product does not fit inside the cavity of the SPTF, then it is deemed safe to play with because it “will not fit” in the esophagus of a child. The present study obtains a dataset of products recalled by the CPSC within the last twelve years due to choking hazards/incidents and discovers that a noteworthy amount of the children’s products have parts that are larger than the fixture size and are still capable of causing choking. This study indicates that a larger SPTF size must be implemented by the CPSC in order to prevent future choking incidents on small parts. Athena Neofotistos, Nancy Cowles, and Ragini Sharma Copyright © 2017 Athena Neofotistos et al. All rights reserved. Homocysteine Induces Apoptosis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/5736506/ Homocysteine- (Hcy-) induced endothelial cell apoptosis has been suggested as a cause of Hcy-dependent vascular injury, while the proposed molecular pathways underlying this process are unclear. In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of Hcy on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that moderate-dose Hcy treatment induced HUVEC apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, prolonged Hcy treatment increased the expression of NOX4 and the production of intracellular ROS but decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), resulting in the leakage of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Prolonged Hcy treatment also upregulated glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), and induced the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and the phosphorylation of NF-κb. The inhibition of NOX4 decreased the production of ROS and alleviated the Hcy-induced HUVEC apoptosis and ER stress. Blocking the PERK pathway partly alleviated Hcy-induced HUVEC apoptosis and the activation of NF-κb. Taken together, our results suggest that Hcy-induced mitochondrial dysfunction crucially modulated apoptosis and contributed to the activation of ER stress in HUVEC. The excessive activation of the PERK pathway partly contributed to Hcy-induced HUVEC apoptosis and the phosphorylation of NF-κb. Zhimin Zhang, Congying Wei, Yanfen Zhou, Tao Yan, Zhengqiang Wang, Wei Li, and Lianyou Zhao Copyright © 2017 Zhimin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Comparing an Approximate Queuing Approach with Simulation for the Solution of a Cross-Docking Problem Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2017/4987127/ Cross-docking is a logistics management concept in which products are temporarily unloaded at intermediate facilities and loaded onto output trucks to be sent to their final destination. In this paper, we propose an approximate nonstationary queuing model to size the number of docks to receive the trucks, so that their unloading will be as short as possible at the receiving dock, thus making the cross-docking process more efficient. It is observed that the stochastic queuing process may not reach the steady equilibrium state. A type of modeling that does not depend on the stationary characteristics of the process developed is applied. In order to measure the efficiency, performance, and possible adjustments of the parameters of the algorithm, an alternative simulation model is proposed using the Arena® software. The simulation uses analytic tools to make the problem more detailed, which is not allowed in the theoretical model. The computational analysis compares the results of the simulated model with the ones obtained with the theoretical algorithm, considering the queue length and the average waiting time of the trucks. Based on the results obtained, the simulation represented very well the proposed problem and possible changes can be easily detected with small adjustments in the simulated model. Roberta Briesemeister and Antônio G. N. Novaes Copyright © 2017 Roberta Briesemeister and Antônio G. N. Novaes. All rights reserved. An Acidic Exopolysaccharide from Haloarcula hispanica ATCC33960 and Two Genes Responsible for Its Synthesis Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/archaea/2017/5842958/ A 1.1 × 106 Da acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) was purified from an extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica ATCC33960 with a production of 30 mg L−1 when grown in AS-168 medium, which mainly composed of mannose and galactose with a small amount of glucose in a molar ratio of 55.9 : 43.2 : 0.9. Two glycosyltransferase genes (HAH_1662 and HAH_1667) were identified to be responsible for synthesis of the acidic EPS. Deletion of either HAH_1662 or HAH_1667 led to loss of the acidic EPS. The mutants displayed a different cell surface morphology, retarded growth in low salty environment, an increased adhesion, and swimming ability. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of the acidic EPS might act as an adaptable mechanism to protect the cells against harsh environments. Yang Lü, Hua Lu, Shiwei Wang, Jing Han, Hua Xiang, and Cheng Jin Copyright © 2017 Yang Lü et al. All rights reserved. Sortilin-Related Receptor Expression in Human Neural Stem Cells Derived from Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Carrying the APOE Epsilon 4 Allele Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/1892612/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; important risk factors are old age and inheritance of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele. Changes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) binding, trafficking, and sorting may be important AD causative factors. Secretase-mediated APP cleavage produces neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, which form lethal deposits in the brain. In vivo and in vitro studies have implicated sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) as an important factor in APP trafficking and processing. Recent in vitro evidence has associated the APOE4 allele and alterations in the SORL1 pathway with AD development and progression. Here, we analyzed SORL1 expression in neural stem cells (NSCs) from AD patients carrying null, one, or two copies of the APOE4 allele. We show reduced SORL1 expression only in NSCs of a patient carrying two copies of APOE4 allele with increased Aβ/SORL1 localization along the degenerated neurites. Interestingly, SORL1 binding to APP was largely compromised; this could be almost completely reversed by γ-secretase (but not β-secretase) inhibitor treatment. These findings may yield new insights into the complex interplay of SORL1 and AD pathology and point to NSCs as a valuable tool to address unsolved AD-related questions in vitro. Alen Zollo, Zoe Allen, Helle F. Rasmussen, Filomena Iannuzzi, Yichen Shi, Agnete Larsen, Thorsten J. Maier, and Carmela Matrone Copyright © 2017 Alen Zollo et al. All rights reserved. Automated Image Analysis of HER2 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization to Refine Definitions of Genetic Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer Tissue Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2321916/ Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene- (HER2-) targeted therapy for breast cancer relies primarily on HER2 overexpression established by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with borderline cases being further tested for amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Manual interpretation of HER2 FISH is based on a limited number of cells and rather complex definitions of equivocal, polysomic, and genetically heterogeneous (GH) cases. Image analysis (IA) can extract high-capacity data and potentially improve HER2 testing in borderline cases. We investigated statistically derived indicators of HER2 heterogeneity in HER2 FISH data obtained by automated IA of 50 IHC borderline (2+) cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Overall, IA significantly underestimated the conventional HER2, CEP17 counts, and HER2/CEP17 ratio; however, it collected more amplified cells in some cases below the lower limit of GH definition by manual procedure. Indicators for amplification, polysomy, and bimodality were extracted by factor analysis and allowed clustering of the tumors into amplified, nonamplified, and equivocal/polysomy categories. The bimodality indicator provided independent cell diversity characteristics for all clusters. Tumors classified as bimodal only partially coincided with the conventional GH heterogeneity category. We conclude that automated high-capacity nonselective tumor cell assay can generate evidence-based HER2 intratumor heterogeneity indicators to refine GH definitions. Gedmante Radziuviene, Allan Rasmusson, Renaldas Augulis, Daiva Lesciute-Krilaviciene, Aida Laurinaviciene, Eduard Clim, and Arvydas Laurinavicius Copyright © 2017 Gedmante Radziuviene et al. All rights reserved. Bowel Ischemia in ICU Patients: Diagnostic Value of I-FABP Depends on the Interval to the Triggering Event Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/2795176/ Background. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) has been shown to be of high diagnostic value in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. Whether these results can be reproduced in critically ill patients on the ICU was to be investigated. Materials and Methods. I-FABP was measured in serum and urine of 43 critically ill patients in ICU when mesenteric ischemia was suspected. Bowel ischemia was confirmed in 21 patients (group 1). 22 patients who survived at least seven days without confirmation of ischemia were assigned to group 2. I-FABP levels were compared between the groups, and interval from the event that has triggered ischemia to I-FABP measurement was recorded. Results. For the identification of patients with mesenteric ischemia, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) for serum and urine I-FABP were 33.3%, 95.5%, and 0.565 and 81.3%, 70.0%, and 0.694, respectively. I-FABP measurements performed within 12 to 48 h after the event that triggered ischemia showed a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for serum and urine of 75%, 100%, and 0.853 and 100%, 73.3%, and 0.856, respectively. Conclusions. In ICU patients, one single I-FABP measurement at the time of clinical suspicion failed to reliably detect or exclude mesenteric ischemia. A higher diagnostic value of I-FABP was only confirmed in the early stages of mesenteric ischemia. I-FABP may be used most appropriately in perioperative monitoring. Stefan Ludewig, Rami Jarbouh, Michael Ardelt, Henning Mothes, Falk Rauchfuß, René Fahrner, Jürgen Zanow, and Utz Settmacher Copyright © 2017 Stefan Ludewig et al. All rights reserved. Interaction of Polyaniline with Surface of Carbon Steel Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2017/6904862/ The structure and barrier properties of the oxyhydroxide layers on a carbon steel surface covered with electroactive polyaniline were investigated. Two types of polymer structure differing in degree of macromolecular order were prepared by simultaneous (fast polymerization) or dropwise (slow polymerization) mixing of reagents. A larger amount of the most stable FeOOH modification was formed on steel covered with slowly polymerized sample during treatment in the corrosion-active medium. Amorphous rust products with weak barrier properties were observed in the sample prepared by fast polymerization. Additionally, barrier activity of dedoped polyaniline was studied with SEM, WAXD, and electrochemical methods. Maria P. Sokolova, Michael A. Smirnov, Igor A. Kasatkin, Ivan Yu. Dmitriev, Natalia N. Saprykina, Alexander M. Toikka, Erkki Lahderanta, and Galina K. Elyashevich Copyright © 2017 Maria P. Sokolova et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiology and Management of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke: Review of Data from Four European Countries Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2017/8593207/ In Europe, 1–3% of the population suffers from atrial fibrillation (AF) and has increased stroke risk. By 2060 a doubling in number of cases and great burden in managing this medical condition are expected. This paper offers an overview of data on epidemiology and management of AF and stroke in four European countries as well as the interconnection between these dimensions. A search index was developed to access multiple scientific and “grey” literatures. Information was prioritised based on strength of evidence and date. Information on country reports was double-checked with national experts. The overall prevalence of AF is consistent across countries. France has the lowest stroke incidence and mortality, followed by Netherland and UK, while Romania has higher rates. GPs or medical specialists are responsible for AF treatment; exception are the special thrombosis services in the Netherlands. Prevention measurements are only present in UK through screening programs. Although international and national guidelines are available, undertreatment is present in all countries. Despite differences in healthcare systems and management of AF, epidemiology is comparable between three of the countries. Romania is an outlier, by being limited in data accessibility. This knowledge can contribute to improved AF care in Europe. Andreea D. Ceornodolea, Roland Bal, and Johan L. Severens Copyright © 2017 Andreea D. Ceornodolea et al. All rights reserved. Dental Management of a Child with Incidentally Detected Hemophilia: Report of a Clinical Case Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2017/7429738/ Children with hemophilia (A or B) are at risk for bleeding episodes, which rank from mild mucosal/soft tissues bleeding to life-threatening hemorrhages. This report describes the dental/medical management provided to an 8.10-year-old patient suffering from uncontrolled bleeding after a surgical procedure to expose both permanent upper central incisors, in which hemophilia was a pure incidental finding. Additionally, diverse precautions to be considered during the dental clinical treatment of hemophilic children are discussed. Ricardo Martínez-Rider, Arturo Garrocho-Rangel, Raúl Márquez-Preciado, María Victoria Bolaños-Carmona, Socorro Islas-Ruiz, and Amaury Pozos-Guillén Copyright © 2017 Ricardo Martínez-Rider et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Properties of Silk Fiber Produced in Ethiopia Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2017/7691797/ The atmospheric conditions and other facilities to rear silk filaments are good in Ethiopia. In Awassa, Awash Melkassa, and Kombolcha silk rearing is started with good progress. The quality of the cocoons produced in the country is not determined in relation to commercial silk produced in major silk producing countries. So far there was no information available about the basic properties of silk filaments produced. In this research paper, the different physical properties of the eri and mulberry cocoon and their filaments were evaluated. Eri cocoons have shell ratio of approximately 14%, average fiber fineness of 3 dtex, and average weight of 3.2–3.3 g, while mulberry cocoons have raw silk ratio of 13-14%, average fiber fineness of 2 dtex, and average weight of 1.5 g. Even though the method of rearing, handling, and harvesting of the cocoons is poor, the physical properties of the silk produced in Ethiopia fall within the limits of commercial silk produced in major silk producing countries. Ayano Koyrita Banale Copyright © 2017 Ayano Koyrita Banale. All rights reserved. Mechanisms and Consequences of Dopamine Depletion-Induced Attenuation of the Spinophilin/Neurofilament Medium Interaction Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/4153076/ Signaling changes that occur in the striatum following the loss of dopamine neurons in the Parkinson disease (PD) are poorly understood. While increases in the activity of kinases and decreases in the activity of phosphatases have been observed, the specific consequences of these changes are less well understood. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), are highly promiscuous and obtain substrate selectivity via targeting proteins. Spinophilin is the major PP1-targeting protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of striatal dendritic spines. Spinophilin association with PP1 is increased concurrent with decreases in PP1 activity in an animal model of PD. Using proteomic-based approaches, we observed dopamine depletion-induced decreases in spinophilin binding to multiple protein classes in the striatum. Specifically, there was a decrease in the association of spinophilin with neurofilament medium (NF-M) in dopamine-depleted striatum. Using a heterologous cell line, we determined that spinophilin binding to NF-M required overexpression of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and was decreased by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5. Functionally, we demonstrate that spinophilin can decrease NF-M phosphorylation. Our data determine mechanisms that regulate, and putative consequences of, pathological changes in the association of spinophilin with NF-M that are observed in animal models of PD. Andrew C. Hiday, Michael C. Edler, Asma B. Salek, Cameron W. Morris, Morrent Thang, Tyler J. Rentz, Kristie L. Rose, Lisa M. Jones, and Anthony J. Baucum II Copyright © 2017 Andrew C. Hiday et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Pneumopericardium in the Setting of Tuberculous Constrictive Pericarditis Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2017/4257452/ A 28-year-old Filipino male was admitted due to high-grade fevers and dyspnea on a background of chronic cough and weight loss. Due to clinical and echocardiographic signs of cardiac tamponade, emergency pericardiocentesis was performed on his first hospital day. Five days after, chest radiographs showed new pockets of radiolucency within the cardiac shadow, indicative of pneumopericardium. On repeat echo, air microbubbles admixed with loculated effusion were visualized in the anterior pericardial space. Constrictive physiology was also supported by a thickened pericardium, septal bounce, exaggerated respiratory variation in AV valve inflow, and IVC plethora. A chest CT scan confirmed the presence of an air-fluid level within the pericardial sac. The patient was started on a quadruple antituberculosis regimen and IV piperacillin-tazobactam to cover for superimposed acute bacterial pericarditis. Pericardiectomy was performed as definitive management, with stripped pericardium measuring 5–7 mm thick and caseous material extracted from the pericardial sac. Histopathology was consistent with tuberculosis. This report highlights pneumopericardium as a rare complication of pericardiocentesis. We focused on the utility of echocardiography for diagnosing and monitoring this condition on a background of tuberculous constrictive pericarditis, ultimately convincing us that pericardiectomy was necessary, instead of the usual conservative measures for pneumopericardium. Lauro L. Abrahan IV, Stephanie Martha O. Obillos, Jaime Alfonso M. Aherrera, Jose Donato A. Magno, Celia Catherine C. Uy-Agbayani, Ulysses King G. Gopez, and Jobelle Joyce Anne R. Baldonado Copyright © 2017 Lauro L. Abrahan IV et al. All rights reserved. Analysis on Aircraft Brake Squeal Problem Based on Finite Element Method Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2017/3982851/ Brake squeal phenomenon is a problem that has been long studied using multiple methods and theories. Finite Element Method (FEM) has been applied to the study of brake squeal problem. First, a disc brake model has been established. Complex mode theory has been applied to the mode analysis and unstable vibration modes can be extracted subsequently. The form of unstable vibration mode has been studied. Then, transient dynamic simulation using explicit dynamic method has been performed. Response in both time and frequency domain has been analyzed. Two methods have been compared, considering accuracy and calculation consumption. Then, the effect of different parameters such as coefficient of friction, stiffness, and brake force fluctuation frequency on squeal phenomenon has been analyzed. It can be found that coefficient of friction and the brake stiffness have a positive correlation with the extent of brake squeal phenomenon, while the frequency of brake force fluctuation should remain as low as possible. Afterwards, a ring-shaped layer of viscoelastic damping material is constrained to outer margin of the stator to restrain the unstable modal. This method can change the vibration nature and improve the brake squeal problem. Ming Zhang, Ran Xu, and Hong Nie Copyright © 2017 Ming Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Draft Genome of the Non-Host-Associated Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus Strain DH1 Encodes a Large Repertoire of Adhesin-Like Proteins Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/archaea/2017/4097425/ Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus strain DH1 is an autotrophic methanogen that was isolated from the wetwood of methane-emitting trees. This species has been of considerable interest for its unusual oxygen tolerance and has been studied as a model organism for more than four decades. Strain DH1 is closely related to other host-associated Methanobrevibacter species from intestinal tracts of animals and the rumen, making this strain an interesting candidate for comparative analysis to identify factors important for colonizing intestinal environments. Here, the genome sequence of M. arboriphilus strain DH1 is reported. The draft genome is composed of 2.445.031 bp with an average GC content of 25.44% and predicted to harbour 1964 protein-encoding genes. Among the predicted genes, there are also more than 50 putative genes for the so-called adhesin-like proteins (ALPs). The presence of ALP-encoding genes in the genome of this non-host-associated methanogen strongly suggests that target surfaces for ALPs other than host tissues also need to be considered as potential interaction partners. The high abundance of ALPs may also indicate that these types of proteins are more characteristic for specific phylogenetic groups of methanogens rather than being indicative for a particular environment the methanogens thrives in. Anja Poehlein, Rolf Daniel, and Henning Seedorf Copyright © 2017 Anja Poehlein et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Crystallization on the Corrosion and Passivity of Amorphous Pd-Fe-Co-Si-B Alloys Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/8973161/ Corrosion behavior of Pd48.2Fe17Co16.7Si13.4B4.7 and Pd51.4Fe18Co18Si11.1B1.5 alloys was examined by potentiodynamic polarization tests in pH 8.5 buffer solution. The amorphous alloy ribbons showed passivity with the passive current densities of 2 × 10−6 A/cm2~4 × 10−6 A/cm2. The crystalline alloys showed a higher corrosion rate in pH 8.5 buffer solution with the degree of variation depending on the alloy composition. It is suggested from the Mott-Schottky analysis that the donor density was lower for the amorphous alloy than the crystalline alloy. HeeJin Jang, Han-Ok Lee, and Hyun-Goo Kim Copyright © 2017 HeeJin Jang et al. All rights reserved. Frequency Dependence of Characteristics of MOS Capacitors Containing Nanosized High-κ Ta2O5 Dielectrics Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/9745934/ Capacitance of metal–insulator–Si structures containing high permittivity dielectric exhibits complicated behaviour when voltage and frequency dependencies are studied. From our study on metal (Al, Au, W)–Ta2O5/SiO2–Si structures, we identify serial C-R measurement mode to be more convenient for use than the parallel one usually used in characterization of similar structures. Strong frequency dependence that is not due to real variations in the dielectric permittivity of the layers is observed. Very high capacitance at low frequencies is due to the leakage in Ta2O5 layer. We found that the above observation is mainly due to different leakage current mechanisms in the two different layers composing the stack. The effect is highly dependent on the applied voltage, since the leakage currents are strongly nonlinear functions of the electric field in the layers. Additionally, at low frequencies, transition currents influence the measured value of the capacitance. From the capacitance measurements several parameters are extracted, such as capacitance in accumulation, effective dielectric constant, and oxide charges. Extracting parameters of the studied structures by standard methods in the case of high-κ/interfacial layer stacks can lead to substantial errors. Some cases demonstrating these deficiencies of the methods are presented and solutions for obtaining better results are proposed. Nenad Novkovski and Elena Atanassova Copyright © 2017 Nenad Novkovski and Elena Atanassova. All rights reserved. Fusing Depth and Silhouette for Scanning Transparent Object with RGB-D Sensor Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2017/9796127/ 3D reconstruction based on structured light or laser scan has been widely used in industrial measurement, robot navigation, and virtual reality. However, most modern range sensors fail to scan transparent objects and some other special materials, of which the surface cannot reflect back the accurate depth because of the absorption and refraction of light. In this paper, we fuse the depth and silhouette information from an RGB-D sensor (Kinect v1) to recover the lost surface of transparent objects. Our system is divided into two parts. First, we utilize the zero and wrong depth led by transparent materials from multiple views to search for the 3D region which contains the transparent object. Then, based on shape from silhouette technology, we recover the 3D model by visual hull within these noisy regions. Joint Grabcut segmentation is operated on multiple color images to extract the silhouette. The initial constraint for Grabcut is automatically determined. Experiments validate that our approach can improve the 3D model of transparent object in real-world scene. Our system is time-saving, robust, and without any interactive operation throughout the process. Yijun Ji, Qing Xia, and Zhijiang Zhang Copyright © 2017 Yijun Ji et al. All rights reserved. Stability Analysis of a Fractional Order Modified Leslie-Gower Model with Additive Allee Effect Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2017/8273430/ We analyze the dynamics of a fractional order modified Leslie-Gower model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response and additive Allee effect by means of local stability. In this respect, all possible equilibria and their existence conditions are determined and their stability properties are established. We also construct nonstandard numerical schemes based on Grünwald-Letnikov approximation. The constructed scheme is explicit and maintains the positivity of solutions. Using this scheme, we perform some numerical simulations to illustrate the dynamical behavior of the model. It is noticed that the nonstandard Grünwald-Letnikov scheme preserves the dynamical properties of the continuous model, while the classical scheme may fail to maintain those dynamical properties. Agus Suryanto, Isnani Darti, and Syaiful Anam Copyright © 2017 Agus Suryanto et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation Method for Sortie Generation Capacity of Carrier Aircrafts with Principal Component Reduction and Catastrophe Progression Method Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2678216/ This study proposes a new comprehensive evaluation method with principal component reduction and catastrophe progression method, considering the complexity, hierarchy, contradiction, and relevance of the factors in sortie generation of carrier aircrafts. First of all, the index system of sortie generation capacity is ascertained, which contains correlative indexes. The principal component reduction method is applied to transform the correlative indexes into independent indexes. This method eliminates the effect of correlativity among indexes. The principal components are determined with their contributions. Then the reduced principal components are evaluated in catastrophe progression method. This method is easy to realize without weights, which is more objective. In fact, catastrophe progression method is a multidimensional fuzzy membership function, which is suitable for the incompatible multiobjective evaluation. Thus, a two-level evaluation method for sortie generation capacity of carrier aircrafts is realized with principal component reduction and catastrophe progression method. Finally, the Surge operation of aircraft carrier “Nimitz” is taken as an example to evaluate the sortie generation capacity. The results of the proposed method are compared with those of Analytic Hierarchy Process, which verify the usefulness and reliability of the proposed method. Guoqing Xia, Tiantian Luan, and Mingxiao Sun Copyright © 2017 Guoqing Xia et al. All rights reserved. Weighted Polynomial Approximation for Automated Detection of Inspiratory Flow Limitation Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/2750701/ Inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) is a critical symptom of sleep breathing disorders. A characteristic flattened flow-time curve indicates the presence of highest resistance flow limitation. This study involved investigating a real-time algorithm for detecting IFL during sleep. Three categories of inspiratory flow shape were collected from previous studies for use as a development set. Of these, 16 cases were labeled as non-IFL and 78 as IFL which were further categorized into minor level (20 cases) and severe level (58 cases) of obstruction. In this study, algorithms using polynomial functions were proposed for extracting the features of IFL. Methods using first- to third-order polynomial approximations were applied to calculate the fitting curve to obtain the mean absolute error. The proposed algorithm is described by the weighted third-order (w.3rd-order) polynomial function. For validation, a total of 1,093 inspiratory breaths were acquired as a test set. The accuracy levels of the classifications produced by the presented feature detection methods were analyzed, and the performance levels were compared using a misclassification cobweb. According to the results, the algorithm using the w.3rd-order polynomial approximation achieved an accuracy of 94.14% for IFL classification. We concluded that this algorithm achieved effective automatic IFL detection during sleep. Sheng-Cheng Huang, Hao-Yu Jan, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Wen-Chen Lin, Geng-Hong Lin, Wen-Chi Lin, Cheng-Lun Tsai, and Kang-Ping Lin Copyright © 2017 Sheng-Cheng Huang et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes? Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/2764261/ The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml) versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml), , resp.). Furthermore, sIL-2R level seems to be a good discriminator between CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (89.5%). Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS. Krishna D. Bharwani, Maaike Dirckx, Dirk L. Stronks, Willem A. Dik, Marco W. J. Schreurs, and Frank J. P. M. Huygen Copyright © 2017 Krishna D. Bharwani et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Inertia Weight Binary Bat Algorithm with Neighborhood Search Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/3235720/ Binary bat algorithm (BBA) is a binary version of the bat algorithm (BA). It has been proven that BBA is competitive compared to other binary heuristic algorithms. Since the update processes of velocity in the algorithm are consistent with BA, in some cases, this algorithm also faces the premature convergence problem. This paper proposes an improved binary bat algorithm (IBBA) to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of IBBA, standard benchmark functions and zero-one knapsack problems have been employed. The numeric results obtained by benchmark functions experiment prove that the proposed approach greatly outperforms the original BBA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO). Compared with several other heuristic algorithms on zero-one knapsack problems, it also verifies that the proposed algorithm is more able to avoid local minima. Xingwang Huang, Xuewen Zeng, and Rui Han Copyright © 2017 Xingwang Huang et al. All rights reserved. HLA Class Ia and Ib Polyreactive Anti-HLA-E IgG2a Monoclonal Antibodies (TFL-006 and TFL-007) Suppress Anti-HLA IgG Production by CD19+ B Cells and Proliferation of CD4+ T Cells While Upregulating Tregs Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/3475926/ The anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs, TFL-006 and TFL-007, reacted with all HLA-I antigens, similar to the therapeutic preparations of IVIg. Indeed, IVIg lost its HLA reactivity, when its HLA-E reactivity was adsorbed out. US-FDA approved IVIg to reduce antibodies in autoimmune diseases. But the mechanism underlying IVIg-mediated antibody reduction could not be ascertained due to the presence of other polyclonal antibodies. In spite of it, the cost prohibitive high or low IVIg is administered to patients waiting for donor organ and for allograft recipients for lowering antiallograft antibodies. A mAb that could mimic IVIg in lowering Abs, with defined mechanism of action, would be highly beneficial for patients. Demonstrably, the anti-HLA-E mAbs mimicked several functions of IVIg relevant to suppressing the antiallograft Abs. The mAbs suppressed activated T cells and anti-HLA antibody production by activated B cells, which were dose-wise superior to IVIg. The anti-HLA-E mAb expanded CD4+, CD25+, and Foxp3+ Tregs, which are known to suppress T and B cells involved in antibody production. These defined functions of the anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs at a level superior to IVIg encourage developing their humanized version to lower antibodies in allograft recipients, to promote graft survival, and to control autoimmune diseases. Mepur H. Ravindranath Copyright © 2017 Mepur H. Ravindranath. All rights reserved. Association between Plasmatic Ceramides Profile and AST/ALT Ratio: C14:0 Ceramide as Predictor of Hepatic Steatosis in Adolescents Independently of Obesity Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2017/3689375/ Objective. To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. Materials and Methods. Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (), obesity (), and obesity + HS (). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS. Results. All ceramides correlated directly with ALT levels and inversely with ALT/AST ratio; the strongest correlation was observed among C14:0 ceramide ( and , resp.; ). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between cholesterol and all ceramides except for C24:1 ceramide. Interestingly ceramides C14:0, C18:0, and C24:1 correlated directly with both fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. For assessing HS, a cut-off point of 10.3 nmol/L for C14:0 ceramide reported a sensitivity of 92.7% and a specificity of 73.5% when normal weight and obesity groups () were compared against obesity + HS group (). Positive and negative predictive values were 77.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Plasma ceramides are closely associated with hepatic steatosis in adolescents. C14:0 ceramide could be a novel biomarker of HS independently of obesity. Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Gabriela E. Saldaña-Dávila, Mónica I. Piña-Aguero, Benjamín A. Núñez-García, and Mardia G. López-Alarcón Copyright © 2017 Jorge Maldonado-Hernández et al. All rights reserved. Aspiration of Aluminum Beverage Can Tab: Case Report and Literature Review Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/1010975/ We describe the case of a 16-year-old male who aspirated a beverage can tab resulting in significant functional impairment. Since the introduction of beverage can opening tabs (“pop-tops” or “pull-tabs”) nearly 50 years ago, five cases of their aspiration have been reported in the literature and this is the first case to report tracheal lodgment. We describe the clinical course for this patient including the inadequacy of radiographic evaluation and a significant delay in diagnosis. We highlight unique features of small aluminum foreign bodies that require consideration and mention a potential change in epidemiology associated with evolving product design. Our primary objective is increased awareness among otolaryngologists that radiography is unreliable for diagnosis or localization of small aluminum foreign bodies. The patient history must therefore be incorporated with other imaging modalities and/or endoscopic evaluation. Also, given the marked prevalence of aluminum beverage cans, we suspect that the inadvertent aspiration of can tabs is more common than indicated by the paucity of published reports. Alhasan N. Elghouche, Brian C. Lobo, and Jonathan Y. Ting Copyright © 2017 Alhasan N. Elghouche et al. All rights reserved. Computational Methods for Solving Linear Fuzzy Volterra Integral Equation Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2017/2417195/ Two numerical schemes, namely, the Taylor expansion and the variational iteration methods, have been implemented to give an approximate solution of the fuzzy linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. To display the validity and applicability of the numerical methods, one illustrative example with known exact solution is presented. Numerical results show that the convergence and accuracy of these methods were in a good agreement with the exact solution. However, according to comparison of these methods, we conclude that the variational iteration method provides more accurate results. Jihan Hamaydi and Naji Qatanani Copyright © 2017 Jihan Hamaydi and Naji Qatanani. All rights reserved. Targeting Tumor Microenvironment: Effects of Chinese Herbal Formulae on Macrophage-Mediated Lung Cancer in Mice Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7187168/ Our previous studies have shown that Qing-Re-Huo-Xue (QRHX) formulae had significant anti-inflammatory effects in chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. Here, we examined the effects of QRHX on lung cancer cell invasion and the potential associated mechanism(s), mainly polarization of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. In vivo, QRHX both inhibited tumor growth and decreased the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in mice with lung cancer. Further study indicated that QRHX inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumor by decreasing infiltration of TAMs and IL-6 and TNF-α production and meanwhile decreased arginase 1 (Arg-1) expression and increased inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. QRHX could markedly inhibit CD31 and VEGF protein expression. Additionally, CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation were reduced in QRHX treatment group. Thus, we draw that QRHX played a more important role in inhibiting tumor growth by regulating TAMs in mice, which was found to be associated with the inhibition of inflammation and the CXCL12/CXCR4/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Fei Xu, Wenqiang Cui, Zhengxiao Zhao, Weiyi Gong, Ying Wei, Jiaqi Liu, Mihui Li, Qiuping Li, Chen Yan, Jian Qiu, Baojun Liu, and Jingcheng Dong Copyright © 2017 Fei Xu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ice Bag Application to Femoral Region on Pain in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2017/6594782/ Aims. The aim of this study is to determine the pain reduction effectiveness of ice bag applications to the femoral region in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Material and Methods. A randomized controlled trial with repeated measures and two-group design. The study was completed with a total of 104 patients who met the inclusion criteria: 52 each in the experimental group and the control group. The pain experienced by the patients was evaluated before and during removal and again while the nurse applied pressure on the catheter site after removal. The NRS scores were identified as NRS1, NRS2, and NRS3 for the three assessment, respectively. Results. The NRS1 score was similar between the two groups. It increased at the 2nd measurement, and a statistically significant difference was determined between the two groups (4.0 (3.0-4.0) in the experimental group and 6.0 (4.0-7.0) in the control group) (). Conclusions. The results of the study revealed that ice bag application to femoral region was effective in reducing pain induced by femoral catheter removal in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Local ice bag application may therefore be recommended as a nursing intervention for pain control in such cases. Sevda Korkut Bayındır, Gülsüm Nihal Çürük, and Abdurrahman Oguzhan Copyright © 2017 Sevda Korkut Bayındır et al. All rights reserved. NPC-EXs Alleviate Endothelial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction through the miR-210 Downstream Nox2 and VEGFR2 Pathways Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9397631/ We have demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) protect endothelial cells (ECs) from oxidative stress. Since exosomes (EXs) can convey the benefit of parent cells through their carried microRNAs (miRs) and miR-210 is ubiquitously expressed with versatile functions, we investigated the role of miR-210 in the effects of NPC-EXs on oxidative stress and dysfunction in ECs. NPCs were transfected with control and miR-210 scramble/inhibitor/mimic to generate NPC-EXscon, NPC-EXssc, NPC-EXsanti-miR-210, and NPC-EXsmiR-210. The effects of various NPC-EXs on angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, apoptosis, and dysfunction, as well as dysregulation of Nox2, ephrin A3, VEGF, and p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 in ECs were evaluated. Results showed (1) Ang II-induced ROS overproduction, increase in apoptosis, and decrease in tube formation ability, accompanied with Nox2 upregulation and reduction of p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 in ECs. (2) Compared to NPC-EXscon or NPC-EXssc, NPC-EXsanti-miR-210 were less whereas NPC-EXsmiR-210 were more effective on attenuating these detrimental effects induced by Ang II in ECs. (3) These effects of NPC-EXsanti-miR-210 and NPC-EXsmiR-210 were associated with the changes of miR-210, ephrin A3, VEGF, and p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 ratio in ECs. Altogether, the protective effects of NPC-EXs on Ang II-induced endothelial injury through miR-210 which controls Nox2/ROS and VEGF/VEGFR2 signals were studied. Hua Liu, Jinju Wang, Yusen Chen, Yanfang Chen, Xiaotang Ma, Ji C. Bihl, and Yi Yang Copyright © 2017 Hua Liu et al. All rights reserved. Inherited Paediatric Motor Neuron Disorders: Beyond Spinal Muscular Atrophy Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/6509493/ Paediatric motor neuron diseases encompass a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the onset of muscle weakness and atrophy before the age of 18 years, attributable to motor neuron loss across various neuronal networks in the brain and spinal cord. While the genetic underpinnings are diverse, advances in next generation sequencing have transformed diagnostic paradigms. This has reinforced the clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic expertise required to navigate the complexities of such diagnoses. In turn, improved genetic technology and subsequent gene identification have enabled further insights into the mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration and how these diseases form part of a neurodegenerative disorder spectrum. Common pathophysiologies include abnormalities in axonal architecture and function, RNA processing, and protein quality control. This review incorporates an overview of the clinical manifestations, genetics, and pathophysiology of inherited paediatric motor neuron disorders beyond classic SMN1-related spinal muscular atrophy and describes recent advances in next generation sequencing and its clinical application. Specific disease-modifying treatment is becoming a clinical reality in some disorders of the motor neuron highlighting the importance of a timely and specific diagnosis. Hooi Ling Teoh, Kate Carey, Hugo Sampaio, David Mowat, Tony Roscioli, and Michelle Farrar Copyright © 2017 Hooi Ling Teoh et al. All rights reserved. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijhy/2017/5692572/ Background. Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods. A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results. Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4%) reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1%) reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion. The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa. Anthony Liwa, Rebecca Roediger, Hyasinta Jaka, Amina Bougaila, Luke Smart, Stacey Langwick, and Robert Peck Copyright © 2017 Anthony Liwa et al. All rights reserved. Disc Brake Vibration Model Based on Stribeck Effect and Its Characteristics under Different Braking Conditions Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6023809/ A 7-degree-of-freedom (DOF) vibration model of a fixed-caliper disc brake system was developed herein based on the Stribeck effect. Furthermore, a dynamometer brake test was conducted to determine the characteristic system parameters of the 7-DOF vibration model. This model was developed to study the effects of braking conditions, such as disc rotational speed and brake pressure on brake noise. The complex eigenvalues of the system were also calculated to analyze the brake model stability under different braking conditions. The acceleration time history diagrams and phase plots were obtained by solving the equations of the system. The numerical calculation results showed that the brake noise increased with an increasing braking force and a decreasing breaking speed. These numerical findings were verified by the results of the dynamometer tests. Shugen Hu and Yucheng Liu Copyright © 2017 Shugen Hu and Yucheng Liu. All rights reserved. Plesiomonas shigelloides: An Unusual Cause of Septic Abortion Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2017/9363707/ Plesiomonas shigelloides, the only oxidase-positive Enterobacteriaceae, is an inhabitant of freshwater and estuary ecosystems. We report the first possible case of Plesiomonas shigelloides-induced septic abortion. This 24-year-old female was successfully treated by dilatation and curettage as well as antimicrobial therapy. Gilbert Cornut, Xavier Marchand-Senecal, Christiane Gaudreau, Jeremie Berdugo, Gilles Gariepy, Catherine Tremblay, and Patrice Savard Copyright © 2017 Gilbert Cornut et al. All rights reserved. To Use or Not to Use Metformin in Cerebral Ischemia: A Review of the Application of Metformin in Stroke Rodents Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2017/9756429/ Ischemic strokes are major causes of death and disability. Searching for potential therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat stroke is necessary, given the increase in overall life expectancy. Epidemiological reports indicate that metformin is an oral antidiabetic medication that can reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Its mechanism of action has not been elucidated, but metformin pleiotropic effects involve actions in addition to glycemic control. AMPK activation has been described as one of the pharmacological mechanisms that explain the action of metformin and that lead to neuroprotective effects. Most experiments done in the cerebral ischemia model, via middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents (MCAO), had positive results favoring metformin’s neuroprotective role and involve several cellular pathways like oxidative stress, endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation, activation of angiogenesis and neurogenesis, autophagia, and apoptosis. We will review the pharmacological properties of metformin and its possible mechanisms that lead to neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia. Isaac Arbeláez-Quintero and Mauricio Palacios Copyright © 2017 Isaac Arbeláez-Quintero and Mauricio Palacios. All rights reserved. PGE2 Promotes the Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through the Activation of FAK and ERK1/2 Pathway Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/8178643/ A critical step of MSCs therapy is dependent on its ability to migrate into the sites of injury, so various approaches have been introduced to boost the migratory ability of MSCs. PGE2 is the major prostaglandin generated by COX enzymes and has been implicated in inflammatory response. Evidence indicates that PGE2 can facilitate MSCs migration. Further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism participating in the promigratory ability of PGE2 may provide a novel strategy to improve MSC transplantation efficacy. In this study, our findings suggested that EP2 prostanoid receptor promotes MSCs migration through activation of FAK and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, MSCs migration induced by PGE2 was blunted by FAK or ERK1/2 inhibitors. EP2-mediated MSCs migration depends on the activation of FAK and ERK1/2. However, the current study did not investigate the migration of MSCs over a blood vessel endothelial barrier. In conclusion, our findings reveal EP2-mediated FAK and ERK1/2 activation was essential for MSCs migration induced by PGE2, indicating that activation of EP2 receptor and FAK/ERK pathways may be a promising strategy to accelerate homing efficiency of MSCs, which in turn enhances therapeutic potential of MSCs transplantation. Xiaomin Lu, Jibin Han, Xiupin Xu, Jingyuan Xu, Ling Liu, Yingzi Huang, Yi Yang, and Haibo Qiu Copyright © 2017 Xiaomin Lu et al. All rights reserved. Rotor Speed Control of a Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Turbine Using Phase-Lag Compensators to Optimize Wind Power Extraction Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2017/6375680/ Due to the intermittent nature of wind, the wind power output tends to be inconsistent, and hence maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is usually employed to optimize the power extracted from the wind resource at a wide range of wind speeds. This paper deals with the rotor speed control of a 2 MW direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to achieve MPPT. The proportional-integral (PI), proportional-derivative (PD), and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers have widely been employed in MPPT studies owing to their simple structure and simple design procedure. However, there are a number of shortcomings associated with these controllers; the trial-and-error design procedure used to determine the P, I, and D gains presents a possibility for poorly tuned controller gains, which reduces the accuracy and the dynamic performance of the entire control system. Moreover, these controllers’ linear nature, constricted operating range, and their sensitivity to changes in machine parameters make them ineffective when applied to nonlinear and uncertain systems. On the other hand, phase-lag compensators are associated with a design procedure that is well defined from fundamental principles as opposed to the aforementioned trial-and-error design procedure. This makes the latter controller type more accurate, although it is not well developed yet, and hence it is the focus of this paper. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT controller. Ester Hamatwi, Innocent E. Davidson, and Michael N. Gitau Copyright © 2017 Ester Hamatwi et al. All rights reserved. Variations in Nutrients Composition of Most Commonly Consumed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Mixed Dishes in South-Eastern Nigeria Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/6390592/ Variations in nutrient composition of most commonly consumed cassava (Manihot esculenta) mixed dishes in South-eastern Nigeria were determined. Four communities were randomly selected from each of the five states in the South-east. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in each of the communities to determine commonly consumed foods and variations in recipes. 24-Hour dietary recall was conducted using 50 randomly selected households in those communities. Recipes collected during the FGD were standardized, prepared, and chemically analysed using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Cassava-based dishes were the most commonly consumed in South-eastern Nigeria. Ninety-two percent of the study population ate cassava either in form of “fufu” (fermented cassava meal)/garri (fermented and roasted cassava meal) with soup or as “abacha” (tapioca salad). Commonly consumed soups were melon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds, “ora” (Pterocarpus soyauxii), and vegetable soups. Seven melon seed, six “ora,” and four vegetable soups and five “abacha” variations were identified. Except for vegetable soup, coefficient of variation for moisture was <10%, while large variations (19–71%) were observed for energy and nutrients. These variations in cassava-based dishes need to be reflected in the country-specific food composition database to enable nutrient intake assessment or provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material to be more effective. G. I. Davidson, H. N. Ene-Obong, and C. E. Chinma Copyright © 2017 G. I. Davidson et al. All rights reserved. PAX8 Distinguishes Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Sarcoma Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2017/6714549/ PAX8 is important for embryogenesis of the thyroid, Müllerian system, and upper urinary/renal tract, and expression of PAX8 has been described in carcinomas from each of these sites. The sensitivity and specificity of the polyclonal PAX8 antibody in a large cohort of epithelial tumors as well as lymphomas have been previously determined, the latter because polyclonal PAX8 is known to be immunoreactive in nonneoplastic B-cell lymphocytes which are often used as the positive internal control for immunohistochemistry. In this case report, PAX8 was a diagnostic clue for revising a previous diagnosis of unclassified high grade sarcoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This case report demonstrates a pitfall for PAX8 immunoreactivity and acts as a reminder that lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a PAX8 positive, epithelial cell marker negative tumor of unknown primary origin. Michelle S. Hirsch and Alessandra F. Nascimento Copyright © 2017 Michelle S. Hirsch and Alessandra F. Nascimento. All rights reserved. Moxibustion Alleviates Injury in a Rat Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Model Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7169547/ Objectives. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of moxibustion at Shenshu (BL-23) and Geshu (BL-17) acupoints in a focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) model in rats. Methods. A FSGS rat model was established by single nephrectomy and repeated injection of doxorubicin. The FSGS rats were randomly divided into the model group, losartan (positive control) group, Shenshu moxibustion group, and Geshu moxibustion group. Molecular indicators of kidney function and renal pathological changes were monitored. Results. Urinary protein, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and serum uric acid were significantly reduced after 12-week intervention with losartan, Shenshu, or Geshu moxibustion. Renal α-SMA, FN, and TGF-β were also decreased, while podocin and nephrin protein and mRNA were increased. The pathological damage in renal tissue was obviously alleviated by all three treatments, which suggests that moxibustion may have similar efficacy to losartan in the treatment of FSGS. Conclusion. Moxibustion alleviates podocyte injury and inhibits renal interstitial fibrosis in the FSGS rat model, thereby minimizing the progression of glomerular sclerosis and improving renal function. Yi Li, Yuxia Sun, Chunling Zhang, Ke Wang, Peicheng Shen, Di Huang, Wen Ma, Jin Zhang, Lin Li, and Liqun He Copyright © 2017 Yi Li et al. All rights reserved. Roles of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injury Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/5251313/ Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents one of the most complicated and heterogeneous pathological processes of central nervous system (CNS) impairments, which is still beyond functional regeneration. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to promote the repair of the injured spinal cord tissues in animal models, and therefore, there is much interest in the clinical use of these cells. However, many questions which are essential to improve the therapy effects remain unanswered. For instance, the functional roles and related molecular regulatory mechanisms of MSCs in vivo are not yet completely determined. It is important for transplanted cells to migrate into the injured tissue, to survive and undergo neural differentiation, or to play neural protection roles by various mechanisms after SCI. In this review, we will focus on some of the recent knowledge about the biological behavior and function of MSCs in SCI. Meanwhile, we highlight the function of biomaterials to direct the behavior of MSCs based on our series of work on silk fibroin biomaterials and attempt to emphasize combinational strategies such as tissue engineering for functional improvement of SCI. Jing Qu and Huanxiang Zhang Copyright © 2017 Jing Qu and Huanxiang Zhang. All rights reserved. The Role of von Willebrand Factor in Vascular Inflammation: From Pathogenesis to Targeted Therapy Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/5620314/ Beyond its role in hemostasis, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an emerging mediator of vascular inflammation. Recent studies highlight the involvement of VWF and its regulator, ADAMTS13, in mechanisms that underlie vascular inflammation and immunothrombosis, like leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and extravasation; vascular permeability; ischemia/reperfusion injury; complements activation; and NETosis. The VWF/ADAMTS13 axis is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, promoting plaque formation and inflammation through macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in inflamed lesions. Moreover, VWF and ADAMTS13 have been recently proposed as prognostic biomarkers in cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes, stroke, myocardial infarction, and sepsis. All these features make VWF an attractive therapeutic target in thromboinflammation. Several lines of research have recently investigated “tailor-made” inhibitors of VWF. Results from animal models and clinical studies support the potent anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effect of VWF antagonism, providing reassuring data on its safety profile. This review describes the role of VWF in vascular inflammation “from bench to bedside” and provides an updated overview of the drugs that can directly interfere with the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis. Felice Gragnano, Simona Sperlongano, Enrica Golia, Francesco Natale, Renatomaria Bianchi, Mario Crisci, Fabio Fimiani, Ivana Pariggiano, Vincenzo Diana, Andreina Carbone, Arturo Cesaro, Claudia Concilio, Giuseppe Limongelli, Mariagiovanna Russo, and Paolo Calabrò Copyright © 2017 Felice Gragnano et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of the Proinflammatory Profile of Synovial Fluid-Derived Exosomes of Patients with Osteoarthritis Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/4814987/ The purpose of this study is to characterize synovial fluid- (SF-) derived exosomes of patients with gonarthrosis comparing two methods of isolation and to investigate their immune regulatory properties. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been isolated from inflamed SF by polymer precipitation method and quantified by Exocet kit and by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Vesicles expressed all the specific exosomal markers by immunoblot and FACS. After isolation with Exoquick, a relevant contamination by immune complexes was detected, which required further magnetic bead-based purification to remove. SF-derived exosomes significantly stimulated the release of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and metalloproteinases by M1 macrophages but did not influence the expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules. In conclusion, we characterized purified exosomes isolated from inflamed SF and demonstrate that purified exosomes are functionally active in their ability to stimulate the release of proinflammatory factors from M1 macrophages. Our data indicate that SF-derived exosomes from gonarthrosis patients play a role in disease progression. Rossana Domenis, Rossella Zanutel, Federica Caponnetto, Barbara Toffoletto, Adriana Cifù, Cinzia Pistis, Paolo Di Benedetto, Araldo Causero, Massimo Pozzi, Fabrizio Bassini, Martina Fabris, Kayvan R. Niazi, Patrick Soon-Shiong, and Francesco Curcio Copyright © 2017 Rossana Domenis et al. All rights reserved. High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes in North India Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/2376016/ We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (; BMI < 25 kg/m2) with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes () were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds), whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass), and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT), retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume)). Plasma glucose and glucagon, serum insulin, hepatic transaminases, and lipid profile were measured. Significantly higher levels of fasting and postprandial glucagon () and fasting and postprandial insulin () were seen in patients with T2DM. The mean values of fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon levels were higher in T2DM patients with NAFLD () as compared to T2DM patients without NAFLD (). Four independent predictors were derived for fasting glucagon levels in patients with T2DM, namely, W-HR, suprailiac skinfold thickness, IPAT, and deep SCAT (; ). These observations in Asian Indians may have significance for diabetes therapies which impact glucagon levels. Shajith Anoop, Anoop Misra, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Seema Gulati, Harsh Mahajan, and Gokulraj Prabakaran Copyright © 2017 Shajith Anoop et al. All rights reserved. DC Glow Discharge in Axial Magnetic Field at Low Pressures Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2017/9193149/ On the basis of fluid approximation, an improved version of the model for the description of dc glow discharge plasma in the axial magnetic field was successfully developed. The model has yielded a set of analytic formulas for the physical quantities concerned from the electron and ion fluids equations and Poisson equation. The calculated results satisfy the practical boundary conditions. Results obtained from the model reveal that although the differential equations under the condition of axial magnetic field are consistent with the differential equations without considering the magnetic field, the solution of the equations is not completely consistent. The results show that the stronger the magnetic field, the greater the plasma density. Shen Gao, Shixiu Chen, Zengchao Ji, Wei Tian, and Jun Chen Copyright © 2017 Shen Gao et al. All rights reserved. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crp/2017/7539735/ Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction. Alvaro Altamirano Ufion, Beenish Zulfiqar, Abdalla Hassan, Roshanak Habibi, and Prajwal Boddu Copyright © 2017 Alvaro Altamirano Ufion et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Subconjunctival Bevacizumab Injections before and after Surgical Excision in Preventing Pterygium Recurrence Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2017/6824670/ Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of subconjunctival bevacizumab injections, before and after surgical excision with bare sclera technique, in preventing postoperative pterygium recurrence. Material and Methods. 83 eyes of 83 patients affected with primary pterygia underwent surgical excision. 42 eyes received two subconjunctival bevacizumab injections, at the dosage of 2.5 mg/0.1 ml, one week prior surgery and one week after intervention. Recurrence rate was evaluated among the two groups. Moreover, modifications of pterygium size and grade one week after the first injection were evaluated. Results. At 6 months after surgery, the recurrence rate was 7.14% in the bevacizumab group and 24.39% in the control group. Significant changes of pterygium size and grade were reported after the first injection. No important complications related to bevacizumab subconjunctival injections were registered. Conclusions. The application of subconjunctival bevacizumab injections, at the dosage of 2.5 mg/0.1 ml, before and after surgical pterygium excision, may be useful in preventing lesion recurrence after bare scleral procedures. Furthermore, bevacizumab subconjunctival administration is well tolerated and may represent a safer alternative if compared with other surgical techniques and adjunctive drugs. This trial is retrospectively registered with ISRCTN Registry on 18 April 2017, TRN: ISRCTN11424742. Raffaele Nuzzi and Federico Tridico Copyright © 2017 Raffaele Nuzzi and Federico Tridico. All rights reserved. A Novel Computer Virus Propagation Model under Security Classification Thu, 25 May 2017 09:00:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2017/8609082/ In reality, some computers have specific security classification. For the sake of safety and cost, the security level of computers will be upgraded with increasing of threats in networks. Here we assume that there exists a threshold value which determines when countermeasures should be taken to level up the security of a fraction of computers with low security level. And in some specific realistic environments the propagation network can be regarded as fully interconnected. Inspired by these facts, this paper presents a novel computer virus dynamics model considering the impact brought by security classification in full interconnection network. By using the theory of dynamic stability, the existence of equilibria and stability conditions is analysed and proved. And the above optimal threshold value is given analytically. Then, some numerical experiments are made to justify the model. Besides, some discussions and antivirus measures are given. Qingyi Zhu and Chen Cen Copyright © 2017 Qingyi Zhu and Chen Cen. All rights reserved. Leptin/Adiponectin Ratios Using Either Total Or High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin as Biomarkers of Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Normoglycemic Women Thu, 25 May 2017 09:00:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/9031079/ Plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR) is negatively associated with insulin sensitivity indexes. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMWA) was proposed as the most biologically active form of this insulin-sensitizing adipokine. There are no studies assessing the relative merits of leptin/HMWA ratio over LAR as a biomarker of systemic insulin sensitivity. A standard 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g of glucose) and a short minimal-model intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT; 0.3 g/kg body weight) were performed in 58 Chilean normoglycemic women (age: 27 ± 6.3 years, BMI 23.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2). LAR was negatively associated with HOMA-S (; ), Matsuda-ISICOMP (; ), and the calculated sensitivity index (CSi) derived from IVGTT (; ). In comparison to LAR, leptin/HMWA ratio did not increase neither the linear fit () nor the magnitude of association with insulin sensitivity indexes (slope of multiple linear regression). The discriminatory capacity of both ratios to classify insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive subjects was similar for HOMA-S (), Matsuda-ISICOMP (), or CSi (). In conclusion, LAR showed consistent negative associations with different systemic insulin sensitivity indexes. The use of HMWA to generate leptin/HMWA ratio did not show any advantage over LAR as a biomarker of systemic insulin sensitivity in normoglycemic women. Carolina Bravo, Luis Rodrigo Cataldo, José Galgani, Javier Parada, and José Luis Santos Copyright © 2017 Carolina Bravo et al. All rights reserved. An Association-Oriented Partitioning Approach for Streaming Graph Query Thu, 25 May 2017 08:45:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2017/2573592/ The volumes of real-world graphs like knowledge graph are increasing rapidly, which makes streaming graph processing a hot research area. Processing graphs in streaming setting poses significant challenges from different perspectives, among which graph partitioning method plays a key role. Regarding graph query, a well-designed partitioning method is essential for achieving better performance. Existing offline graph partitioning methods often require full knowledge of the graph, which is not possible during streaming graph processing. In order to handle this problem, we propose an association-oriented streaming graph partitioning method named Assc. This approach first computes the rank values of vertices with a hybrid approximate PageRank algorithm. After splitting these vertices with an adapted variant affinity propagation algorithm, the process order on vertices in the sliding window can be determined. Finally, according to the level of these vertices and their association, the partition where the vertices should be distributed is decided. We compare its performance with a set of streaming graph partition methods and METIS, a widely adopted offline approach. The results show that our solution can partition graphs with hundreds of millions of vertices in streaming setting on a large collection of graph datasets and our approach outperforms other graph partitioning methods. Yun Hao, Gaofeng Li, Pingpeng Yuan, Hai Jin, and Xiaofeng Ding Copyright © 2017 Yun Hao et al. All rights reserved. The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 Equations Are as Well-Suited as Local Population Derived Equations to a Sample of Healthy Professional Firefighters Thu, 25 May 2017 08:42:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2017/6327180/ Background and Objective. We aimed to assess the validity of using the Global Lung Function Initiative’s (GLI) 2012 equations to interpret lung function data in a healthy workforce of South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) personnel. Methods. Spirometry data from 212 healthy, nonsmoking SAMFS firefighters were collected and predicted normal values were calculated using both the GLI and local population derived (Gore) equations for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. Two-tailed paired sample Student’s -tests, Bland-Altman assessments of agreement, and -scores were used to compare the two prediction methods. Results. The equations showed good agreement for mean predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. Mean -scores were similar for FEV1 and FVC, although not FEV1/FVC, but greater than 0.5. Differences between the calculated lower limits of normal (LLN) were significant (), clinically meaningful, and resulted in an 8% difference in classification of abnormality using the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusions. The GLI equations predicted similar lung function as population-specific equations and resulted in a lower incidence of obstruction in this sample of healthy SAMFS firefighters. Further, interpretation of spirometry data as abnormal should be based on both an FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio < LLN. Flynn Slattery, Tjard Schermer, Adrian Esterman, Kylie Johnston, and Alan Crockett Copyright © 2017 Flynn Slattery et al. All rights reserved. An Observer-Based Controller with a LMI-Based Filter against Wind-Induced Motion for High-Rise Buildings Thu, 25 May 2017 08:36:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/1427270/ Active mass damper (AMD) control system is proposed for high-rise buildings to resist a strong wind. However, negative influence of noise in sensors impedes the application of AMD systems in practice. To reduce the adverse influence of noise on AMD systems, a Kalman filter and a linear matrix inequality- (LMI-) based filter are designed. Firstly, a ten-year return period fluctuating wind load is simulated by mixed autoregressive-moving average (MARMA) method, and its reliability is tested by wind speed power spectrum and correlation analysis. Secondly, a designed state observer with different filters uses wind-induced acceleration responses of a high-rise building as the feedback signal that includes noise to calculate control force in this paper. Finally, these methods are applied to a numerical example of a high-rise building and an experiment of a single span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results are presented to verify that both Kalman filter and LMI-based filter can effectively suppress noise, but only the latter can guarantee the stability of AMD parameters. Chao-Jun Chen, Zuo-Hua Li, Jun Teng, Wei-Hua Hu, and Ying Wang Copyright © 2017 Chao-Jun Chen et al. All rights reserved. A SOA-Based Platform to Support Clinical Data Sharing Thu, 25 May 2017 08:30:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhe/2017/2190679/ The eSource Data Interchange Group, part of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium, proposed five scenarios to guide stakeholders in the development of solutions for the capture of eSource data. The fifth scenario was subdivided into four tiers to adapt the functionality of electronic health records to support clinical research. In order to develop a system belonging to the “Interoperable” Tier, the authors decided to adopt the service-oriented architecture paradigm to support technical interoperability, Health Level Seven Version 3 messages combined with LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) vocabulary to ensure semantic interoperability, and Healthcare Services Specification Project standards to provide process interoperability. The developed architecture enhances the integration between patient-care practice and medical research, allowing clinical data sharing between two hospital information systems and four clinical data management systems/clinical registries. The core is formed by a set of standardized cloud services connected through standardized interfaces, involving client applications. The system was approved by a medical staff, since it reduces the workload for the management of clinical trials. Although this architecture can realize the “Interoperable” Tier, the current solution actually covers the “Connected” Tier, due to local hospital policy restrictions. R. Gazzarata, B. Giannini, and M. Giacomini Copyright © 2017 R. Gazzarata et al. All rights reserved. Increased Transendothelial Transport of CCL3 Is Insufficient to Drive Immune Cell Transmigration through the Blood–Brain Barrier under Inflammatory Conditions In Vitro Thu, 25 May 2017 08:18:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/6752756/ Many neuroinflammatory diseases are characterized by massive immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system. Identifying the underlying mechanisms could aid in the development of therapeutic strategies specifically interfering with inflammatory cell trafficking. To achieve this, we implemented and validated a blood–brain barrier (BBB) model to study chemokine secretion, chemokine transport, and leukocyte trafficking in vitro. In a coculture model consisting of a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line and human astrocytes, proinflammatory stimulation downregulated the expression of tight junction proteins, while the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines was upregulated. Moreover, chemokine transport across BBB cocultures was upregulated, as evidenced by a significantly increased concentration of the inflammatory chemokine CCL3 at the luminal side following proinflammatory stimulation. CCL3 transport occurred independently of the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5, albeit that migrated cells displayed increased expression of CCR1 and CCR5. However, overall leukocyte transmigration was reduced in inflammatory conditions, although higher numbers of leukocytes adhered to activated endothelial cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that prominent barrier activation following proinflammatory stimulation is insufficient to drive immune cell recruitment, suggesting that additional traffic cues are crucial to mediate the increased immune cell infiltration seen in vivo during neuroinflammation. Maxime De Laere, Carmelita Sousa, Megha Meena, Roeland Buckinx, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Zwi Berneman, and Nathalie Cools Copyright © 2017 Maxime De Laere et al. All rights reserved. Rapid and Selective Determination of Folate Receptor α with Sensitive Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Signal Thu, 25 May 2017 08:17:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1670812/ A rapid, simple, and novel method for folate receptor α (FRα) determination is reported here. A probe of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with anti-FRα antibody was synthesized under the optimized conditions first. The antibody-modified Au NPs would aggregate when FRα was added to the probe for the specific interaction between antibody and antigen, resulting in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity. There is a linear relationship between the change of RRS intensity () and the concentration of FRα, with the detecting range of 0.50–37.50 ng·mL−1 and the limit of determination of 0.05 ng·mL−1. The determination of FRα in serum samples was realized with the advantages of high selectivity, high sensitivity, and easy operation. Liping Wu, Yue Liu, Rong Huang, Huawen Zhao, and Weiqun Shu Copyright © 2017 Liping Wu et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography: A New Way Measuring Choroidal Thickness in Pregnant Women Thu, 25 May 2017 08:06:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2017/8296574/ The body changes markedly during pregnancy; each system behaves differently from a nonpregnant state. As the eyes are the only windows to see directly what is going on in the internal environment, more and more researches have been done to explain the association between ocular changes and the physiological and pathological changes during pregnancy. The choroid is one of the critical parts of the eye, providing nutrition. And abnormal choroid may result in ocular dysfunction and visual problems. As the optical coherence tomography develops, a rapid, direct, noninvasive, and nontoxic way is available to obtain the choroid situation of pregnant women, which may explain the mechanism of pregnancy-related eye diseases. This review would summarize relevant original articles published from January 1, 2008 to December 1, 2016 to assess the changes of choroidal thickness (CT) with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) during pregnancy. And the relationship between choroidal thickness changes and pregnancy remains uncertain. To our knowledge, this is the first review of EDI-OCT in assessing the choroidal thickness of the pregnant women. Jun Zhang, Huiyun Wang, Qiubo Yu, Qihu Tong, and Qinkang Lu Copyright © 2017 Jun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Optimization and Customer Utilities under Dynamic Lead Time Quotation in an Type Base Stock System Thu, 25 May 2017 08:04:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/5805404/ In a manufacturing and inventory system, information on production and order lead time helps consumers’ decision whether they receive finished products or not by considering their own impatience on waiting time. In Savaşaneril et al. (2010), the optimal dynamic lead time quotation policy in a one-stage production and inventory system with a base stock policy for maximizing the system’s profit and its properties are discussed. In this system, each arriving customer decides whether he/she enters the system based on the quoted lead time informed by the system. On the other hand, the customer’s utility may be small under the optimal quoted lead time policy because the actual lead time may be longer than the quoted lead time. We use a utility function with respect to benefit of receiving products and waiting time and propose several kinds of heuristic lead time quotation policies. These are compared with optimal policies with respect to both profits and customer’s utilities. Through numerical examples some kinds of heuristic policies have better expected utilities of customers than the optimal quoted lead time policy maximizing system’s profits. Koichi Nakade and Hiroki Niwa Copyright © 2017 Koichi Nakade and Hiroki Niwa. All rights reserved. The Minimal Geometric Deformation Approach: A Brief Introduction Thu, 25 May 2017 07:55:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2017/9756914/ We review the basic elements of the Minimal Geometric Deformation approach in detail. This method has been successfully used to generate brane-world configurations from general relativistic perfect fluid solutions. J. Ovalle, R. Casadio, and A. Sotomayor Copyright © 2017 J. Ovalle et al. All rights reserved. Identification of the Chemical Constituents in Simiao Wan and Rat Plasma after Oral Administration by GC-MS and LC-MS Thu, 25 May 2017 07:49:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6781593/ Simiao Wan (SMW), an important multiherbal formula used in traditional Chinese medicine, is extensively used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, the knowledge of the bioactive components of SMW remains unclear. Thus, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to analyze the chemical constituents of volatile and nonvolatile extracts of SMW, as well as its absorbed components in rat plasma after oral SMW administration. Identification of several compounds was enabled by comparison of retention times, MS spectra, and MS/MS spectral data with the standard substance and reference materials reported in the literature. In the volatile extracts, GC-MS identified 26 compounds in vitro, three of which observed in blood by GC-MS. In the nonvolatile extracts, LC-MS identified 49 compounds in SMW; 18 compounds containing 7 prototype compounds, 5 metabolites, and 6 unknown compounds were absorbed by blood. The proposed GC-MS and LC-MS method was appropriate not only for the rapid screening and identification of multiple components of an SMW extract but also for screening its bioactive constituents in vivo. The proposed method could be a promising tool for the quality control of other Chinese herbal medicines. Yunshuang Fan, Yamei Li, Yuanyuan Wu, Lixin Li, Yuming Wang, and Yubo Li Copyright © 2017 Yunshuang Fan et al. All rights reserved. Air Transport versus High-Speed Rail: An Overview and Research Agenda Thu, 25 May 2017 07:46:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jat/2017/8426926/ The development of high-speed rail (HSR) services throughout the last decades has gradually blurred the concept of competition and cooperation with air transportation. There is a wide range of studies on this subject, with a particular focus on single lines or smaller regions. This article synthesizes and discusses recently published studies in this area, while aiming to identify commonalities and deviations among different regions throughout the world, covering services from Europe, Asia, and North America. Our meta-analysis reveals that the literature is highly controversial and the results vary substantially from one region to another, and a generalization is difficult, given route-specific characteristics, such as demand distribution, network structure, and evolution of transportation modes. As a major contribution, we propose a list of five challenges as a future research agenda on HSR/air transport competition and cooperation. Among others, we see a need for the construction of an open-source dataset for large-scale multimodal transport systems, the comprehensive assessment of new emerging transport modes, and also taking into account the resilience of multimodal transport systems under disruption. Xiaoqian Sun, Yu Zhang, and Sebastian Wandelt Copyright © 2017 Xiaoqian Sun et al. All rights reserved. Sparse Representation Based Multi-Instance Learning for Breast Ultrasound Image Classification Thu, 25 May 2017 07:39:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/7894705/ We propose a novel method based on sparse representation for breast ultrasound image classification under the framework of multi-instance learning (MIL). After image enhancement and segmentation, concentric circle is used to extract the global and local features for improving the accuracy in diagnosis and prediction. The classification problem of ultrasound image is converted to sparse representation based MIL problem. Each instance of a bag is represented as a sparse linear combination of all basis vectors in the dictionary, and then the bag is represented by one feature vector which is obtained via sparse representations of all instances within the bag. The sparse and MIL problem is further converted to a conventional learning problem that is solved by relevance vector machine (RVM). Results of single classifiers are combined to be used for classification. Experimental results on the breast cancer datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of classification accuracy as compared with state-of-the-art MIL methods. Lu Bing and Wei Wang Copyright © 2017 Lu Bing and Wei Wang. All rights reserved. A Case of Trapezium Avascular Necrosis Treated Conservatively Thu, 25 May 2017 07:31:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2017/6936013/ Introduction. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the bones of the wrist most commonly involves the lunate followed by the proximal pole of the scaphoid and the capitate. Trapezium avascular necrosis is extremely rare with only two cases reported in the literature, both of which were treated surgically. In this article, we report a unique case of trapezium avascular necrosis treated conservatively. Case Presentation. A 38-year-old man complaining of a 4-month history of mild pain on the base of his right thumb. MRI scan was performed. The clinical presentation and the imaging findings indicated avascular osteonecrosis of the trapezium. The patient was treated with immobilization of the wrist joint for a period of six weeks. Three months later, the patient was free of symptoms and the MRI scan revealed a normal trapezium. Conclusion. AVN of trapezium is extremely rare. Our case shows that immobilization of an early stage avascular necrosis of the trapezium might be a treatment option. Evangelos Petsatodis, Konstantinos Ditsios, Panagiotis Konstantinou, Iosafat Pinto, Lazaros Kostretzis, Ioannis Theodoroudis, and Mayia Pilavaki Copyright © 2017 Evangelos Petsatodis et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Food Labelling on Postexercise Energy Intake in Sedentary Women Thu, 25 May 2017 07:29:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2017/1048973/ Food labelling has been previously reported to influence energy intake (EI). Whether food labels influence postexercise EI remains to be determined. We assessed how food labelling and exercise (Ex) interact to influence food perception and postexercise EI. In this randomized crossover design, 14 inactive women participated in 4 experimental conditions: Ex (300 kcal at 70% of ) and lunch labelled as low in fat (LF), Ex and lunch labelled as high in fat (HF), Rest and LF, and Rest and HF. The lunch was composed of a plate of pasta, yogurt, and oatmeal cookies, which had the same nutritional composition across the 4 experimental conditions. EI at lunch and for the 48-hour period covering the testing day and the following day was assessed. Furthermore, perceived healthiness of the meal and appetite ratings were evaluated. There were no effects of exercise and food labelling on EI. However, meals labelled as LF were perceived as heathier, and this label was associated with higher prospective food consumption. Initial beliefs about food items had a stronger effect on healthiness perception than the different food labels and explain the positive correlation with the amount of food consumed (, ). Jacynthe Lafrenière, Jessica McNeil, Véronique Provencher, and Éric Doucet Copyright © 2017 Jacynthe Lafrenière et al. All rights reserved. An Optimization Model of Multi-Intersection Signal Control for Trunk Road under Collaborative Information Thu, 25 May 2017 07:23:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2017/2846987/ We proposed a signal control optimization model for urban main trunk line intersections. Four-phase intersection was analyzed and modeled based on the Cell Transmission Model (CTM). CTM and signal control model in our study had both been improved for multi-intersections by three-phase theory and information-exchanging. To achieve a real-time application, an improved genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed finally, the DISCO traffic simulation software was used for numerical simulation experiment, and comparisons with the standard GA and CTM were reported in this paper. Experimental results indicate that our searching time is less than that of SGA by 38%, and our method needs only 1/3 iteration time of SGA. According to our DISCO traffic simulation processing, compared with SGA, if the input traffic flow is changed from free phase to synchronized phase, for example, less than 900 vel/h, the delay time can reduce to 87.99% by our method, and the minimum delay time is 77.76% of existing method. Furthermore, if input traffic volume is increased to 1200 vel/h or more at the synchronized phase, the summary and minimum values of average delay time are reduced to 81.16% and 75.83%, respectively, and the average delay time is reduced to 17.72 seconds. Xun Li, Zhengfan Zhao, Li Liu, Yao Liu, and Pengfei Li Copyright © 2017 Xun Li et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Polyphenols Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruits during Ripening Thu, 25 May 2017 07:16:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2367453/ Polyphenols of fruits and vegetables form an important part of human dietary compounds. Relatively little is known about accumulation of phenolics during fruits ripening process. The goal of this work was to study the changes in antioxidant activity and in content of 30 polyphenols during ripening of tomato fruits. Five organically and conventionally grown tomato cultivars were investigated at three different ripening stages. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. During ripening, four different changing patterns were observed: (1) high level in green fruits with minimal changes; (2) continuous increase with maximum level in red-ripe fruits; (3) decrease; (4) increase and achieving maximum level at half-ripe stage. Similar change patterns were found for organic and conventional fruits. The accumulation patterns of phenolic compounds were similar in standard-type tomatoes but differed in several cases in cherry-type cultivar. Although contents of some polyphenols decreased during ripening, total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity increased in all studied cultivars and in case of both cultivation modes. The changes in content of phenolic compounds during ripening were greatly influenced by cultivars, but cultivation mode had only minor impact on dynamics in polyphenols contents in tomato fruits. Dea Anton, Ingrid Bender, Tanel Kaart, Mati Roasto, Marina Heinonen, Anne Luik, and Tõnu Püssa Copyright © 2017 Dea Anton et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care Thu, 25 May 2017 07:14:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2017/3063510/ We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients) and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients). Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age ( for all). With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (). Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department. Zhihong Feng, Tao Wang, Ping Liu, Sipeng Chen, Han Xiao, Ning Xia, Zhiming Luo, Bing Wei, and Xiuhong Nie Copyright © 2017 Zhihong Feng et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on a Self-Centering Earthquake-Resistant Masonry Pier with a Structural Concrete Column Thu, 25 May 2017 07:10:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/6379168/ This paper proposes a slotting construction strategy to avoid shear behavior of multistory masonry buildings. The aspect ratio of masonry piers increases via slotting between spandrels and piers, so that the limit state of piers under an earthquake may be altered from shear to rocking. Rocking piers with a structural concrete column (SCC) form a self-centering earthquake-resistant system. The in-plane lateral rocking behavior of masonry piers subjected to an axial force is predicted, and an experimental study is conducted on two full-scale masonry piers with an SCC, which consist of a slotting pier and an original pier. Meanwhile, a comparison of the rocking modes of masonry piers with an SCC and without an SCC was conducted in the paper. Experimental verification indicates that the slotting strategy achieves a change of failure modes from shear to rocking, and this resistant system with an SCC incorporates the self-centering and high energy dissipation properties. For the slotting pier, a lateral story drift ratio of 2.5% and a high displacement ductility of approximately 9.7 are obtained in the test, although the lateral strength decreased by 22.3% after slotting. The predicted lateral strength of the rocking pier with an SCC has a margin of error of 5.3%. Lijun Niu and Wenfang Zhang Copyright © 2017 Lijun Niu and Wenfang Zhang. All rights reserved. Female Urethral Diverticulum Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 25 May 2017 07:08:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2017/8918492/ A 48-year-old woman with a history of voiding difficulty visited our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a periurethral tumor, which was pathologically diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma via transperineal needle biopsy. Radical cystectomy and urethrectomy were performed, and the urinary tract was reconstructed using an ileal conduit. Pathological examination of a resected specimen confirmed adenocarcinoma of the urethral diverticulum. The patient received adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy. She is alive at 5 months since the operation. Ryo Kasahara, Tadashi Tabei, Yukio Tsuura, and Kazuki Kobayashi Copyright © 2017 Ryo Kasahara et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Active and Passive Control Techniques on Mach 1.5 Cavity Flow Dynamics Thu, 25 May 2017 06:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2017/8253264/ Supersonic flow over cavities has been of interest since 1960s because cavities represent the bomb bays of aircraft. The flow is transient, turbulent, and complicated. Pressure fluctuations inside the cavity can impede successful weapon release. The objective of this study is to use active and passive control methods on supersonic cavity flow numerically to decrease or eliminate pressure oscillations. Jet blowing at several locations on the front and aft walls of the cavity configuration is used as an active control method. Several techniques are used for passive control including using a cover plate to separate the flow dynamics inside and outside of the cavity, trailing edge wall modifications, such as inclination of the trailing edge, and providing curvature to the trailing edge wall. The results of active and passive control techniques are compared with the baseline case in terms of pressure fluctuations, sound pressure levels at the leading edge, trailing edge walls, and cavity floor and in terms of formation of the flow structures and the results are presented. It is observed from the results that modification of the trailing edge wall is the most effective of the control methods tested leading to up to 40 dB reductions in cavity tones. Selin Aradag, Kubra Asena Gelisli, and Elcin Ceren Yaldir Copyright © 2017 Selin Aradag et al. All rights reserved. Observations of Unexpected Short-Term Heating in the Uppermost Layer of the Dead Sea after a Sharp Decrease in Solar Radiation Thu, 25 May 2017 06:43:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijocean/2017/5810575/ The Dead Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world. Observational evidence has been obtained of unexpected short-term water heating in the 2 m uppermost layer of this hypersaline lake, following a sharp drop in solar radiation under weak winds. This was carried out using Dead Sea buoy measurements. Passing frontal cloudiness mixed with significant dust pollution over the Judean Mountains and the Dead Sea, which occurred on March 22, 2013, led to a dramatic drop in noon solar radiation from 860 W m−2 to 50 W m−2. This drop in solar radiation caused a short-term (1-hour) pronounced temperature rise in the uppermost layer of the sea down to 2 m depth. After the sharp drop in noon solar radiation, in the absence of water mixing, buoy measurements showed that the temperature rise in the uppermost layer of the Dead Sea took place for a shorter time and was more pronounced than the temperature rise under the regular diurnal solar cycle. The water heating could be explained by gravitational instability in the skin-surface layer, when the warm surface water with the increased salinity and density submerged, thereby increasing temperature in the layers below. Pavel Kishcha, Boris Starobinets, Isaac Gertman, Tal Ozer, and Pinhas Alpert Copyright © 2017 Pavel Kishcha et al. All rights reserved. Bioremediation of Mercury by Vibrio fluvialis Screened from Industrial Effluents Thu, 25 May 2017 06:38:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6509648/ Thirty-one mercury-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from the effluent discharge sites of the SIPCOT industrial area. Among them, only one strain (CASKS5) was selected for further investigation due to its high minimum inhibitory concentration of mercury and low antibiotic susceptibility. In accordance with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, the strain CASKS5 was identified as Vibrio fluvialis. The mercury-removal capacity of V. fluvialis was analyzed at four different concentrations (100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/ml). Efficient bioremediation was observed at a level of 250 μg/ml with the removal of 60% of mercury ions. The interesting outcome of this study was that the strain V. fluvialis had a high bioremediation efficiency but had a low antibiotic resistance. Hence, V. fluvialis could be successfully used as a strain for the ecofriendly removal of mercury. Kailasam Saranya, Arumugam Sundaramanickam, Sudhanshu Shekhar, Sankaran Swaminathan, and Thangavel Balasubramanian Copyright © 2017 Kailasam Saranya et al. All rights reserved. Implant Stability in the Posterior Maxilla: A Controlled Clinical Trial Thu, 25 May 2017 06:28:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6825213/ Aim. To evaluate the primary and secondary stability of implants in the posterior maxilla. Methods. Patients were allocated into three groups: (A) native bone, (B) partially regenerated bone, and (C) nearly totally regenerated bone. Insertion torque (IT) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) were measured at placement, to evaluate whether satisfactory high primary stability (IT ≥ 45 N/cm; ISQ ≥ 60) was achieved; ISQ was measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after placement, to investigate the evolution to secondary stability. Results. 133 implants (Anyridge®, Megagen) were installed in 59 patients: 55 fixtures were placed in Group A, 57 in Group B, and 21 in Group C. Fifty-two implants had satisfactory high primary stability (IT ≥ 45 N/cm; ISQ ≥ 60). A positive correlation was found between all variables (IT, ISQ at t = 0, t = 60), and statistically higher IT and ISQ values were found for implants with satisfactory high primary stability. Significant differences were found for IT and ISQ between the groups (A, B, and C); however, no drops were reported in the median ISQ values during the healing period. Conclusions. The evaluation of the primary and secondary implant stability may contribute to higher implant survival/success rates in critical areas, such as the regenerated posterior maxilla. The present study is registered in the ISRCTN registry with ID ISRCTN33469250. Raquel Zita Gomes, Mario Ramalho de Vasconcelos, Isabel Maria Lopes Guerra, Rute Alexandra Borges de Almeida, and Antonio Cabral de Campos Felino Copyright © 2017 Raquel Zita Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Development of SNP Genotyping Assays for Seed Composition Traits in Soybean Thu, 25 May 2017 06:20:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpg/2017/6572969/ Seed composition is one of the most important determinants of the economic values in soybean. The quality and quantity of different seed components, such as oil, protein, and carbohydrates, are crucial ingredients in food, feed, and numerous industrial products. Soybean researchers have successfully developed and utilized a diverse set of molecular markers for seed trait improvement in soybean breeding programs. It is imperative to design and develop molecular assays that are accurate, robust, high-throughput, cost-effective, and available on a common genotyping platform. In the present study, we developed and validated KASP (Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction) genotyping assays based on previously known functional mutant alleles for the seed composition traits, including fatty acids, oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitor, and lipoxygenase. These assays were validated on mutant sources as well as mapping populations and precisely distinguish the homozygotes and heterozygotes of the mutant genes. With the obvious advantages, newly developed KASP assays in this study can substitute the genotyping assays that were previously developed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). The functional gene-based assay resource developed using common genotyping platform will be helpful to accelerate efforts to improve soybean seed composition traits. Gunvant Patil, Juhi Chaudhary, Tri D. Vuong, Brian Jenkins, Dan Qiu, Suhas Kadam, Grover J. Shannon, and Henry T. Nguyen Copyright © 2017 Gunvant Patil et al. All rights reserved. A Comprehensive Presentation of the Turbulent Plane Jet Theory with Passive Scalar Thu, 25 May 2017 06:18:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/4369895/ We present a unified vision of the existing theoretical models for the turbulent plane jet, leading to new analytical profiles for scalar concentration and turbulent quantities, including a complete turbulent kinetic energy budget. Integrals of the budget terms are also computed. The present model is split into two variants. Both compare fairly well with referenced experimental data. D. Violeau Copyright © 2017 D. Violeau. All rights reserved. Selective Route Based on SNR with Cross-Layer Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Network Thu, 25 May 2017 06:15:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2017/1378374/ In this study, we developed network and throughput formulation models and proposed new method of the routing protocol algorithm with a cross-layer scheme based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This method is an enhancement of routing protocol ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV). This proposed scheme uses selective route based on the SNR threshold in the reverse route mechanism. We developed AODV SNR-selective route (AODV SNR-SR) for a mechanism better than AODV SNR, that is, the routing protocol that used average or sum of path SNR, and also better than AODV which is hop-count-based. We also used selective reverse route based on SNR mechanism, replacing the earlier method to avoid routing overhead. The simulation results show that AODV SNR-SR outperforms AODV SNR and AODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead. This proposed method is expected to support Device-to-Device (D2D) communications that are concerned with the quality of the channel awareness in the development of the future Fifth Generation (5G). Istikmal, Adit Kurniawan, and Hendrawan Copyright © 2017 Istikmal et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of the Diatom Community upon Biofilm Development on Stainless Steels in Natural Freshwater Thu, 25 May 2017 06:12:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scanning/2017/5052646/ This paper reports the development of biofilms on stainless steels (SS) upon exposure in a natural freshwater ecosystem for about six months and focuses on the composition of diatom populations. By using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technique, we provide a detailed description regarding diatom identification at species level as well as their main characteristics, including type, morphology, ability to form colony, and motility. Results reveal the presence of both prostrate (initial colonizers) and stalked (late colonizers) forms. Pennate diatoms, Cocconeis placentula and Amphora coffeaeformis, and a centric diatom, Melosira varians, are shown to be the abundant forms regardless of the SS type. Pennate diatoms dominate the community and are directly attached to the substratum, whereas the centric form is entangled in the biofilm matrix in a significant number. The dominance of adnate forms suggests that these cells are sturdy and successfully maintaining their population. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical response of immersed materials showed ennoblement of the open circuit potential, which seems to be due to the biogenic production of H2O2, detected in a significant amount within the biofilms. The substantial enrichment of biofilms with diatoms potentially suggests the implication of these microorganisms in the process of ennoblement. A mechanism is proposed in this paper describing the possible interactions of diatom community with SS in the studied ecosystem. Caroline Richard, Smita Mitbavkar, and Jessem Landoulsi Copyright © 2017 Caroline Richard et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Solutions to Two-Party and Multiparty Millionaires’ Problem Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2017/5207386/ The millionaires’ problem is the basis of secure multiparty computation and has many applications. Using a vectorization method and the Paillier encryption scheme, we first propose a secure two-party solution to the millionaires’ problem, which can determine , or in one execution. Subsequently, using the vectorization and secret splitting methods, we propose an information-theoretically secure protocol to solve the multiparty millionaires’ problem (a.k.a. secure sorting problem), and this protocol can resist collusion attacks. We analyze the accuracy and security of our protocols in the semihonest model and compare the computational and communication complexities between the proposed protocols and the existing ones. Xin Liu, Shundong Li, XiuBo Chen, Gang Xu, Xiaolin Zhang, and Yong Zhou Copyright © 2017 Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Adenosine Triphosphate Promotes Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation and Th17 Cell Polarization in Neutrophilic Asthma Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/5358647/ Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a key mediator to alert the immune dysfunction by acting on P2 receptors. Here, we found that allergen challenge caused an increase of ATP secretion in a murine model of neutrophilic asthma, which correlated well with neutrophil counts and interleukin-17 production. When ATP signaling was blocked by intratracheal administration of the ATP receptor antagonist suramin before challenge, neutrophilic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th17-type responses were reduced significantly. Also, neutrophilic inflammation was abrogated when airway ATP levels were locally neutralized using apyrase. Furthermore, ATP promoted the Th17 polarization of splenic CD4+ T cells from DO11.10 mice in vitro. In addition, ovalbumin (OVA) challenge induced neutrophilic inflammation and Th17 polarization in DO11.10 mice, whereas administration of suramin before challenge alleviated these parameters. Thus, ATP may serve as a marker of neutrophilic asthma, and local blockade of ATP signaling might provide an alternative method to prevent Th17-mediated airway inflammation in neutrophilic asthma. Fang Zhang, Xin Su, Gang Huang, Xiao-Feng Xin, E-Hong Cao, Yi Shi, and Yong Song Copyright © 2017 Fang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Cell Growth Inhibition Effect of DsiRNA Vectorised by Pectin-Coated Chitosan-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites as Potential Therapy for Colon Cancer Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/4298218/ Colonic-targeted drug delivery system is widely explored to combat colon-related diseases such as colon cancer. Dicer-substrate small interfering RNA (DsiRNA) has been explored for cancer therapy due to its potency in targeting specific gene of interest. However, its application is limited by rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake. To address this, chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) nanocomposite was used to deliver DsiRNA effectively into cells. Additionally, pectin was used as compatibilization agent to allow specific delivery to the colon and protect the nanocomposites from the harsh environment in the stomach and small intestine. CS-GO-DsiRNA nanocomposites were prepared by electrostatic interaction between CS and GO prior to coating with pectin. The mean particle size of CS-GO-DsiRNA-pectin nanocomposites was  nm with PDI and zeta potential of and − mV, respectively. TEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape of CS-GO-DsiRNA nanocomposites and the shape became irregular after pectin coating. FTIR analysis further confirmed the successful formation of CS-GO-DsiRNA-pectin nanocomposites. Furthermore, the nanocomposites were able to entrap high amount of DsiRNA (% entrapment efficiency of %) with strong binding efficiency. CS-GO-DsiRNA-pectin nanocomposites also selectively inhibited cell growth of colon cancer cell line (Caco-2 cells) and were able to decrease VEGF level significantly. In a nutshell, pectin-coated DsiRNA-loaded CS-GO nanocomposites were successfully developed and they have a great potential to deliver DsiRNA to the colon effectively. Haliza Katas, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Nursyafiqah Moideen, Li Ying Ng, and Puteri Annisa Adhwa Megat Baharudin Copyright © 2017 Haliza Katas et al. All rights reserved. Buzzing Wild Bee Visits Enhance Seed Set in Eggplant, Solanum melongena Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/2017/4624062/ Sixty percent of the angiosperms with poricidal anthers are buzz-pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Plant taxa with Solanum-type flowers have larger anthers and shorter filaments. Solanum melongena (Solanaceae) is more commonly and efficiently pollinated by buzz pollinators. The present study documented bees and their diurnal pattern of visitation to flowers, relationship between their handling time and flower age, and the effect of bee visits on fruit and seed set in S. melongena in two sites in Kandy District. Efficiency of buzz pollination over pollination in the absence of bees was determined using open buds and buds covered with pollinator exclusion bags. On average, 150 days were taken to complete the life cycle of Solanum melongena. Three buzzing bees and two nonbuzzing bees in site I and five buzzing bees and two nonbuzzing bees in site II were recorded. Handling time of Pachynomia sp. and Hoplonomia westwoodi indicates that bees spend more time at new flowers than at old flowers. Handling time is higher in the smaller bee, Pachynomia sp., than in the larger bee, H. westwoodi. Statistical data on pollinator exclusion experiment revealed that the fruit set and seed set of S. melongena are enhanced by buzz-pollinating bees. U. J. M. Shanika R. Jayasinghe, T. H. Saumya E. Silva, and W. A. Inoka P. Karunaratne Copyright © 2017 U. J. M. Shanika R. Jayasinghe et al. All rights reserved. CathROB: A Highly Compact and Versatile Remote Catheter Navigation System Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2017/2712453/ Several remote catheter navigation systems have been developed and are now commercially available. However, these systems typically require specialized catheters or equipment, as well as time-consuming operations for the system set-up. In this paper, we present CathROB, a highly compact and versatile robotic system for remote navigation of standard tip-steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheters. Key features of CathROB include an extremely compact design that minimizes encumbrance and time for system set-up in a standard cath lab, a force-sensing mechanism, an intuitive command interface, and functions for automatic catheter navigation and repositioning. We report in vitro and in vivo animal evaluation of CathROB. In vitro results showed good accuracy in remote catheter navigation and automatic repositioning (1.5 ± 0.6 mm for the left-side targets, 1.7 ± 0.4 mm for the right-side targets). Adequate tissue contact was achieved with remote navigation in vivo. There were no adverse events, including absence of cardiac perforation or cardiac damage, indicative of the safety profile of CathROB. Although further preclinical and clinical studies are required, the presented CathROB system seems to be a promising solution for an affordable and easy-to-use remote catheter navigation. Laura Cercenelli, Barbara Bortolani, and Emanuela Marcelli Copyright © 2017 Laura Cercenelli et al. All rights reserved. A Swarm Optimization Genetic Algorithm Based on Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2782679/ Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is a variant of the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO). The QPSO that was originally developed for continuous search spaces outperforms the traditional PSO in search ability. This paper analyzes the main factors that impact the search ability of QPSO and converts the particle movement formula to the mutation condition by introducing the rejection region, thus proposing a new binary algorithm, named swarm optimization genetic algorithm (SOGA), because it is more like genetic algorithm (GA) than PSO in form. SOGA has crossover and mutation operator as GA but does not need to set the crossover and mutation probability, so it has fewer parameters to control. The proposed algorithm was tested with several nonlinear high-dimension functions in the binary search space, and the results were compared with those from BPSO, BQPSO, and GA. The experimental results show that SOGA is distinctly superior to the other three algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and convergence. Tao Sun and Ming-hai Xu Copyright © 2017 Tao Sun and Ming-hai Xu. All rights reserved. Knowledge and Attitude about Reproductive Health and Family Planning among Young Adults in Yemen Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2017/1895472/ Background. The Yemeni government is focusing more attention on the needs of youth to ensure a healthy transition to adulthood. This is critical because adolescent population (ages 15–24) of 3.35 million will double in just 20 years. Young adults often lack basic knowledge about reproductive health and family planning. Objectives. To determine reproductive health and family planning knowledge and attitude among young adults aged 15 to 25+ years. Method. Sample study was taken from Marie Stopes International in Yemen which was conducted from March to July 2013 on the reproductive health age 15–49 years. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed. Results. Majority had heard about reproductive health and family planning and encouraged its methods. Television, relatives, and radio were major sources of information. Adults with higher education tend to have more awareness about health services. Knowledge about health services and family planning methods among older adults was significant, and adults in Belqees Club were more likely to have high empowerment scores for family planning methods. Conclusion. The level of knowledge about health services for reproductive health and family planning and its methods was low to moderate. The introduction of contraceptives remains a challenge in Yemen because the educational reproductive health is weak in Yemeni schools or health institutes or universities. Information about reproductive health and family planning should be provided to adolescents through medical schools curricula. Muhammed S. A. Masood and Nabila A. A. Alsonini Copyright © 2017 Muhammed S. A. Masood and Nabila A. A. Alsonini. All rights reserved. Health Brokers: How Can They Help Deal with the Wickedness of Public Health Problems? Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1979153/ Background. The role of health broker is a relatively new one in public health. Health brokers aim to create support for efforts to optimise health promotion in complex or even “wicked” public health contexts by facilitating intersectoral collaborations and by exchanging knowledge with different stakeholders. The current study aimed to explore the role of health brokers, by examining the motivational, contextual, and behaviour-related factors they have to deal with. Methods. Fifteen professionals from various backgrounds and from various policy and practice organisations were recruited for a semistructured interview. To structure the interviews, we developed the “Health Broker Wheel” (HBW), a framework we then specified with more details derived from the interviews. Results. We identified seven primary types of behaviour that health brokers need to engage in: recognizing opportunities, agenda setting, implementing, network formation, intersectoral collaboration, adaptive managing, and leadership. Determinants of health brokers’ behaviours were identified and categorised as capability, opportunities, motivation, and local or national contextual factors. Conclusion. The health brokers’ role can be seen as an operational approach and is visualised in the HBW. This framework can assist further research to monitor and evaluate this role, and health promotion practitioners can use it as a tool to implement the health brokers’ role and to facilitate intersectoral collaboration. Celeste E. van Rinsum, Sanne M. P. L. Gerards, Geert M. Rutten, Ien A. M. van de Goor, and Stef P. J. Kremers Copyright © 2017 Celeste E. van Rinsum et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Graphene on the Protective Properties of Water-Based Epoxy Coatings on Al2024-T3 Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijc/2017/1541267/ 0.5 and 1% wt. of graphene nanoflakes were added to an anticorrosive additives-free water-based epoxy resin applied to Al2024-T3 samples. Calorimetric (DSC) and adhesion (cross-cut test) tests indicated that the presence of graphene did not affect the polymerization process of the resin or its adhesion to the substrate while it had some effect on its wettability. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) results obtained suggested that the addition of a small amount of graphene greatly enhanced the protective properties of the epoxy coating, retarding electrolytes absorption and reducing the total amount of adsorbed water. The latter occurrence suggests that the graphene effect on coating performances is related to both extended diffusion pathway length and graphene/matrix interaction due to the unique properties of graphene. T. Monetta, A. Acquesta, A. Carangelo, and F. Bellucci Copyright © 2017 T. Monetta et al. All rights reserved. A Promising Approach to Integrally Evaluate the Disease Outcome of Cerebral Ischemic Rats Based on Multiple-Biomarker Crosstalk Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/9506527/ Purpose. The study was designed to evaluate the disease outcome based on multiple biomarkers related to cerebral ischemia. Methods. Rats were randomly divided into sham, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and edaravone-treated groups. Cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery in rats. To form a simplified crosstalk network, the related multiple biomarkers were chosen as S100β, HIF-1α, IL-1β, PGI2, TXA2, and GSH-Px. The levels or activities of these biomarkers in plasma were detected before and after ischemia. Concurrently, neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct volumes were assessed. Based on a mathematic model, network balance maps and three integral disruption parameters (k, φ, and u) of the simplified crosstalk network were achieved. Results. The levels or activities of the related biomarkers and neurological deficit scores were significantly impacted by cerebral ischemia. The balance maps intuitively displayed the network disruption, and the integral disruption parameters quantitatively depicted the disruption state of the simplified network after cerebral ischemia. The integral disruption parameter u values correlated significantly with neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes. Conclusion. Our results indicate that the approach based on crosstalk network may provide a new promising way to integrally evaluate the outcome of cerebral ischemia. Guimei Ran, Yixuan Wang, Haochen Liu, Chunxiang Wei, Tao Zhu, Haidong Wang, Hua He, and Xiaoquan Liu Copyright © 2017 Guimei Ran et al. All rights reserved. Risky Multicriteria Group Decision Making Based on Cloud Prospect Theory and Regret Feedback Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/9646303/ The assessment of risky linguistic variables has significant applications in multiattribute group decision problems. This paper focuses on risky multicriteria group decision making using linguistic variable assessment and proposes a new model which considers various and differential psychological behavior and the ambiguity of linguistic variable assessment across multicriteria risks. Based on the cloud prospect value assessment, this paper proposes a cloud prospect value aggregation method and consensus degree measurement. An improved feedback adjustment mechanism based on regret theory is employed as the consistency model, which complements prospect theory. The three theoretical methods together constitute the core elements of the proposed CPD (cloud prospect value consensus degree decision) model. The feasibility and validity of the new decision making model are demonstrated with a numerical example, and feedback performance was compared with conventional direct feedback. The proposed CPD approach satisfies given consistency threshold of 0.95 and 0.98 after three and four feedback loops, respectively. Compared to the proposed CPD method, direct feedback approach needs seven and ten feedback loops under the same threshold, respectively, which shows that the proposed model increases efficiency and accuracy of group decision making and significantly reduces time cost. Yan Song, Hao Yao, Shuang Yao, Donghua Yu, and Yan Shen Copyright © 2017 Yan Song et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between the Compressive, Tensile Strength of Old Concrete under Marine Environment and Prediction of Long-Term Strength Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/8251842/ Compressive strength and tensile strength are important mechanical properties of concrete. The long-term strength of concrete under real service environment is an important parameter when evaluating existing buildings, which should also be properly considered in structural design. In this study, the relationship between compressive and splitting tensile strength of old concrete existing for long period under marine environment was investigated. At a deserted harbour, concrete cores samples were drilled by pairs in site. For each pair of samples, the two cores were drilled from the adjacent location and conducted to compressive, splitting tensile test, respectively. 48 compressive and splitting tensile strengths were finally obtained. From the test results, tensile strength presents general uptrend with compressive strength, and the two parameters are well positively correlated. Exponential model generally recommended by building codes or literatures is still capable of describing the relationship between compressive and tensile strength of old deteriorated concrete, when function parameters are properly determined. Based on statistical theory and the experimental result of this study, a method for predicting long-term tensile strength of concrete is developed and an example is given, which may provide a potential way to estimate long-term concrete strength under real marine environment. Weilai Yao, Shiyong Jiang, Wei Fei, and Tao Cai Copyright © 2017 Weilai Yao et al. All rights reserved. A Clinical Prospective Observational Cohort Study on the Prevalence and Primary Diagnostic Accuracy of Occult Vertebral Fractures in Aged Women with Acute Lower Back Pain Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2017/9265259/ Background. Elderly female patients complaints of acute low back pain (LBP) may involve vertebral fracture (VF), among which occult VF (OVF: early-stage VF without any morphological change) is often missed to be detected by primary X-ray examination. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of VF and OVF and the diagnostic accuracy of the initial X-ray in detecting OVF. Method. Subjects were elderly women (>70 years old) complaining of acute LBP with an accurate onset date. Subjects underwent lumbar X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement at their first visit. The distribution of radiological findings from X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the calculation of the prevalence of VF and OVF are investigated. Results. The prevalence of VF among elderly women with LBP was 76.5% and L1 was the most commonly injured level. Among VF cases, the prevalence of OVF was 33.3%. Furthermore, osteoporotic patients tend to show increased prevalence of VF (87.5%). The predictive values in detecting VF on the initial plain X-ray were as follows: sensitivity, 51.3%; specificity, 75.0%; and accuracy rate, 56.7%. Conclusions. Acute LBP patients may suffer vertebral injury with almost no morphologic change in X-ray, which can be detected using MRI. Atsushi Terakado, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Go Kubota, Tomohiro Kanzaki, Hiroshi Mori, Yuji Shinohara, Junichi Nakamura, Yusuke Matsuura, Yasuchika Aoki, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, and Seiji Ohtori Copyright © 2017 Atsushi Terakado et al. All rights reserved. Formation Mechanism and Reduction Technology of Mining-Induced Fissures in Shallow Thick Coal Seam Mining Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/1980817/ Surface mining-induced fissures formed in shallow coal seam mining have serious impact on safety mining and water resources protection. This paper proposes a novel approach to study the formation mechanism and dynamic development of surface mining-induced fissures in shallow coal seam mining. This approach combines field tests, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations based on the geological condition of shallow coal seam mining in Chuancao Gedan Coal Mine. Two typical surface mining-induced fissures, step-type fissures and collapse-type fissures, are generated in shallow coal seam mining. The fissures with large vertical throw or horizontal opening severely impact water resource protection and surface ecological environment. Surface mining-induced fissures are generated periodically and changed dynamically with the advancing of working face. The vertical throw and horizontal opening of surface fissures are changed dynamically with the movement of loading key strata. The movement forms of loading key strata determine the morphological development of surface fissures. Downward sliding movement of broken rocks causes step-type fissures, while downward rotation movement leads to collapse-type fissures. The degree of the downward sliding and rotation of broken rocks determines the vertical throw and horizontal opening of surface fissures. This paper proposes mining technologies to reduce damaging ground fissures in shallow coal seam mining and analyzes their control effects. Jianwei Li and Changyou Liu Copyright © 2017 Jianwei Li and Changyou Liu. All rights reserved. The Effect of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Adherence Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/2804178/ Ample evidence suggests that social support, self-efficacy, and adherence significantly, independently, and together affect glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the pathway from social support to glycemic control remains unclear. This study hypothesized that the effect of social support on glycemic control was mediated sequentially by self-efficacy and adherence. Patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China, from January 1 to July 31, 2014, and their sociodemographic clinical data and their assessments on social support, self-efficacy, and adherence were obtained from medical records and self-completed questionnaires. Of the 532 patients who participated, 35% achieved glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c < 7%). Social support, self-efficacy, and adherence had significant correlations with each other and with glycemic control (). Regression analyses and structural equation modeling showed that better social support was associated to better patient self-efficacy, which, in turn, was associated with better medical adherence, which was associated with improved glycemic control, and the relationship between social support and glycemic control was sequentially and completely mediated by self-efficacy and adherence. The five goodness-of-fit indices confirmed that our data fitted the hypothesized pathway model strongly. Yechang Shao, Lu Liang, Linjing Shi, Chengsong Wan, and Shouyi Yu Copyright © 2017 Yechang Shao et al. All rights reserved. Vibrational Spectroscopies and Chemometry for Nondestructive Identification and Differentiation of Painting Binders Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/3475659/ A comprehensive dataset of vibrational spectra of different natural organic binding media is presented and discussed. The binding media were applied on a glass substrate and analyzed after three months of natural ageing. The combination of Raman and FT-NIR spectroscopies allows for an improved identification of these materials as Raman technique is more informative about the skeletal vibrations, while FT-NIR spectroscopy is more sensitive to the substituents and polar groups. The experimental results are initially discussed in the framework of current spectral assignment. Then, multivariate analysis (PCA) is applied leading to differentiation among the samples. The two major principal components allow for a complete separation of the different classes of organic materials. Further differentiation within the same class is possible thanks to the secondary components. The loadings obtained from PCA are discussed on the basis of the spectral assignment leading to clear understanding of the physical basis of this differentiation process. Serena Carlesi, Maurizio Becucci, and Marilena Ricci Copyright © 2017 Serena Carlesi et al. All rights reserved. Severe Rhabdomyolysis due to Presumed Drug Interactions between Atorvastatin with Amlodipine and Ticagrelor Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2017/3801819/ Atorvastatin and ticagrelor combination is a widely accepted therapy for secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease. However, rhabdomyolysis is a well-known rare side effect of statins which should be considered when treatments are combined with cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme inhibitors. We report a case of atorvastatin and ticagrelor associated severe rhabdomyolysis that progressed to multiorgan failure requiring renal replacement therapy, inotropes, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Despite withdrawal of the precipitating cause and the supportive measures including renal replacement therapy, creatinine kinase increased due to ongoing rhabdomyolysis rapidly progressing to upper and lower limbs weakness. A muscle biopsy was performed to exclude myositis which confirmed extensive myonecrosis, consistent with statin associated rhabdomyolysis. After a prolonged ventilatory course in the intensive care unit, patient’s condition improved with recovery from renal and liver dysfunction. The patient slowly regained her upper and lower limb function; she was successfully weaned off the ventilator and was discharged for rehabilitation. To our knowledge, this is a second case of statin associated rhabdomyolysis due to interaction between atorvastatin and ticagrelor. However, our case differed in that the patient was also on amlodipine, which is considered to be a weak cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor and may have further potentiated myotoxicity. Iouri Banakh, Kavi Haji, Ross Kung, Sachin Gupta, and Ravindranath Tiruvoipati Copyright © 2017 Iouri Banakh et al. All rights reserved. Noncooperative 802.11 MAC Layer Fingerprinting and Tracking of Mobile Devices Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2017/6235484/ We present two novel noncooperative MAC layer fingerprinting and tracking techniques for Wi-Fi (802.11) enabled mobile devices. Our first technique demonstrates how a per-bit entropy analysis of a single captured frame allows an adversary to construct a fingerprint of the transmitter that is 80.0 to 67.6 percent unique for 50 to 100 observed devices and 33.0 to 15.1 percent unique for 1,000 to 10,000 observed devices. We show how existing mitigation strategies such as MAC address randomization can be circumvented using only this fingerprint and temporal information. Our second technique leverages peer-to-peer 802.11u Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) requests and 802.11e Block Acknowledgement (BA) requests to instigate transmissions on demand from devices that support these protocols. We validate these techniques using two datasets, one of which was recorded at a music festival containing 28,048 unique devices and the other at our research lab containing 138 unique devices. Finally, we discuss a number of countermeasures that can be put in place by mobile device vendors in order to prevent noncooperative tracking through the discussed techniques. Pieter Robyns, Bram Bonné, Peter Quax, and Wim Lamotte Copyright © 2017 Pieter Robyns et al. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Using Palladium-Graphene Nanocomposite Material Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/9057250/ We report the fabrication and characterization of surface acoustic wave (SAW) hydrogen sensors using palladium-graphene (Pd-Gr) nanocomposite as sensing material. The Pd-Gr nanocomposite as sensing layer was deposited onto SAW delay line sensor-based interdigitated electrodes (IDTs)/aluminum nitride (AlN)/silicon (Si) structure. The Pd-Gr nanocomposite was synthesized by a chemical route and deposited onto SAW sensors by air-brush spraying. The SAW H2 sensor using Pd-Gr nanocomposite as a sensing layer shows a frequency shift of 25 kHz in 0.5% H2 concentration at room temperature with good repeatability and stability. Moreover, the sensor showed good linearity and fast response/recovery within ten seconds with various H2 concentrations from 0.25 to 1%. The specific interaction between graphene and SAW transfer inside AlN/Si structures yields a high sensitivity and fast response/recovery of SAW H2 sensor based on Pd-Gr/AlN/Si structure. Nguyen Hai Ha, Nguyen Hoang Nam, Dang Duc Dung, Nguyen Huy Phuong, Phan Duy Thach, and Hoang Si Hong Copyright © 2017 Nguyen Hai Ha et al. All rights reserved. Design Fuzzy Input-Based Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Vessel Lift-Feedback Fin Stabilizers with Shock and Vibration of Waves Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/9095287/ An adaptive sliding mode controller based on fuzzy input design is presented, in order to reduce the roll motion of surface vessel fin stabilizers with shock and vibration of waves. The nonlinearities and uncertainties of the system including feedback errors and disturbance induced by waves are analyzed. And the lift-feedback system is proposed, which improves the shortage of conventional fin angle-feedback. Then the fuzzy input-based adaptive sliding mode control is designed for the system. In the controller design, the Lyapunov function is adopted to guarantee the system stability. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the controller designed using fuzzy input, when compared to the PID controller used in practical engineering. Lihua Liang, Mingxiao Sun, and Tiantian Luan Copyright © 2017 Lihua Liang et al. All rights reserved. Closer to a Uniform Language in Colposcopy: Study on the Potential Application of 2011 International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy Terminology in Clinical Practice Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8984516/ As the newest colposcopic terminology, the 2011 International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (IFCPC) classification provides standardized interpretation of colposcopic findings. In this study, we analyzed the colposcopic accuracy and the significance of individual findings according to the 2011 IFCPC classification in 525 patients, reviewed by 13 trained colposcopists. Results show that colposcopic diagnoses are in 64.95% perfect agreement with cervical pathology, with 63.64% sensitivity and 96.01% specificity for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL+). And the accuracy is reproducible across different experienced examiners. Many individual findings, especially the two new signs, inner border sign and ridge sign, are proved to have good predictive accuracy, while iodine negativity demonstrates an inferior performance. However, the distribution of three cervical transformation zone (TZ) types is heterogeneous in examiners. A comparison was also made of the findings of another two colposcopists without nomenclature training according to the Reid Colposcopic Index (RCI), modified RCI, and Swede Score. Results show that colposcopic accuracies in them are lower than in those nomenclature trained colposcopists. The 2011 IFCPC nomenclature improves colposcopic accuracy in trained colposcopists, like speaking the same language. However, the reproducibility of TZ and the predictive value of a few signs remain to be discussed. Yanyun Li, Xiaoling Duan, Long Sui, Fengying Xu, Shuifang Xu, Hongwei Zhang, and Congjian Xu Copyright © 2017 Yanyun Li et al. All rights reserved. Inadequate Triglyceride Management Worsens the Durability of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/5856475/ Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are often used all over the world and exert various beneficial effects including glucose-lowering effect in many subjects with type 2 diabetes. It is poorly understood, however, which factors are closely related with the durability of glucose-lowering effect by DPP-4 inhibitor. In this study, we examined retrospectively which factors could mainly influence the durability of DPP-4 inhibitor. We enrolled 212 participants with type 2 diabetes to whom DPP-4 inhibitor was administered for over 1 year without an addition or increase of other hypoglycemic agents. Age and baseline HbA1c level were significantly higher in the effective group than those in the ineffective group. The effective group had a tendency of smaller amounts of weight change, average total cholesterol, and average triglyceride compared with the ineffective group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that average triglyceride and baseline HbA1c were independent predictors associated with the durability of DPP-4 inhibitor. Moreover, an average triglyceride level contributed to the durability of DPP-4 inhibitor in the obese group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) but not in the nonobese group (BMI < 25 kg/m2). These results suggest the importance of strict triglyceride management to maintain the durability of glucose-lowering effect by DPP-4 inhibitor, especially in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Masashi Shimoda, Maiko Miyoshi-Takai, Shintaro Irie, Akihito Tanabe, Atsushi Obata, Seizo Okauchi, Hidenori Hirukawa, Tomohiko Kimura, Kenji Kohara, Shinji Kamei, Tomoatsu Mune, Kohei Kaku, and Hideaki Kaneto Copyright © 2017 Masashi Shimoda et al. All rights reserved. Corneal Endothelial Characteristics, Central Corneal Thickness, and Intraocular Pressure in a Population of Chinese Age-Related Cataract Patients Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2017/9154626/ Purpose. To describe corneal endothelial characteristics, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure in a population of Chinese age-related cataract patients and to determine the effects of age, gender, hypertension, and body mass index (BMI). Methods. 1551 eyes were examined preoperatively. The parameters measured were endothelial cell density (CD), average cell area (CA), coefficient of variation (CV), cell hexagonality (HEX), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and axial length (AL). Results. There were significant differences in CV and BMI between genders. There was a significant decrease in CD, CCT, and IOP and, conversely, an increase in CA and BMI with increasing age. The patients who suffered from hypertension had bigger CA, less CD, and lower HEX than the patients who did not suffer from hypertension. CD has a negative correlation with age and CV and a positive correlation with CCT, CCT has a positive association with CD and IOP, and IOP had a negative relationship with age and a positive relationship with CCT, CA, and HEX. Conclusions. Normative data for the corneal endothelium, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure in the normal age-related cataract patients are reported which will serve as a baseline for comparative studies about cataract. Yingmei Li, Zhentao Fu, Jian Liu, Miao Li, Yuguang Zhang, and Xinyi Wu Copyright © 2017 Yingmei Li et al. All rights reserved. Cross Section Prediction for Inclusive Production of Boson in pp Collisions at  TeV: A Study of Systematic Uncertainty due to Scale Dependence Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2017/8262018/ Prediction of production cross section (where ) in proton-proton collisions at  TeV is estimated up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD including next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections. The total inclusive boson production cross section times leptonic branching ratio, within the invariant mass window  GeV, is predicted using NNLO HERAPDF2.0 at NNLO QCD and NLO EW as (PDF) () (scale) (parameterization and model). Theoretical prediction of the fiducial cross section is further computed with the latest modern PDF models (CT14, MMHT2014, NNPDF3.0, HERAPDF2.0, and ABM12) at NNLO for QCD and NLO for EW. The central values of the predictions are based on DYNNLO 1.5 program and the uncertainties are extracted using FEWZ 3.1 program. In addition, the cross section is also calculated as functions of and scales. The choice of and for scale variation uncertainty is further discussed in detail. Hasan Ogul and Kamuran Dilsiz Copyright © 2017 Hasan Ogul and Kamuran Dilsiz. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Paraneoplastic Aortitis Associated with Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/3091973/ Aortitis is a broad term describing inflammation of the aorta. The most common causes of aortitis are the large-vessel vasculitides giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Other etiologies include aortitis associated with other autoimmune disorders, infectious causes, and paraneoplastic and idiopathic cases. We describe a rare case of a large-vessel arteritis occurring in association with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). A 68-year-old female with recent diagnosis of CMML presented to our office for evaluation of abnormal chest computed tomography (CT) that showed inflammation surrounding the entirety of thoracic and abdominal aorta, consistent with aortitis. In the absence of other evident causes of large-vessel vasculitis, we attributed this finding to a paraneoplastic autoimmune phenomenon and started treatment with systemic glucocorticoids. This rare case emphasizes the need to recognize autoimmune complications in CMML and treat the inflammation along with the primary malignancy promptly. Sylwia Sasinowska, Pamela Traisak, Michael McCormack, and Hala Eid Copyright © 2017 Sylwia Sasinowska et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of a Polyherbal Aqueous Extract Comprised of Nigella sativa (Seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (Roots), and Smilax glabra (Rhizome) on Bleomycin Induced Cytogenetic Damage in Human Lymphocytes Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1856713/ This study was carried out to determine the chemoprotective potential of a polyherbal aqueous decoction comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) against bleomycin induced cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were exposed to bleomycin at a dose of 40 µg/mL for 2 hrs in the presence or absence of different doses of the decoction (100, 300, and 600 µg/mL). Modulatory effect of the decoction on bleomycin induced cytogenetic damage was evaluated by (a) degree of chromosomal aberrations (CA), (b) formation of micronuclei (MN), and (c) induction of γH2AX foci in lymphocytes exposed to bleomycin. Lymphocytes pretreated with the decoction showed that a significant reduction () in bleomycin induced (a) stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (CA), (b) MN formation, and (c) formation of H2AX foci, when compared to lymphocytes treated only with bleomycin. The decoction by itself did not induce any significant cytogenetic damage in PBLs. Overall results of the present study confirm that the decoction can attenuate the cytogenetic damage mediated by bleomycin in human PBLs. Bandula Prasanna Galhena, S. S. R. Samarakoon, Myrtle Ira Thabrew, Solomon F. D. Paul, Venkatachalam Perumal, and Chinnadurai Mani Copyright © 2017 Bandula Prasanna Galhena et al. All rights reserved. A Quantum-Chemical DFT Approach to Elucidation of the Chirality Transfer Mechanism of the Enantioselective Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/3617527/ The DFT calculations of the simplified model of the asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction were performed at the M062x/LANL2DZ theory level at first. It was found that enantioselective reactions mediated by the palladium complexes of chiral C,P-ligands follow a four-stage mechanism similar to that proposed previously as one of the most credible mechanisms. It should be underlined that the presence of substituents in the substrates and the chiral ligand at ortho positions determines the energies of possible diastereoisomeric transition states and intermediates in initial reaction steps. This suggests that, in practice, a sharp selection of theoretically possible paths of chirality transfer from the catalyst to the product should have a place and, therefore, the absolute configuration of the formed atropisomeric product is defined and can be predicted. Radomir Jasiński, Oleg M. Demchuk, and Dmytro Babyuk Copyright © 2017 Radomir Jasiński et al. All rights reserved. Epigenetic and Neural Circuitry Landscape of Psychotherapeutic Interventions Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psychiatry/2017/5491812/ The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient’s subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions. Importantly, genetic factors and the compounding effects of early life adversity do not inexorably lead to certain fated outcomes. The concepts of vulnerability and resilience are becoming more integrated into the framework of “differential susceptibility,” speaking to how corrective environmental factors may promote epigenetic change and reconfigure neural templates, allowing for symptomatic improvement. Psychotherapy is one such factor, and this review will focus on our current knowledge of its epigenetic and neurocircuitry impact. Christopher W. T. Miller Copyright © 2017 Christopher W. T. Miller. All rights reserved. Impact of Sucrose Addition on the Physiochemical Properties and Volatile Compounds of “Shuangyou” Red Wines Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/2926041/ “Shuangyou,” a Vitis amurensis Rupr. variety, is widely cultivated in northeastern and western China. Its berries have high acidity and low sugar content. In this study, different proportions of sucrose were added to the must samples during fermentation to investigate the effect of sugar on the physicochemical properties and volatile compounds of “Shuangyou” wines. The addition of sucrose significantly improved yeast growth and alcohol production, altered the color qualities, and slightly decreased titratable acidity during fermentation. The highest tested proportion of added sucrose resulted in the highest maximum yeast counts and final ethanol concentrations. Moreover, 37 volatile compounds (esters, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, and aldehydes) were identified and quantified by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of these compounds were correlated with the addition of sucrose. Furthermore, the addition of 100 g/L sucrose was sufficient for improving the concentrations of the aromatic compounds. The increase in ester, alcohol, and fatty acid concentration led to a positive OAVs impact (odor activity value > 1) at the end of fermentation. Huan Liu, Mei-Ling Bao, Hong-Ling Chen, and Qiao Li Copyright © 2017 Huan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Tradeoff Study between Cost and Environmental Impact of Aircraft Using Simultaneous Optimization of Airframe and Engine Cycle Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2017/2468535/ To investigate more efficient aircraft configurations which have less environmental impact, this paper develops a multidisciplinary analysis framework integrated with the airframe and propulsion analysis modules. The characteristics for propulsion, aerodynamics, weight, performance, cost, emissions, and noise can be rapidly predicted by the framework. The impact of propulsion installation with large diameter engines on aircraft weight and drag are considered in the framework. A wide-body aircraft was taken as an example for the optimization to investigate the tradeoffs between the cost metric and the environmental performance metrics. Several cases for single objective and multiobjective optimizations were performed. In the single objective optimizations, the direct operating cost, the cumulative noise, the oxides of nitrogen emissions during landing-takeoff cycle, and the mission oxides of nitrogen emissions were considered as an objective and minimized, respectively. The different objectives resulted in designs with different airframe parameters and engine cycle parameters. In the multiobjective optimizations, the direct operating costs and environmental performances were considered as the objectives simultaneously. The optimization results were the Pareto fronts for the minimum direct operating costs and environmental performances, which illustrate the quantitative relationships between the economic metric and the environmental performances. Xiao Chai, Xiongqing Yu, and Yu Wang Copyright © 2017 Xiao Chai et al. All rights reserved. Analysis and Comparison of Long-Distance Pipeline Failures Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpe/2017/3174636/ The analysis results of long-distance oil and gas pipeline failures are important for the industry and can be the basis of risk analysis, integrity assessment, and management improvement for pipeline operators. Through analysis and comparison of the statistical results of the United States, Europe, the UK, and PetroChina in pipeline failure frequencies, causes, consequences, similarities, and differences of pipeline management, focusing points and management effectiveness are given. Suggestions on long-distance pipeline safety technology and management in China are proposed. Lianshuang Dai, Dongpo Wang, Ting Wang, Qingshan Feng, and Xinqi Yang Copyright © 2017 Lianshuang Dai et al. All rights reserved. Mitophagy Transcriptome: Mechanistic Insights into Polyphenol-Mediated Mitophagy Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9028435/ Mitochondria are important bioenergetic and signalling hubs critical for myriad cellular functions and homeostasis. Dysfunction in mitochondria is a central theme in aging and diseases. Mitophagy, a process whereby damaged mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy, plays a key homeostatic role in mitochondrial quality control. Upregulation of mitophagy has shown to mitigate superfluous mitochondrial accumulation and toxicity to safeguard mitochondrial fitness. Hence, mitophagy is a viable target to promote longevity and prevent age-related pathologies. Current challenge in modulating mitophagy for cellular protection involves identification of physiological ways to activate the pathway. Till date, mitochondrial stress and toxins remain the most potent inducers of mitophagy. Polyphenols have recently been demonstrated to protect mitochondrial health by facilitating mitophagy, thus suggesting the exciting prospect of augmenting mitophagy through dietary intake. In this review, we will first discuss the different surveillance mechanisms responsible for the removal of damaged mitochondrial components, followed by highlighting the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy. Finally, we will review the functional connection between polyphenols and mitophagy and provide insight into the underlying mechanisms that potentially govern polyphenol-induced mitophagy. Sijie Tan and Esther Wong Copyright © 2017 Sijie Tan and Esther Wong. All rights reserved. Management of Severe Developmental Regression in an Autistic Child with a 1q21.3 Microdeletion and Self-Injurious Blindness Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2017/7582780/ We report the case of a young boy with nonverbal autism and intellectual disability, with a rare de novo 1q21.3 microdeletion. The patient had early and extreme self-injurious behaviours that led to blindness, complicated by severe developmental regression. A significant reduction in the self-injurious behaviours and the recovery of developmental dynamics were attained in a multidisciplinary neurodevelopmental inpatient unit. Improvement was obtained after managing all causes of somatic pains, using opiate blockers and stabilizing the patient’s mood. We offered both sensorimotor developmental approach with therapeutic body wrap and specific psychoeducation adapted to his blindness condition for improving his communication abilities. Cora Cravero, Vincent Guinchat, Jean Xavier, Camille Meunier, Lautaro Diaz, Cyril Mignot, Diane Doummar, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, Angèle Consoli, and David Cohen Copyright © 2017 Cora Cravero et al. All rights reserved. Labelling of Y- and Lu-DOTA-Bioconjugates for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: A Comparison among Manual, Semiautomated, and Fully Automated Synthesis Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmi/2017/8160134/ In spite of the hazard due to the radiation exposure, preparation of 90Y- and 177Lu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals is still mainly performed using manual procedures. In the present study the performance of a commercial automatic synthesizer based on disposable cassettes for the labelling of 177Lu- and 90Y-DOTA-conjugated biomolecules (namely, DOTATOC and PSMA-617) was evaluated and compared to a manual and a semiautomated approach. The dose exposure of the operators was evaluated as well. More than 300 clinical preparations of both 90Y- and 177Lu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals have been performed using the three different methods. The mean radiochemical yields for 90Y-DOTATOC were %, %, and %, while for 177Lu-DOTATOC they were 98.3%  ± 0.6, 90.8%  ± 8.3, and % when manual, semiautomated, and automated approaches were used, respectively. The mean doses on the whole hands for yttrium-90 preparations were  mSv/GBq,  mSv/GBq, and  mSv/GBq for manual, semiautomated, and automated synthesis, respectively, and for lutetium-177 preparations, they were  mSv/GBq,  mSv/GBq, and  mSv/GBq, respectively. In conclusion, the automated approach guaranteed reliable and reproducible preparations of pharmaceutical grade therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in a decent RCY. The radiation exposure of the operators remained comparable to the manual approach mainly due to the fact that a dedicated shielding was still not available for the system. Michele Iori, Pier C. Capponi, Sara Rubagotti, Luca Rosario Esposizione, Johanna Seemann, Riccardo Pitzschler, Thorsten Dreger, Debora Formisano, Elisa Grassi, Federica Fioroni, Annibale Versari, and Mattia Asti Copyright © 2017 Michele Iori et al. All rights reserved. Study on Fracture Initiation and Propagation in a Brazilian Disc with a Preexisting Crack by Digital Image Correlation Method Wed, 24 May 2017 10:32:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/2493921/ The effect of a preexisting crack with different inclination angles and lengths on mechanical properties, fracture initiation, and propagation in a Brazilian disc was investigated in this paper. In the experiment, digital image correlation (DIC) method was employed to record the deformation in the specimen. Different failure patterns, depending on inclination angles and lengths of the preexisting crack, were observed. The fracture initiation position deviates from the tips of the preexisting crack with the inclination angle increasing from 0° to 72° at an interval of 18° per increment. Secondary cracks are more likely to occur in the Brazilian disc with a more inclined and longer preexisting crack. A finite-discrete element combined method ELFEN was used in the numerical investigation to simulate the failure process. This investigation shows that there are good correlations between the experimental and numerical results. Digital image correlation is a good method to obtain the quantitive full-field strain distribution and to observe the strain evolution process in a jointed rock. Lin Luo, Xibing Li, Jiadong Qiu, and Quanqi Zhu Copyright © 2017 Lin Luo et al. All rights reserved. Cloud Model-Based Artificial Immune Network for Complex Optimization Problem Wed, 24 May 2017 10:05:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/5901258/ This paper proposes an artificial immune network based on cloud model (AINet-CM) for complex function optimization problems. Three key immune operators—cloning, mutation, and suppression—are redesigned with the help of the cloud model. To be specific, an increasing half cloud-based cloning operator is used to adjust the dynamic clone multipliers of antibodies, an asymmetrical cloud-based mutation operator is used to control the adaptive evolution of antibodies, and a normal similarity cloud-based suppressor is used to keep the diversity of the antibody population. To quicken the searching convergence, a dynamic searching step length strategy is adopted. For comparative study, a series of numerical simulations are arranged between AINet-CM and the other three artificial immune systems, that is, opt-aiNet, IA-AIS, and AAIS-2S. Furthermore, two industrial applications—finite impulse response (FIR) filter design and proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller tuning—are investigated and the results demonstrate the potential searching capability and practical value of the proposed AINet-CM algorithm. Mingan Wang, Shuo Feng, Jianming Li, Zhonghua Li, Yu Xue, and Dongliang Guo Copyright © 2017 Mingan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Solanum paranense Extracts and Solanine Present Anti-Inflammatory Activity in an Acute Skin Inflammation Model in Mice Wed, 24 May 2017 10:02:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4295680/ The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the S. paranense crude extract, S. paranense alkaloid fraction, and solanine alkaloid. These samples reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner and a maximum inhibition of 81%, 98%, and 80% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Moreover, the samples inhibit the MPO activity with an inhibition maximum of 51%, 40%, and 46% in the doses of 1.0, 0.73, and 0.37 mg/ear, respectively. Similar results were found for dexamethasone 0.10 mg/ear (positive control), which showed inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 100% and 65%, respectively. These results found probably are related to the presence of solanine which is present in significant quantity in the alkaloid fraction and others as rutin and rosmarinic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids. These results support the use of S. paranense for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Mariana Piana, Camila Camponogara, Aline Augusti Boligon, and Sara Marchesan Oliveira Copyright © 2017 Mariana Piana et al. All rights reserved. Hepatotoxicity in Rats Induced by Aqueous Extract of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Root of Polygonum multiflorum Related to the Activity Inhibition of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 Wed, 24 May 2017 09:57:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9456785/ The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., He Shou Wu) and the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 in the rat liver. Levels of rat serum transaminases ALT and AST were not altered but the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 in the rat liver was significantly inhibited after oral administration of aqueous extract of PMR under the experimental dosage. However, levels of ALT and AST were significantly increased and the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 was significantly decreased after injection of specific inhibitor for CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 combined with oral administration of aqueous extract of PMR, especially under the repeated treatment over interval times. Liver histopathological observation showed that a moderate liver injury occurred in rats receiving PMR treatment with the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 inhibited, but there was no significant liver damage in rats receiving PMR treatment or CYP inhibitor alone. These suggested that low level activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 from genetic polymorphism among people might be one of the important reasons for the hepatotoxicity induced by PMR in clinical practice. Deng-Ke Li, Jing Chen, Zhen-Zhen Ge, and Zhen-Xiao Sun Copyright © 2017 Deng-Ke Li et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Pan-Flavivirus Detection and Identification Assay Based on RT-qPCR and Microarray Wed, 24 May 2017 09:53:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4248756/ The genus Flavivirus includes arthropod-borne viruses responsible for a large number of infections in humans and economically important animals. While RT-PCR protocols for specific detection of most Flavivirus species are available, there has been also a demand for a broad-range Flavivirus assay covering all members of the genus. It is particularly challenging to balance specificity at genus level with equal sensitivity towards each target species. In the present study, a novel assay combining a SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR with a low-density DNA microarray has been developed. Validation experiments confirmed that the RT-qPCR exhibited roughly equal sensitivity of detection and quantification for all flaviviruses tested. These PCR products are subjected to hybridization on a microarray carrying 84 different oligonucleotide probes that represent all known Flavivirus species. This assay has been used as a screening and confirmation tool for Flavivirus presence in laboratory and field samples, and it performed successfully in international External Quality Assessment of NAT studies. Twenty-six Flavivirus strains were tested with the assay, showing equivalent or superior characteristics compared with the original or even with species-specific RT-PCRs. As an example, test results on West Nile virus detection in a panel of 340 mosquito pool samples from Greece are presented. Ariel Vina-Rodriguez, Konrad Sachse, Ute Ziegler, Serafeim C. Chaintoutis, Markus Keller, Martin H. Groschup, and Martin Eiden Copyright © 2017 Ariel Vina-Rodriguez et al. All rights reserved. Sertraline Induces Toxicity and Behavioral Alterations in Planarians Wed, 24 May 2017 09:50:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5792621/ Toxicity attributed to sertraline has been demonstrated recently in different cell types and also in some organisms. We investigated the effect of sertraline on planarians, which are considered suitable for investigations in neurotoxicology and currently are widely used as an animal model in neuropharmacological studies. Planarians treated with 10 µM sertraline showed a rapid reduction in their spontaneous movement until they became completely motionless and then showed a series of asynchronous paroxysms (seizures) followed by progressive tissue damage, beginning 48 h after the sertraline treatment, and died approximately 72 h later. Our data showed that sertraline does not cause planarian death within the range of therapeutic concentrations; however, behavioral alterations were observed with concentrations that can be considered compatible with therapeutic ones, such as a significant reduction in planarian locomotory activity at 0.4 µM. Treatment with 4 µM sertraline had a significant effect, reducing planarian locomotory activity and increasing the number of asynchronous paroxysms; both effects were significantly maintained even 24 h after the sertraline was withdrawn. These behavioral changes observed at low micromolar concentrations suggest that sertraline might have residual biological consequences for planarians, even after it is withdrawn. Isabela Salvador Thumé and Marcos Emílio Frizzo Copyright © 2017 Isabela Salvador Thumé and Marcos Emílio Frizzo. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Hydroelastic Performance of Very Large Floating Structures Based on Multimodules Beam Theory Wed, 24 May 2017 09:25:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6482527/ The hydroelastic behavior of very large floating structures (VLFSs) is investigated based on the proposed multimodules beam theory (MBT). To carry out the analysis, the VLFS is first divided into multiple submodules that are connected through their gravity center by a spatial beam with specific stiffness. The external force exerted on the submodules includes the wave hydrodynamic force as well as the beam bending force due to the relative displacements of different submodules. The wave hydrodynamic force is computed based on three-dimensional potential theory. The beam bending force is expressed in the form of a stiffness matrix. The motion response defined at the gravity center of the submodules is solved by the multibody hydrodynamic control equations; then both the displacement and the structure bending moment of the VLFS are determined from the stiffness matrix equations. To account for the moving point mass effects, the proposed method is extended to the time domain based on impulse response function (IRF) theory. The method is verified by comparison with existing results. Detailed results through the displacement and bending moment of the VLFS are provided to show the influence of the number of the submodules and the influence of the moving point mass. Jin Xu, Yonggang Sun, Zhifu Li, Xiantao Zhang, and Da Lu Copyright © 2017 Jin Xu et al. All rights reserved. Focal Mechanisms of Mw 6.3 Aftershocks from Waveform Inversions, Phayao Fault Zone, Northern Thailand Wed, 24 May 2017 09:21:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2017/9059825/ The focal mechanisms of Mw 6.3 aftershocks, Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand, were determined by using a multistation waveform inversion. Three aftershocks were selected and their waveforms were inverted for moment tensor calculation. Waveform inversions were derived from three broadband stations with three components and epicentral distances less than 250 km after all seismic stations were considered. The deviatoric moment tensor inversion was used for focal mechanism calculations. Band-pass filtering in the range of 0.03–0.15 Hz was selected for reducing low- and high-frequency noise. Source positions were created by using a single-source inversion and a grid-search method computed to optimize the waveform match. The results showed stable moment tensors and fault geometries with the southwest azimuth in the northern part of the Payao Fault Zone (PFZ) with depths shallower than 10 km. Left-lateral strike-slip with a reverse component was detected. The tectonics of the PFZ is constrained by fault-plane solutions of earthquakes. WSW directional strikes are observed in the northern part of the PFZ. Kasemsak Saetang Copyright © 2017 Kasemsak Saetang. All rights reserved. Sudden Onset, Rapidly Expansile, Cervical Cystic Hygroma in an Adult: A Rare Case with Unusual Presentation and Extensive Review of the Literature Wed, 24 May 2017 09:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/1061958/ Cystic hygroma (CH) is a benign infiltrative malformation of the lymphatic channels. We report a case of a 28-year-old Indian female who presented with rapidly enlarging right sided neck swelling over the posterior triangle since 5 days. Complete resection of CH is sometimes not amenable because of its infiltrative nature and involvement of surrounding vital structures. However, in our patient successful complete surgical resection was undertaken. The MRI findings of our patient were consistent with brachial cleft cyst; this posed a challenge in the diagnosis of CH. The histopathological analysis of the resected mass confirmed CH. CH is rare in adults and such an acute presentation is exceptionally atypical. History of prior trauma and infection are known etiological factors for adult CH; these were conspicuously absent in our patient. CH should be considered in the differentials of rapidly enlarging cystic swelling of posterior region of neck in adults. Optimal and timely management is necessary to achieve a favorable prognosis. Therefore, we report a case of rapidly enlarging cervical CH in an adult along with extensive literature review to have a better understanding regarding epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, optimal management, and prognosis of such a rare entity in adults. Vivek Dokania, Anagha Rajguru, Harmanjot Kaur, Ketan Agarwal, Sujata Kanetkar, Prajakta Thakur, Femina Patel, and Dhirajkumar Shukla Copyright © 2017 Vivek Dokania et al. All rights reserved. Development of Neurological Mouse Model for Toxoplasmosis Using Toxoplasma gondii Isolated from Chicken in Kenya Wed, 24 May 2017 09:16:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pri/2017/4302459/ Animal models for the toxoplasmosis are scarce and have limitations. In this study, a neurological mouse model was developed in BALB/c mice infected intraperitoneally with 15 cysts of a Toxoplasma gondii isolate. The mice were monitored for 42 days and euthanized at different time points. Another group of mice were orally treated with dexamethasone (DXM: 2.66 mg/kg daily, 5.32 mg/kg daily) at 42 days after infection and monitored for a further 42 days. A mortality rate of 15% and 28.6% was observed in mice given 2.66 mg/kg/day and 5.32 mg/kg/day of DXM, respectively. The mean cyst numbers in the brain of DXM treated mice increased up to twofold compared with chronically infected untreated mice. Infections up to 42 days were associated with an increase in both IgM and IgG levels but following dexamethasone treatment, IgM levels declined but IgG levels continued on rising. The brain of toxoplasmosis infected mice showed mononuclear cellular infiltrations, neuronal necrosis, and cuffing. The severity of pathology was higher in mice treated with dexamethasone compared to the positive control groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that DXM-induced reactivation of chronic toxoplasmosis may be a useful development of laboratory animal model in outbred mice used for in vivo studies. John Mokua Mose, David Muchina Kamau, John Maina Kagira, Naomi Maina, Maina Ngotho, Adele Njuguna, and Simon Muturi Karanja Copyright © 2017 John Mokua Mose et al. All rights reserved. Quantification of Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds in a New Chrysanthemum Cultivar by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Wed, 24 May 2017 09:09:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1254721/ The flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. have been used as an herbal tea and in traditional medicine, and the plant has been developed to produce horticultural cultivars of various colors and shapes. In this study, a new chrysanthemum cultivar with dark purple petals (C. morifolium cv. ARTI-Dark Chocolate; ADC) was developed by radiation-induced mutation breeding of its original cultivar with purple striped white petals (C. morifolium cv. Noble Wine, NW). The phenolic profile and antioxidant property of ADC were investigated and compared with NW and the commercially available medicinal herb, C. morifolium with yellow petals (CM), in order to find a scientific support to produce a new source of natural antioxidant. Flavonoid and phenolic acid profiles of the ethanol extracts of the three flowers were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS), while antioxidant properties were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Among the tested flowers, ADC possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity and the highest phenolic contents. Flavonoids (acacetin, apigenin, luteolin, acacetin-7-O--glucoside, apigenin-7-O--glucoside, luteolin-7-O--glucoside, and linarin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and mixture of 1,4-, 1,5-, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids) were identified and quantified. Ah-Reum Han, Hyo Young Kim, Yangkang So, Bomi Nam, Ik-Soo Lee, Joo-Won Nam, Yeong Deuk Jo, Sang Hoon Kim, Jin-Baek Kim, Si-Yong Kang, and Chang Hyun Jin Copyright © 2017 Ah-Reum Han et al. All rights reserved. ACTN3 Gene and Susceptibility to Sarcopenia and Osteoporotic Status in Older Korean Adults Wed, 24 May 2017 09:07:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4239648/ Background. Little information is available about molecular markers for sarcopenia and osteoporosis in Asian populations. Objective. This study investigated the association of the ACTN3 polymorphism with sarcopenia and osteoporotic status in older Korean adults. Methods. Older Korean 62 men and 270 women (mean age 73.7 ± 6.6 years) participated in this study. Body mass index, percent body fatness, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, femur, and total body were analyzed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. ACTN3 R/X genotyping was determined using TaqMan probes. Results. Determination of odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using binary logistic regression analyses showed that XX homozygotes were at a significantly higher risk of sarcopenia (, , ) and osteoporosis (, , ) than RR homozygotes (reference group, ). The OR of XX homozygotes for having sarcopenia remained significant (, , ) after adjustments for age, gender, body fatness, and serum vitamin D. The OR of XX homozygotes for having osteoporosis was no longer significant (, , ) after adjustments for the covariates. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the ACTN3 R577X genotype may influence decline in muscle and bone health phenotypes in older Korean adults. Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, and Hyunsik Kang Copyright © 2017 Jinkyung Cho et al. All rights reserved. Chimeric Genes in Deletions and Duplications Associated with Intellectual Disability Wed, 24 May 2017 08:53:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2017/4798474/ We report on three nonrelated patients with intellectual disability and CNVs that give rise to three new chimeric genes. All the genes forming these fusion transcripts may have an important role in central nervous system development and/or in gene expression regulation, and therefore not only their deletion or duplication but also the resulting chimeric gene may contribute to the phenotype of the patients. Deletions and duplications are usually pathogenic when affecting dose-sensitive genes. Alternatively, a chimeric gene may also be pathogenic by different gain-of-function mechanisms that are not restricted to dose-sensitive genes: the emergence of a new polypeptide that combines functional domains from two different genes, the deregulated expression of any coding sequence by the promoter region of a neighboring gene, and/or a putative dominant-negative effect due to the preservation of functional domains of partially truncated proteins. Fusion oncogenes are well known, but in other pathologies, the search for chimeric genes is disregarded. According to our findings, we hypothesize that the frequency of fusion transcripts may be much higher than suspected, and it should be taken into account in the array-CGH analyses of patients with intellectual disability. Sonia Mayo, Sandra Monfort, Mónica Roselló, Carmen Orellana, Silvestre Oltra, Alfonso Caro-Llopis, and Francisco Martínez Copyright © 2017 Sonia Mayo et al. All rights reserved. Prediction Model of Mechanical Extending Limits in Horizontal Drilling and Design Methods of Tubular Strings to Improve Limits Wed, 24 May 2017 08:50:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2968231/ Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency. Wenjun Huang, Deli Gao, and Yinghua Liu Copyright © 2017 Wenjun Huang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Combined Heat and Preservative Treatment on Storability of Ponkan Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) during Postharvest Storage Wed, 24 May 2017 08:47:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/5871756/ Heat treatment and preservative application have been widely used during postharvest storage of many fresh products, but the effect of their combination on citrus storage has rarely been investigated. In this study, the optimal heat treatment (HT) conditions and HT combined with preservative treatment were investigated for Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) storage. Results indicated that HT at 55°C for 20 s can significantly reduce the decay rate of Ponkan fruit, and a combination of HT and 25% of the preservative dosage used in production of iminoctadine tris (albesilate), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and imazalil significantly reduced the decay rate without affecting fruit quality. In addition, the increased fiber contents in fruit receiving the HT combined with preservative treatments may be a response preventing fungus infection and enhancing fruit storability and resistance. The above results suggested that the combination of HT and 25% of the preservative production dosage was optimal for controlling Ponkan fruit decay during storage. Dandan Tang, Qiong Lin, Juanying Lin, Dengliang Wang, Chunrong Liu, Wenming Wu, Chongde Sun, and Kunsong Chen Copyright © 2017 Dandan Tang et al. All rights reserved. An Automatic Assembling System for Sealing Rings Based on Machine Vision Wed, 24 May 2017 08:42:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2017/4207432/ In order to grab and place the sealing rings of battery lid quickly and accurately, an automatic assembling system for sealing rings based on machine vision is developed in this paper. The whole system is composed of the light sources, cameras, industrial control units, and a 4-degree-of-freedom industrial robot. Specifically, the sealing rings are recognized and located automatically with the machine vision module. Then industrial robot is controlled for grabbing the sealing rings dynamically under the joint work of multiple control units and visual feedback. Furthermore, the coordinates of the fast-moving battery lid are tracked by the machine vision module. Finally the sealing rings are placed on the sealing ports of battery lid accurately and automatically. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can grab the sealing rings and place them on the sealing port of the fast-moving battery lid successfully. More importantly, the proposed system can improve the efficiency of the battery production line obviously. Mingyu Gao, Xiao Li, Zhiwei He, and Yuxiang Yang Copyright © 2017 Mingyu Gao et al. All rights reserved. A Pilot Study on Bioactive Constituents and Analgesic Effects of MyrLiq®, a Commiphora myrrha Extract with a High Furanodiene Content Wed, 24 May 2017 08:39:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3804356/ The analgesic properties of myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) have been known since ancient times and depend on the presence of bioactive sesquiterpenes with furanodiene skeletons. MyrLiq is a C. myrrha extract with a standardized content of curzerene, furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, and lindestrene ( g kg−1,  g kg−1, and  g kg−1, resp.) and a high total furanodiene content ( g kg−1). A balanced sample of 95 female and 89 male volunteers (with ages ranging from 18 to older than 60 years) exhibiting different pain pathologies, including headache, fever-dependent pain, joint pain, muscle aches, lower back pain, and menstrual cramps, was divided into two groups. The experimental group received 1 capsule/day containing either 200 mg or 400 mg of MyrLiq (corresponding to 8 mg and 16 mg of bioactive furanodienes, resp.) for 20 days, and the placebo group was given the same number of capsules with no MyrLiq. A score was recorded for all volunteers based on their previous experience with prescribed analgesics. For the male volunteers, pain alleviation was obtained with 400 mg of MyrLiq/day for almost all pathologies, whereas, for female volunteers, alleviation of lower back pain and fever-dependent pain was observed with only 200 mg of MyrLiq/day. These results indicate that MyrLiq has significant analgesic properties. Antonio Germano, Andrea Occhipinti, Francesca Barbero, and Massimo E. Maffei Copyright © 2017 Antonio Germano et al. All rights reserved. Modelling and Analysis on Emergency Evacuation from Metro Stations Wed, 24 May 2017 08:29:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2623684/ Efficient calculation on passenger evacuation performances under emergencies is crucial to the planning, design, and operation of metro systems as it is closely related to the safety of human lives. Four calculation methodologies including the China CDM, NFPA 130, control volume, and M/G/c/c models and a multiagent-based simulation approach are employed to calculate the evacuation time under a given number of evacuees in different application backgrounds by investigating impact factors and strategies of evacuation as well as moving speed of evacuees. The M/G/c/c model and multiagent-based simulation approach are also used to identify the bottleneck of evacuation in metro stations. A case study for the Xizhimen metro station in Beijing is carried out to validate the effectiveness of these methodologies to planners, designers, and operators in practice. The results show that the former two methodologies are concise quantitative methods while the latter ones are more capable of assessing the whole process and details of evacuation. Shaokuan Chen, Yue Di, Shuang Liu, and Baoshan Wang Copyright © 2017 Shaokuan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Anti-OSM Antibody Inhibits Tubulointerstitial Lesion in a Murine Model of Lupus Nephritis Wed, 24 May 2017 08:17:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/3038514/ The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of oncostatin M (OSM) in tubulointerstitial lesion (TIL) in lupus nephritis (LN). We found that OSM was highly expressed in the renal tissue of LN mice. OSM is one of the interleukin-6 cytokine family members. In order to clarify the role and mechanism of OSM in LN, mice with LN were treated with anti-OSM antibody or isotype antibody. We evaluated the tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) by detecting the E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibronectin (FN) expression. We analyzed the inflammation by observing the monocyte chemotactic factor-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression and calculated the tubulointerstitial fibrosis area by Masson staining. The results showed that anti-OSM antibody, rather than isotype antibody, improved EMT, inflammation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In addition, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 signaling was activated by tyrosine phosphorylation in LN mouse renal tissue, indicating that the phosphorylated STAT1 (p-STAT1) and p-STAT3 were involved in kidney injury. Moreover, decreased p-STAT3 instead of p-STAT1 has been observed after anti-OSM antibody injection. Thus, we concluded that OSM is associated with TIL in lupus nephritis, which may be connected with the activation of STAT3 rather than that of STAT1. Qingjuan Liu, Yunxia Du, Kejun Li, Wei Zhang, Xiaojuan Feng, Jun Hao, Hongbo Li, and Shuxia Liu Copyright © 2017 Qingjuan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Annular Beam Shaping in Multiphoton Microscopy to Reduce Out-of-Focus Background Wed, 24 May 2017 08:16:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijs/2017/7560141/ Despite the inherent spatial confinement of multiphoton processes that arises from focusing through an objective, the maximum imaging depth in conventional multiphoton microscopy is ultimately limited by noise from out-of-focus fluorescence. This is particularly evident when imaging beyond shallow depths in highly scattering tissue as increased laser powers are necessary. The out-of-focus signal originates from multiphoton processes taking place primarily at shallow depths and deteriorates contrast and limits imaging depth. In this paper, annular laser beams are explored as a concept to reduce this background signal in multiphoton microscopy. The approach is theoretically verified by data from simulations and proof of principle is demonstrated on a custom-built experimental multiphoton microscopy platform. Annular laser beams were created by adopting wavefront control using a spatial light modulator and implemented for imaging tissue phantoms simulating turbid media and human skin ex vivo. The signal-to-background ratios were calculated and compared to images acquired with a traditional, filled-aperture Gaussian beam. Experiments in tissue phantom show an improvement in signal-to-background ratio of about 30% when using annular beam illumination in comparison to Gaussian illumination at specific depths. When laser power is not the limiting factor, this approach is expected to provide even greater benefits. Johan Borglin, Danni Wang, Nicholas J. Durr, Dag Hanstorp, Adela Ben-Yakar, and Marica B. Ericson Copyright © 2017 Johan Borglin et al. All rights reserved. Temperature Effects on the Friction and Wear Behaviors of SiCp/A356 Composite against Semimetallic Materials Wed, 24 May 2017 08:07:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/1824080/ Due to the low density and high temperature resistance, the SiCp/A356 composites have great potential for weight reduction and braking performance using the brake disc used in trains and automobiles. But the friction coefficient and braking performance are not stable in the braking process because of temperature rising. In this paper, friction and wear behaviors of SiCp/A356 composite against semimetallic materials were investigated in a ring-on-disc configuration in the temperature range of 30°C to 300°C. Experiments were conducted at a constant sliding speed of 1.4 m/s and an applied load of 200 N. Worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris were also examined by using SEM and EDS techniques. The third body films (TBFs) lubricated wear transferred to the third body abrasive wear above 200°C, which was a transition temperature. The friction coefficient decreased and weight of semimetallic materials increased with the increase of temperature and the temperature had almost no effect on the weight loss of composites. The dominant wear mechanism of the composites was microploughing and slight adhesion below 200°C, while being controlled by cutting grooves, severe adhesion, and delamination above the 200°C. Like Pan, Jianmin Han, Zhiyong Yang, Jialin Wang, Xiang Li, Zhiqiang Li, and Weijing Li Copyright © 2017 Like Pan et al. All rights reserved. Amorphization Effect for Kondo Semiconductor CeRu2Al10 Wed, 24 May 2017 07:57:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2017/9848151/ We measured the magnetic susceptibility , electrical resistivity , and specific heat of a sputtered amorphous (a-)CeRu2Al10 alloy. value for a-CeRu2Al10 alloy follows a Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior in the high-temperature region, and magnetic transition was not observed down to 2 K. The effective paramagnetic moment is 1.19 /Ce-atom. The resistivity shows a typical disordered alloy behavior, that is, small temperature dependence for the whole temperature range. We observed an enhancement of and in the low-temperature region of  K. The enhancement in is suppressed by applying a magnetic field. It is suggested that this behavior is caused by the Kondo effect. Yusuke Amakai, Yasuhiro Shiojiri, Kei Ishihara, Hiroto Hitotsukabuto, Shigeyuki Murayama, Naoki Momono, and Hideaki Takano Copyright © 2017 Yusuke Amakai et al. All rights reserved. Advancing Shannon Entropy for Measuring Diversity in Systems Wed, 24 May 2017 07:51:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/complexity/2017/8715605/ From economic inequality and species diversity to power laws and the analysis of multiple trends and trajectories, diversity within systems is a major issue for science. Part of the challenge is measuring it. Shannon entropy has been used to rethink diversity within probability distributions, based on the notion of information. However, there are two major limitations to Shannon’s approach. First, it cannot be used to compare diversity distributions that have different levels of scale. Second, it cannot be used to compare parts of diversity distributions to the whole. To address these limitations, we introduce a renormalization of probability distributions based on the notion of case-based entropy as a function of the cumulative probability . Given a probability density , measures the diversity of the distribution up to a cumulative probability of , by computing the length or support of an equivalent uniform distribution that has the same Shannon information as the conditional distribution of up to cumulative probability . We illustrate the utility of our approach by renormalizing and comparing three well-known energy distributions in physics, namely, the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac distributions for energy of subatomic particles. The comparison shows that is a vast improvement over as it provides a scale-free comparison of these diversity distributions and also allows for a comparison between parts of these diversity distributions. R. Rajaram, B. Castellani, and A. N. Wilson Copyright © 2017 R. Rajaram et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Dentin Defect Formation during Retreatment with Hand and Rotary Instruments: A Micro-CT Study Wed, 24 May 2017 07:48:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scanning/2017/4868603/ The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and longitudinal propagation of dentin defects after gutta-percha removal with hand and rotary instruments using microcomputed tomography. Twenty mandibular incisors were prepared using the balanced-force technique and scanned in a 19.9 μm resolution. Following filling with the lateral compaction technique, gutta-percha was removed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR) or hand instruments. After rescanning, a total of 24,120 cross-sectional images were analyzed. The numbers, types, and longitudinal length changes of defects were recorded. Defects were observed in 36.90% of the cross sections. A total of 73 defects were comprised of 87.67% craze lines, 2.73% partial cracks, and 9.58% fractures. No significant difference in terms of new defect formation was detected between the retreatment groups. The apical and middle portions of the roots had more dentin defects than the coronal portions. Defects in three roots of the PTUR instrument group increased in length. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, gutta-percha removal seemed to not increase the incidence of dentin defect formation, but the longitudinal defect propagation finding suggests possible cumulative dentinal damage due to additional endodontic procedures. Hand and rotary instrumentation techniques caused similar dentin defect formation during root canal retreatment. Ayca Yilmaz, Dilek Helvacioglu-Yigit, Cansu Gur, Handan Ersev, Gullu Kiziltas Sendur, Egemen Avcu, Canan Baydemir, and Paul Vincent Abbott Copyright © 2017 Ayca Yilmaz et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic Resonance Enterography Findings of Intestinal Behçet Disease in a Child Wed, 24 May 2017 07:45:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2017/8061648/ Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by recurrent oral ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions, and pathergy. Gastrointestinal disease outside the oral cavity is well recognized and usually takes the form of small intestinal ulcers, with the most significant lesions frequently occurring in the ileocaecal region. Symptoms usually include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain, and change in bowel habit and it is not unusual that patients may present late, with life-threatening complications requiring surgery. Diagnosis has been hindered for many years by limitations in imaging the small bowel and it is usually achieved by means of endoscopy and CT of the abdomen. Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is a relatively new technique, which has a high diagnostic rate in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Although many similarities between CD and intestinal BD have already been described in literature, the role of MRE in the evaluation of intestinal BD has never been defined up to now. We report a case of a 12-year-old female patient with diagnosis of BD who presented at our institution for recurrent colicky abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The patient underwent MRE that demonstrated the gastrointestinal involvement. Tommaso D’Angelo, Romina Gallizzi, Claudio Romano, Giuseppe Cicero, and Silvio Mazziotti Copyright © 2017 Tommaso D’Angelo et al. All rights reserved. Diffuse B Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Presenting Atypically as Periprosthetic Joint Infection in a Total Hip Replacement Wed, 24 May 2017 07:42:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2017/7195016/ The occurrence of extranodal primary B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is rare. Total hip replacement is one of the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. There has been an increased incidence of primary lymphomas involving periprosthetic sites. Chronic inflammation due to metal debris arising from the prosthetic implants has been evidenced as one of the causes for the development of soft tissue lymphomas albeit rarely. We describe a case report of a 77-year-old patient who had underwent a cemented total hip replacement in the past who further developed large B cell primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. She presented initially with signs and symptoms highly suggestive of underlying periprosthetic infection. The radiological imaging was also indicative of periprosthetic infection. The diagnosis was eventually confirmed after an open biopsy. This case underlines the importance of considering and including soft tissue malignancy in the differential diagnosis of suspected chronic periprosthetic infection. Aysha Rajeev, Angela Ralte, Nameer Choudhry, Faizan Jabbar, and Paul Banaszkiewicz Copyright © 2017 Aysha Rajeev et al. All rights reserved. Stochastic Interest Model Based on Compound Poisson Process and Applications in Actuarial Science Wed, 24 May 2017 07:23:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/3472319/ Considering stochastic behavior of interest rates in financial market, we construct a new class of interest models based on compound Poisson process. Different from the references, this paper describes the randomness of interest rates by modeling the force of interest with Poisson random jumps directly. To solve the problem in calculation of accumulated interest force function, one important integral technique is employed. And a conception called the critical value is introduced to investigate the validity condition of this new model. We also discuss actuarial present values of several life annuities under this new interest model. Simulations are done to illustrate the theoretical results and the effect of parameters in interest model on actuarial present values is also analyzed. Shilong Li, Chuancun Yin, Xia Zhao, and Hongshuai Dai Copyright © 2017 Shilong Li et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese Wed, 24 May 2017 07:16:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6820369/ Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products. Aleksandra Ołdak, Dorota Zielińska, Anna Rzepkowska, and Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska Copyright © 2017 Aleksandra Ołdak et al. All rights reserved. Oscillation-Based Test Applied to a Wideband CCII Wed, 24 May 2017 07:14:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vlsi/2017/5075103/ Oscillation-based testing (OBT) has been proven to be a simple, yet effective VLSI test for numerous circuit types. This paper investigates, for the first time, the application of OBT verification for second generation current conveyors (CCIIs). The OBT is formed by connecting the CCII into a simple Wien bridge oscillator and monitoring both the amplitude and frequency of oscillation. The fault detection rate, taking into account both the open and short circuit fault simulation analyses, indicates 96.34% fault coverage using a combination of amplitude and frequency output sensing in all technology corners. The only nondetected faults are short circuits between and , which can be detected using other techniques such as IDDQ testing. This method is found to be sensitive to resistor and capacitor process variation in the Wien bridge oscillator, but mitigating test steps are proposed. Pablo Petrashin, Luis Toledo, Walter Lancioni, Piotr Osuch, and Tinus Stander Copyright © 2017 Pablo Petrashin et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Compound -Distributed Sea Clutter on Angle Measurement of Wideband Monopulse Radar Wed, 24 May 2017 07:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2081718/ The effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement of wideband monopulse radar are investigated in this paper. We apply the conditional probability density function (pdf) of monopulse ratio (MR) error to analyze these effects. Based on the angle measurement procedure of the wideband monopulse radar, this conditional pdf is first deduced in detail for the case of compound -distributed sea clutter plus noise. Herein, the spatial correlation of the texture components for each channel clutter and the correlation of the texture components between the sum and difference channel clutters are considered, and two extreme situations for each of them are tackled. Referring to the measured sea clutter data, angle measurement performances in various K-distributed sea clutter plus noise circumstances are simulated, and the effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement are discussed. Hong Zhu, Yujian Pan, Weiwei Wu, Ning Tai, and Naichang Yuan Copyright © 2017 Hong Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Urinalysis and Clinical Correlations in Patients with P. vivax or P. falciparum Malaria from Colombia Wed, 24 May 2017 06:53:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2017/7868535/ Background. Urinalysis is a poorly reviewed diagnostic tool in malaria patients; its application can show the presence of severe malaria. Methods. Urinalysis was performed in a total of 620 patients diagnosed with malaria by thick blood smear; complications were classified according to WHO major criteria for severity and minor criteria according to the Colombian malaria guideline. Results. Severe or moderate clinical complications were diagnosed in 31.1% of patients, hepatic dysfunctions were diagnosed in 25.8%, anemia was diagnosed in 9.8%, thrombocytopenia was diagnosed in 7.7%, renal dysfunction was diagnosed in 4.8%, neurological and pulmonary complications were diagnosed in 2.1% and 2.4%, hypoglycemia was diagnosed in 1.1% of patients with blood glucose analysis, and acidosis was diagnosed in 10 of 25. Bilirubinuria was found in 24.3%, associated with urobilinuria, proteinuria, and increased specific gravity; urobilinuria was found in 30.6% associated with elevated serum bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase; 39.2% had proteinuria, associated with higher blood urea nitrogen, serum bilirubin, aspartate, alanine-transaminase, hematuria, and increased specific gravity. Severe or moderate liver and renal complications were associated with proteinuria and bilirubinuria. Urobilinuria was associated with thrombocytopenia and neurological and hepatic dysfunction. Ketonuria was associated with neurological dysfunctions. Conclusions. The most frequent alterations in the urinalysis were bilirubinuria, proteinuria, urobilinuria, and increased specific gravity, related to thrombocytopenia and liver, kidney, and neurological alterations. Alberto Tobón-Castaño, Sebastián Barrera Escobar, and Cecilia Giraldo Castro Copyright © 2017 Alberto Tobón-Castaño et al. All rights reserved. Embedded IoT Systems: Network, Platform, and Software Wed, 24 May 2017 06:51:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2017/5921523/ Jeongyeup Paek, Omprakash Gnawali, Marcos A. M. Vieira, and Shuai Hao Copyright © 2017 Jeongyeup Paek et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tautomerism of 1,3-Dimethyl Pyrimidine-2,4,6-Trione s-Triazinyl Hydrazine/Hydrazone Derivatives Wed, 24 May 2017 06:48:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/5702962/ 1,3,5-Triazines and pyrimidine-2,4,6-triones belong to that class of compounds which are well known in literature for possessing wide range of biological activities. Here, we report a new family of compounds that encompasses these two structures. The union of both heterocycles was carried out through a hydrazone moiety incorporated into an acetyl group at the position 5 of 1,3-dimethyl pyrimidine derivative. The synthetic strategy adopted allowed the preparation of the target compounds with excellent yields and good purities. The synthesized compounds were well characterized by NMR (1H and 13C), HRMS, and elemental analysis. Furthermore, the tautomerism of enhydrazine versus hydrazone has also been studied. Anamika Sharma, Yahya Jad, Mohammed R. H. Siddiqui, Beatriz G. de la Torre, Fernando Albericio, and Ayman El-Faham Copyright © 2017 Anamika Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Discriminating Value of Calprotectin in Disease Activity and Progression of Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Wed, 24 May 2017 06:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/7574147/ It has been controversial whether ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) are separate or different phases of radiographic progression. We determined that serum calprotectin level (ng/ml) was higher in AS (15.30 ± 6.49) and nr-axSpA (17.76 ± 8.59) patients than in healthy individuals (7.40 ± 2.67). No difference was observed in calprotectin level between these two groups. Elevated calprotectin was positively correlated with ESR, CRP, BASDAI, and ASDAS as well as SPARCC scoring and had no correlation with BASFI and mSASSS. No correlation was observed between calprotectin and Wnt/β-catenin pathway markers. Serum calprotectin can be used as a marker for inflammation in both nr-axSpA and AS, while it does not contribute to the discrimination of AS and nr-axSpA. Calprotectin-mediated inflammation was not correlated with principle effectors of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, indicating that inflammation and bone fusion might be separate processes of the disease. Jinxian Huang, Zhihua Yin, Guoxiang Song, Shengjin Cui, Jinzhao Jiang, and Lijun Zhang Copyright © 2017 Jinxian Huang et al. All rights reserved. Can Rehabilitation Influence the Efficiency of Control Signals in Complex Motion Strategies? Wed, 24 May 2017 06:43:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3631624/ The factor determining quality of life in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the worsening of a patient’s walking ability. The use of external stimuli can improve gait when performing complex motor patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation on the effectiveness of control signals in people with PD. The study was performed on 42 people with idiopathic PD in the third stage of disease. The control group consisted of 19 patients who did not participate in rehabilitation activities. The experimental group was systematically participating in rehabilitation activities twice a week (60 minutes) for 9 months. Gait speed, mean step length, and step frequency were calculated on the basis of the obtained results. These parameters were compared in both groups by single factor variance analyses. The best results were obtained using rhythmic external auditory signals. The group with patients actively participating in rehabilitation showed statistically significant improvement in gait speed (12.35%), mean step length (18.00%), and frequency step (2.40%) compared to the control group. The presented research showed the positive effect of rehabilitation and was based on the performance of complex motion patterns, using external control signals for their effectiveness in new motion tasks. Joanna Cholewa, Jaroslaw Cholewa, Agnieszka Gorzkowska, Andrzej Malecki, and Arkadiusz Stanula Copyright © 2017 Joanna Cholewa et al. All rights reserved. A Case Report: Gastric Mixed Neuroendocrine-Nonneuroendocrine Neoplasm with Aggressive Neuroendocrine Component Wed, 24 May 2017 06:40:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2017/9871687/ Mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is defined as mixed epithelial neoplasms composed of both neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine components with variable proportions for each component. Neuroendocrine component can show morphological features including well- or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms and nonneuroendocrine component can present different tumor types depending on the site of origin. Recently, studies of tumors have shown that MiNENs are not as rare as our traditional belief, due to the wide application for immunohistochemistry. However, our knowledge of MiNENs is still limited. There is no universal consensus about nomenclature, classification, and guideline of treatment. Hereby, we would like to present a case report of gastric MiNEN with aggressive neuroendocrine component to contribute a small part towards common understanding of gastric MiNENs. Quang Duy Pham, Ichiro Mori, and Robert Y. Osamura Copyright © 2017 Quang Duy Pham et al. All rights reserved. Langerhans Cell Sarcoma: A Case Report Demonstrating Morphological and Immunophenotypical Variability within a Single Lesion Wed, 24 May 2017 06:37:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2017/9842605/ Langerhans cells are antigen presenting dendritic cells and tumours arising from these are rare. The tumours arising from these dendritic cells are divided into two categories according to a WHO classification: Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Langerhans cell sarcoma. It is the degree of atypia and clinical aggressiveness that distinguishes the two subtypes. Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is a neoplastic proliferation of Langerhans cells which can occur in skin, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lung. LCS can present with multiple cutaneous and systemic lesions. We present a case of Langerhans cell sarcoma with a unique morphological appearance and variable immunohistochemical profile within a single cutaneous lesion. LCS is a rare malignancy and its diagnosis is based on morphology, immunophenotypical examination, and ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy. Our case highlights a unique morphological description of LCS wherein the pleomorphic neoplastic cells show epidermotropism and are surrounded by a variable amount of inflammatory infiltrate within a single cutaneous lesion. A single cutaneous lesion of Langerhans cell sarcoma with variable immunohistochemical profile has not been described so far. Rasika Singh, Charles Edward Keen, Christopher Stone, and Patrick Sarsfield Copyright © 2017 Rasika Singh et al. All rights reserved. Fault Diagnosis and Application to Modern Systems Wed, 24 May 2017 06:35:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2017/1026759/ Xiao He, Zidong Wang, Gang Li, Zhijie Zhou, and Youqing Wang Copyright © 2017 Xiao He et al. All rights reserved. Functional Treatment of a Child with Extracapsular Mandibular Fracture Wed, 24 May 2017 06:17:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2017/9760789/ Condylar fractures are among the most frequent fractures in the context of traumatic lesions of the face. The management of condylar fractures is still controversial, especially when fractures occur in children: if overlooked or inappropriately treated, these lesions may lead to severe sequelae, both cosmetic and functional. The therapy must be careful because severe long-term complications can occur. In this case report, the authors present a case of mandibular fracture in which the decision between surgical therapy and functional therapeutic regimen may be controversial due to the particular anatomy of the fracture line and the age of the patient. Diana Cassi, Marisabel Magnifico, Chiara Di Blasio, Mauro Gandolfini, and Alberto Di Blasio Copyright © 2017 Diana Cassi et al. All rights reserved. Cellular Responses in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Treated with Three Endodontic Materials Wed, 24 May 2017 05:22:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/8920356/ Human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) are of special relevance in future regenerative dental therapies. Characterizing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity produced by endodontic materials is required to evaluate the potential for regeneration of injured tissues in future strategies combining regenerative and root canal therapies. This study explores the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress of three endodontic materials that are widely used on HDPSCs: a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-Angelus white), an epoxy resin sealant (AH-Plus cement), and an MTA-based cement sealer (MTA-Fillapex). Cell viability and cell death rate were assessed by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was measured by OxyBlot. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated by Western blot. Genotoxicity was studied by quantifying the expression levels of DNA damage sensors such as ATM and RAD53 genes and DNA damage repair sensors such as RAD51 and PARP-1. Results indicate that AH-Plus increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity markers in HDPSCs. MTA-Fillapex was the most cytotoxic oxidative stress inductor and genotoxic material for HDPSCs at longer times in preincubated cell culture medium, and MTA-Angelus was less cytotoxic and genotoxic than AH-Plus and MTA-Fillapex at all times assayed. Alejandro Victoria-Escandell, José Santiago Ibañez-Cabellos, Sergio Bañuls-Sánchez de Cutanda, Ester Berenguer-Pascual, Jesús Beltrán-García, Eva García-López, Federico V. Pallardó, José Luis García-Giménez, Antonio Pallardés-Sabater, Ignacio Zarzosa-López, and Manuel Monterde Copyright © 2017 Alejandro Victoria-Escandell et al. All rights reserved. Upregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Protein 8-Like 2 mRNA Is Negatively Correlated with Serum Concentrations of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin 6 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Wed, 24 May 2017 04:07:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/4802319/ Background. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2 or TNFAIP8L2) is a negative regulator of natural and adaptive immunity. The role of TIPE2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unknown, although TIPE2 plays key roles in preserving inflammatory homeostasis. Methods. TIPE2 expression was measured by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from T2DM patients and healthy controls, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and other related biometabolic parameters were detected using a nephelometer or by ELISA. Differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to siTIPE2 and TIPE2 adenovirus. Results. TIPE2 was significantly increased in PBMCs from T2DM patients compared with those from healthy controls and was negatively correlated with serum TNF-α, IL-6, and hsCRP concentrations but positively correlated with HbA1c and LDL-C in T2DM patients. High glucose treatment (50 mmol/L) can upregulate the expression of TIPE2 and cytokine secretion in differentiated THP-1 cells. siTIPE2 infection exacerbated the increased TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in differentiated THP-1 cells under high glucose conditions (50 mmol/L), while infection with TIPE2 adenovirus reversed the increased TNF-α concentration. Conclusions. The present study indicates that TIPE2 may participate in T2DM by regulating TNF-α production. Yongliang Liu, Xinmei Wang, Yan Zhao, Peiqing Zhao, Lianqing Wang, Qiaoli Zhai, Xiaowei Zhang, Wenxiu Tian, Xinxin Xiang, and Tao Li Copyright © 2017 Yongliang Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Blast Exposure on Protein Deimination in the Brain Wed, 24 May 2017 03:47:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/8398072/ Oxidative stress and calcium excitotoxicity are hallmarks of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While these early disruptions may be corrected over a relatively short period of time, long-lasting consequences of TBI including impaired cognition and mood imbalances can persist for years, even in the absence of any evidence of overt injury based on neuroimaging. This investigation examined the possibility that disordered protein deimination occurs as a result of TBI and may thus contribute to the long-term pathologies of TBI. Protein deimination is a calcium-activated, posttranslational modification implicated in the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, where aberrant deimination creates antigenic epitopes that elicit an autoimmune attack. The present study utilized proteomic analyses to show that blast TBI alters the deimination status of proteins in the porcine cerebral cortex. The affected proteins represent a small subset of the entire brain proteome and include glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, proteins reported to be involved in autoimmune-based pathologies. The data also indicate that blast injury is associated with an increase in immunoglobulins in the brain, possibly representing autoantibodies directed against novel protein epitopes. These findings indicate that aberrant protein deimination is a biomarker for blast TBI and may therefore underlie chronic neuropathologies of head injury. Peter J. Attilio, Michael Flora, Alaa Kamnaksh, Donald J. Bradshaw, Denes Agoston, and Gregory P. Mueller Copyright © 2017 Peter J. Attilio et al. All rights reserved. Williams-Beuren Syndrome and Congenital Lobar Emphysema: Uncommon Association with Common Pathology? Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2017/3480980/ Introduction. Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome are two rare conditions that have only been reported together in a single case study. Case Presentation. We report another case of a male Caucasian newborn with nonspecific initial respiratory distress, with detection of CLE on repeat chest X-ray on Day 25 of life and concurrent ventricular septal defect, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and branch pulmonary stenosis, in whom a 7q11.23 deletion consistent with Williams-Beuren Syndrome was made. Conclusion. A diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema should prompt further screening for congenital heart disease and genetic deletion, and further research is needed to investigate the role of elastin gene mutation in the development of the neonatal lung. Timothy Andrew Walsh, Krishna Revanna Gopagondanahalli, and Atul Malhotra Copyright © 2017 Timothy Andrew Walsh et al. All rights reserved. Infections Caused by HRSV A ON1 Are Predominant among Hospitalized Infants with Bronchiolitis in São Paulo City Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3459785/ Human respiratory syncytial virus is the main cause of respiratory infections in infants. Several HRSV genotypes have been described. Goals. To describe the main genotypes that caused infections in São Paulo (2013–2015) and to analyze their clinical/epidemiological features. Methods. 94 infants (0–6 months) with bronchiolitis were studied. Clinical/epidemiological information was collected; a search for 16 viruses in nasopharyngeal secretion (PCR-real-time and conventional, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses) was performed. Results. The mean age was 2.4 m; 48% were male. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.4 d (14% in the Intensive Care Unit). The positive rate of respiratory virus was 98.9%; 73 cases (77.6%) were HRSV (76,7% HRSVA). HRSVA formed three clusters: ON1 (), NA1 (), and NA2 (). All HRSVB were found to cluster in the BA genotype (BA9-; BA10-). Clinical analyses showed no significant differences between the genotype AON1 and other genotypes. Conclusion. This study showed a high rate of HRSV detection in bronchiolitis. HRSVA ON1, which has recently been described in other countries and has not been identified in previous studies in the southeast region of Brazil, was predominant. The clinical characteristics of the infants that were infected with AON1 were similar to infants with infections by other genotypes. Sandra E. Vieira, Luciano M. Thomazelli, Milena de Paulis, Angela E. Ferronato, Daniele B. Oliveira, Marina Baquerizo Martinez, and Edison L. Durigon Copyright © 2017 Sandra E. Vieira et al. All rights reserved. HLA Epitopes: The Targets of Monoclonal and Alloantibodies Defined Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/3406230/ Sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in organ transplant patients causes graft rejection, according to the humoral theory of transplantation. Sensitization is almost ubiquitous as anti-HLA antibodies are found in almost all sera of transplant recipients. Advances in testing assays and amino acid sequencing of HLA along with computer software contributed further to the understanding of antibody-antigen reactivity. It is commonly understood that antibodies bind to HLA antigens. With current knowledge of epitopes, it is more accurate to describe that antibodies bind to their target epitopes on the surface of HLA molecular chains. Epitopes are present on a single HLA (private epitope) or shared by multiple antigens (public epitope). The phenomenon of cross-reactivity in HLA testing, often explained as cross-reactive groups (CREGs) of antigens with antibody, can be clearly explained now by public epitopes. Since 2006, we defined and reported 194 HLA class I unique epitopes, including 56 cryptic epitopes on dissociated HLA class I heavy chains, 83 HLA class II epitopes, 60 epitopes on HLA-DRB1, 15 epitopes on HLA-DQB1, 3 epitopes on HLA-DQA1, 5 epitopes on HLA-DPB1, and 7 MICA epitopes. In this paper, we provide a summary of our findings. Nadim El-Awar, Vadim Jucaud, and Anh Nguyen Copyright © 2017 Nadim El-Awar et al. All rights reserved. Natural Language Processing and Fuzzy Tools for Business Processes in a Geolocation Context Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aai/2017/9462457/ In the geolocation field where high-level programs and low-level devices coexist, it is often difficult to find a friendly user interface to configure all the parameters. The challenge addressed in this paper is to propose intuitive and simple, thus natural language interfaces to interact with low-level devices. Such interfaces contain natural language processing (NLP) and fuzzy representations of words that facilitate the elicitation of business-level objectives in our context. A complete methodology is proposed, from the lexicon construction to a dialogue software agent including a fuzzy linguistic representation, based on synonymy. Isis Truck and Mohammed-Amine Abchir Copyright © 2017 Isis Truck and Mohammed-Amine Abchir. All rights reserved. Txndc9 Is Required for Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6265890/ Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9) has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV) stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble. Moreover, knockdown of Txndc9 in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes led to higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lower level of antioxidant glutathione (GSH) as compared with control oocytes, which indicated that Txndc9 may be involved in mediating the redox balance. In summary, our results demonstrated that Txndc9 is crucial for mouse oocyte maturation by regulating spindle assembly, polar body extrusion, and redox status. Fanhua Ma, Liming Hou, and Liguo Yang Copyright © 2017 Fanhua Ma et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation Study of Designer’s Bidirectional Behavior of Task Selection in Open Source Design Process Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6738139/ Open source design (OSD) is an emerging mode of product design. In OSD process, how to select right tasks directly influences the efficiency and quality of task completion, hence impacting the whole evolution process of OSD. In this paper, designer’s bidirectional behavior of task selection integrating passive selection based on website recommendation and autonomous selection is modeled. First, the model of passive selection behavior by website recommendation is proposed with application of collaborative filtering algorithm, based on a three-dimensional matrix including information of design agents, tasks, and skills; second, the model of autonomous selection behavior is described in consideration of factors such as skill and incentive; third, the model of bidirectional selection behavior is described integrating the aforementioned two selection algorithms. At last, contrast simulation analysis of bidirectional selection, passive selection based on website recommendation, and autonomous selection is proposed with ANOVA, and results show that task selection behavior has significant effect on OSD evolution process and that bidirectional selection behavior is more effective to shorten evolution cycle according to the experiment settings. In addition, the simulation study testifies the model of bidirectional selection by describing the task selection process of OSD in microperspective. Shuo Zhang and Yingzi Li Copyright © 2017 Shuo Zhang and Yingzi Li. All rights reserved. Preparation and Optimization of 10-Hydroxycamptothecin Nanocolloidal Particles Using Antisolvent Method Combined with High Pressure Homogenization Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/5752090/ The aim of this study was to prepare 10-hydroxycamptothecin nanocolloidal particles (HCPTNPs) to increase the solubility of drugs, reduce the toxicity, improve the stability of the drug, and so forth. HCPTNPs was prepared by antisolvent precipitation (AP) method combined with high pressure homogenization (HPH), followed by lyophilization. The main parameters during antisolvent process including volume ratio of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and H2O and dripping speed were optimized and their effects on mean particle size (MPS) and yield of HCPT primary particles were investigated. In the high pressure homogeneous procedure, types of surfactants, amount of surfactants, and homogenization pressure (HP) were optimized and their influences on MPS, zeta potential (ZP), and morphology were analyzed. The optimum conditions of HCPTNPs were as follows: 0.2 mg/mL HCPT aqueous suspension, 1% of ASS, 1000 bar of HP, and 20 passes. Finally, the HCPTNPs via lyophilization using glucose as lyoprotectant under optimum conditions had an MPS of 179.6 nm and a ZP of 28.79 ± 1.97 mV. The short-term stability of HCPTNPs indicated that the MPS changed in a small range. Bolin Lian, Yong Li, Xiuhua Zhao, Yuangang Zu, Ying Wang, Yin Zhang, and Yuanyuan Li Copyright © 2017 Bolin Lian et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Applicability of Whole-Exome Sequencing Exemplified by a Study in Young Adults with the Advanced Cryptogenic Cholestatic Liver Diseases Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/4761962/ Background. The proper use of new medical tests in clinical practice requires the establishment of their value and range of diagnostic usefulness. While whole-exome sequencing (WES) has already entered the medical practice, recognizing its diagnostic usefulness in multifactorial diseases has not yet been achieved. Aims. The objective of this study was to establish usability of WES in determining genetic background of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CLD) in young patients. Methods. WES was performed on six young patients (between 17 and 22 years old) with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis due to CLD and their immediate families. Sequencing was performed on an Ion Proton sequencer. Results. On average, 19,673 variants were identified, of which from 7 to 14 variants of an individual were nonsynonymous, homozygous, recessively inherited, and considered in silico as pathogenic. Although monogenic cause of CLD has not been determined, several heterozygous rare variants and polymorphisms were uncovered in genes previously known to be associated with CLD, including ATP8B1, ABCB11, RXRA, and ABCC4, indicative of multifactorial genetic background. Conclusions. WES is a potentially useful diagnostic tool in determining genetic background of multifactorial diseases, but its main limitation results from the lack of opportunities for direct linkage between the uncovered genetic variants and molecular mechanisms of disease. Maria Kulecka, Andrzej Habior, Agnieszka Paziewska, Krzysztof Goryca, Michalina Dąbrowska, Filip Ambrozkiewicz, Bożena Walewska-Zielecka, Andrzej Gabriel, Michal Mikula, and Jerzy Ostrowski Copyright © 2017 Maria Kulecka et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of Neurological Disorders in Bullous Pemphigoid Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2017/6053267/ Background. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disorder which occurs mostly in the elderly. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between BP and neurological disorders in Iranian patients. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 87 patients with BP were enrolled. They were compared to 184 controls. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical software version 19. Results. Out of 87 patients with BP, 17 (19.5%) had at least one neurological disease. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) was the most common neurological disease that was seen in 7 patients (8.0%) in the case group and 4 (2.1%) in the control group. The incidence of CVA was significantly different between BP patients and the control group (). Dementia was observed in 6 patients in the case group (16.8%) and 2 (1.0%) in the control group. The incidence of dementia was significantly different between BP patients and the control group (). In this study, the incidences of Parkinson’s disease (), epilepsy (), and multiple sclerosis () were not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion. The incidence of CVA and dementia in patients with BP compared to the control group was significantly higher. Sheida Khosravani, Farhad Handjani, Reyhaneh Alimohammadi, and Nasrin Saki Copyright © 2017 Sheida Khosravani et al. All rights reserved. Less-Conventional Low-Consumption Galvanic Separated MOSFET-IGBT Gate Drive Supply Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apec/2017/4181549/ A simple half-bridge, galvanic separated power supply which can be short circuit proof is proposed for gate driver local supplies. The supply is made while hacking a common mode type filter as a transformer, as the transformer shows a good insulation, it has a very low parasitic capacitance between primary and secondary coils, and it is cost-effective. Very low standby losses were observed during lab experiments. This makes it compatible with energy efficient drives and solar inverters. Jean Marie Vianney Bikorimana and Alex Van den Bossche Copyright © 2017 Jean Marie Vianney Bikorimana and Alex Van den Bossche. All rights reserved. The Composition-Tunable Polydiacetylenic Complex Films: Conformational Change upon Thermal Stimulation and Preferential Interaction with Specific Small Molecules Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/5983106/ Polydiacetylenic complex films were prepared using 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and para-xylenediamine (pXDA) upon acid-base interactions. The thermochromatic reversibility of the complex films was modulated by changing the mixed molar ratio (3 : 1, 2 : 1, and 1 : 1) of the two molecules. The corresponding conformational changes of the complex films were studied by ex situ FTIR analysis upon thermal stimulation for the first time. In addition, the binding specificities of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins (CDs) with the films were studied, where the α-CDs can induce stronger red fluorescent emission of the films. These fundamental results may be useful for platforms that use these polydiacetylenic complex films as optoelectronic devices or chemical/biological sensors. Chao Wang, Jin Hyuk Park, Songwen Tan, Chunzhi Cui, Jing-Yi Jin, and Dong June Ahn Copyright © 2017 Chao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Skin Friction Reduction Characteristics of Nonsmooth Surfaces Inspired by the Shapes of Barchan Dunes Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6212605/ A new type of nonsmooth surface inspired by the shape of barchan dunes has been proposed and is intended to reduce skin friction, a major cause of overall drag. Simulations were carried out to obtain skin friction reduction characteristics for the nonsmooth surface using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software Fluent. A realizable -ε model was employed to assess the influence of the nonsmooth structure on turbulent flow and velocity fields. The numerical simulation results showed that the new nonsmooth surface possesses the desired skin friction reduction effect and that the maximum skin friction reduction percentage reached 33.63% at a fluid speed of 30 m/s. Various aspects of the skin friction reduction mechanism were discussed, including the distribution of velocity vectors and shear stress contours and the variations in boundary layer thickness. The accuracy of the flow field for the nonsmooth unit was further verified by particle image velocimetry test results. The new bionic nonsmooth surface, which exceeds the limitations of existing nonsmooth bionic structures, can effectively reduce skin friction and should provide insights into engineering applications in the future. Xiao-wen Song, Ming-xiao Zhang, and Peng-zhe Lin Copyright © 2017 Xiao-wen Song et al. All rights reserved. Analysis Bending Solutions of Clamped Rectangular Thick Plate Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/7539276/ The bending solutions of rectangular thick plate with all edges clamped and supported were investigated in this study. The basic governing equations used for analysis are based on Mindlin’s higher-order shear deformation plate theory. Using a new function, the three coupled governing equations have been modified to independent partial differential equations that can be solved separately. These equations are coded in terms of deflection of the plate and the mentioned functions. By solving these decoupled equations, the analytic solutions of rectangular thick plate with all edges clamped and supported have been derived. The proposed method eliminates the complicated derivation for calculating coefficients and addresses the solution to problems directly. Moreover, numerical comparison shows the correctness and accuracy of the results. Yang Zhong and Qian Xu Copyright © 2017 Yang Zhong and Qian Xu. All rights reserved. Serum Metabolomics Profiling to Identify Biomarkers for Unstable Angina Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7657306/ Although statistical evidence is clear regarding the dangerousness of unstable angina (UA), a form of coronary heart disease (CHD) characterised by high mortality and morbidity globally, it is important to recognise that diagnostic precision for the condition is unfavourable. In the present research, to gain insight into candidate biomarkers, the author draws on 1H NMR-based serum metabolic profiling to analyze the unstable angina pectoris (UAP) metabolic signatures; this constitutes an effective way to produce medical diagnosis. 101 unstable angina pectoris patients and 132 healthy controls were enrolled and 22 serum samples from each group were analyzed. Effective separation was noted regarding the UAP and control groups, and, for the former group considered in relation to their counterpart, the serum concentrations of Lac, m-I, lipid, VLDL, 3-HB, and LDL were higher whereas the concentrations of Thr, Cr, Cho, PC/GPC, Glu, Gln, Lys, HDL, Ile, Leu, and Val were lower. The conclusion drawn in view of the results is that the plasma metabolomics examined by 1H NMR displayed promise for biomarker identification for UA. In addition to this, the analysis illuminated the metabolic processes of UA. Wei Yao, Yuxia Gao, and Zheng Wan Copyright © 2017 Wei Yao et al. All rights reserved. Neutrophils in Tuberculosis: Heterogeneity Shapes the Way? Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/8619307/ Infection with M. tuberculosis remains one of the most common infections in the world. The outcome of the infection depends on host ability to mount effective protection and balance inflammatory responses. Neutrophils are innate immune cells implicated in both processes. Accordingly, during M. tuberculosis infection, they play a dual role. Particularly, they contribute to the generation of effector T cells, participate in the formation of granuloma, and are directly involved in tissue necrosis, destruction, and infection dissemination. Neutrophils have a high bactericidal potential. However, data on their ability to eliminate M. tuberculosis are controversial, and the results of neutrophil depletion experiments are not uniform. Thus, the overall roles of neutrophils during M. tuberculosis infection and factors that determine these roles are not fully understood. This review analyzes data on neutrophil defensive and pathological functions during tuberculosis and considers hypotheses explaining the dualism of neutrophils during M. tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease. Irina V. Lyadova Copyright © 2017 Irina V. Lyadova. All rights reserved.