Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Towards a Rational Design of Zeolite-Polymer Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Adsorption of Creatinine Thu, 22 Sep 2016 17:25:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5638905/ This report describes the compositional and structural design strategy of a zeolite-polymer composite nanofiber mesh for the efficient removal of uremic toxins towards blood purification application. The nanofiber is fabricated by electrospinning composite solution of biocompatible poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) and zeolite particles which are capable of selectively adsorbing uremic toxins such as creatinine. By controlling electrospinning conditions carefully, the incorporated zeolites in EVOH were found to correspond closely to the feed ratios. Elemental mapping images of Si show that zeolites were uniformly blended within the fibers. The fabricated composite fibers successfully adsorbed creatinine from solution and the adsorption capacity reached a maximum at 12 h. The crystallinity of the nanofiber was also controlled by varying the composition of ethylene content in EVOH. Less crystallinity resulted in higher creatinine adsorption capacity due to the barrier property of EVOH. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the composite fibers showed less toxicity than free zeolite particles which killed more than 95% of cells. The proposed composite fibers, therefore, have the potential to be utilized as a new approach to removing creatinine selectively from the bloodstream. Ryo Takai, Rio Kurimoto, Yasuhiro Nakagawa, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Koki Namekawa, and Mitsuhiro Ebara Copyright © 2016 Ryo Takai et al. All rights reserved. Response of Mouse Zygotes Treated with Mild Hydrogen Peroxide as a Model to Reveal Novel Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress-Induced Injury in Early Embryos Thu, 22 Sep 2016 17:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/1521428/ Our study aimed to develop embryo models to evaluate the impact of oxidative stress on embryo development. Mouse zygotes, which stayed at G1 phase, were treated with prepared culture medium (containing 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, or 0.1 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) for 30 min in experiment 1. The dose-effects of H2O2 on embryo development were investigated via comparisons of the formation rate at each stage (2- and 4-cell embryos and blastocysts). Experiment 2 was carried out to compare behaviors of embryos in a mild oxidative-stressed status (0.03 mM H2O2) with those in a control (0 mM H2O2). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, variation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression of γH2AX, and cell apoptosis rate of blastocyst were detected. We observed a dose-dependent decrease on cleavage and blastocyst rates. Besides, higher level of ROS, rapid reduction of MMP, and the appearance of γH2AX revealed that embryos are injured early in mild oxidative stress. Additionally, γH2AX may involve during DNA damage response in early embryos. And the apoptotic rate of blastocyst may significantly increase when DNA damage repair is inadequate. Most importantly, our research provides embryo models to study cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response under condition of different levels of oxidative stress. Diting Qian, Zhiling Li, Yuting Zhang, Yue Huang, Que Wu, Gaizhen Ru, Man Chen, and Bin Wang Copyright © 2016 Diting Qian et al. All rights reserved. Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test 1 on Healthy Individuals: Intra- and Intersession Reliability of the Angle between Pain Onset and Submaximal Pain Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:56:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2016/9607262/ Assessment of nerve trunk mechanosensitivity using the upper limb neurodynamic test 1 (ULNT1) often includes measurement of the angle of occurrence in the range of pain onset (PO) and submaximal pain (SP). A measurement that better fits the idea of mechanosensitivity could be the angle between PO and SP (AbOS). This study investigated the intra- and intersession reliability of AbOS, PO, and SP during the ULNT1. Forty-four healthy volunteers underwent three ULNT1 to the point of PO and SP, twice in the first session and once in the second. AbOS, PO, and SP angles of occurrence reliability were examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 3,1) and Bland-Altman plots. The intra- and intersession ICC values for AbOS were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47; 0.85) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.60; 0.89), respectively. The intra- and intersession mean difference and 95% limits of agreement (±1.96 SD) in the Bland-Altman plots were 2.3° (−18.3°; 23.1°) and 2.8° (−14.7°; 20.4°), respectively. The intra- and intersession reliability of the AbOS during the ULNT1 in healthy individuals is high and higher than the reliability of PO and SP angles of occurrence. The AbOS could be a preferable variable in the assessment of neural mechanosensitivity. Diego Leoni, Davide Storer, Roberto Gatti, Michele Egloff, and Marco Barbero Copyright © 2016 Diego Leoni et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Prediction for Traffic Flow Based on Delta Test Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:37:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5128528/ This paper presents a novel approach to one-step-forward prediction of traffic flow based on fuzzy reasoning. The successful construction of a competent fuzzy inference system of Sugeno type largely relies on proper choice of input dimension and accurate estimation of structure parameters and rules. The first issue is addressed with a proposed method, based on -test, which can simultaneously determine input dimension and reduce noise level. In response to the second issue, two clustering techniques, based on nearest-neighbor clustering and Gaussian mixture models, are successively employed to determine the antecedent parameters and rules, and the estimation for the consequent parameters is achieved by the least square estimation technique. A number of experiments have been performed on the one-week data of traffic flow to evaluate the proposed approach in terms of denosing, prediction performances, overfitting, and so forth. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed prediction approach is effective in removing noise and constructing a competent and compact fuzzy inference system without significant overfitting. Yang Wang, Yanyan Chen, and Jianhui Lai Copyright © 2016 Yang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Use of Zoledronic Acid in Paediatric Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:33:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/2329483/ We describe a case of a paediatric patient affected by mandibular fibrous dysplasia (FD) with severe and chronic pain who was successfully treated with zoledronic acid (ZOL): a third-generation bisphosphonate. Further research is needed to assess its safety and efficacy as a treatment option for FD in the paediatric population. Chiara Di Pede, Sabrina Congedi, Sara Rossin, Antuan Divisic, Alesandra De Gregorio, Caterina Agosto, Igor Catalano, Alessandro Mazza, Leonardo Sartori, Stefano Masiero, and Franca Benini Copyright © 2016 Chiara Di Pede et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid 3DMLUV-FIA Method for Scattering from a 3D Dielectric Object above a 2D Dielectric Rough Surface Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:19:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/1563782/ The electromagnetic scattering from the composite model of a three-dimensional (3D) dielectric object located above a two-dimensional (2D) dielectric rough surface is analyzed in this work. Poggio, Miller, Chang, Harrington, Wu, and Tsai (PMCHWT) integral equations are discretized by the method of moments (MoM) into a matrix which is solved by Biconjugate Gradients Stabilized (BICGSTAB) method. Method of 3DMLUV was used for PEC object located above rough surface. Comparing to the case when object and rough surface are both PEC, the memory requirement and computational complexity for dielectric models are increased due to doubled unknown number. Moreover, compared to dielectric object in free space, the coupling between dielectric object and dielectric rough surface will result in complicated numerical simulation. To solve this problem, the updated rank based 3D Multilevel UV (3DMLUV) method is employed to reduce memory consumption and CPU time overhead. The 3DMLUV has been successfully applied in the scattering of PEC targets; however, when the object or rough surface becomes dielectric, the coupling between dielectric object and dielectric rough surface will lead to slow constriction. Therefore, the Fast Iterative Approach (FIA) is applied to further speed up the constricted speed of the matrix required in 3DMLUV. The efficiency, stability, and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated in a variety of scattering problems. Wu Xuezhi and Wenping Yu Copyright © 2016 Wu Xuezhi and Wenping Yu. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:18:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9651592/ To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), and Sanyinjiao (SP6); in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23) was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6) and Zusanli (ST36), needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA) apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG) was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS) and serum C peptide (C-P) were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules. Xin-Yu Huang, Liang Zhang, Jian Sun, Neng-Gui Xu, and Wei Yi Copyright © 2016 Xin-Yu Huang et al. All rights reserved. Sufficient Sample Size and Power in Multilevel Ordinal Logistic Regression Models Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:16:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7329158/ For most of the time, biomedical researchers have been dealing with ordinal outcome variable in multilevel models where patients are nested in doctors. We can justifiably apply multilevel cumulative logit model, where the outcome variable represents the mild, severe, and extremely severe intensity of diseases like malaria and typhoid in the form of ordered categories. Based on our simulation conditions, Maximum Likelihood (ML) method is better than Penalized Quasilikelihood (PQL) method in three-category ordinal outcome variable. PQL method, however, performs equally well as ML method where five-category ordinal outcome variable is used. Further, to achieve power more than 0.80, at least 50 groups are required for both ML and PQL methods of estimation. It may be pointed out that, for five-category ordinal response variable model, the power of PQL method is slightly higher than the power of ML method. Sabz Ali, Amjad Ali, Sajjad Ahmad Khan, and Sundas Hussain Copyright © 2016 Sabz Ali et al. All rights reserved. C3a Increases VEGF and Decreases PEDF mRNA Levels in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:16:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6958752/ Complement activation, specifically complement 3 (C3) activation and C3a generation, contributes to an imbalance between angiogenic stimulation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenic inhibition by pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF), leading to pathological angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of C3a and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting C3 on the levels of VEGF and PEDF mRNAs in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were cultured in the presence of exogenous C3a at 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM C3a for 24, 48, and 72 hours. 0.1 pmol/μL duplexes of siRNA targeting C3 were applied for C3a inhibition by transfecting ARPE-19 cells for 48 hours. RT-PCR was performed to examine the level of VEGF and PEDF mRNA. A random siRNA duplex was set for control siRNA. Results demonstrated that exogenous C3a significantly upregulated VEGF and downregulated PEDF mRNA levels in cultured ARPE-19 cells, and siRNA targeting C3 transfection reversed the above changes, significantly reducing VEGF and enhancing PEDF mRNAs level in ARPE-19 cells compared to the control. The present data provided evidence that reducing C3 activation can decreases VEGF and increase PEDF mRNA level in RPE and may serve as a potential therapy in pathological angiogenesis. Qin Long, Xiaoguang Cao, Ailing Bian, and Ying Li Copyright © 2016 Qin Long et al. All rights reserved. Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:15:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2016/6434623/ Intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICH) is a rare entity, with approximately 24 reported cases in the literature. There are only three reported cases of ICH in an adult male. In this case report, we describe the fourth documented case of ICH in an adult male and, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever documented case of ICH in the posterior fossa of an adult male. We also discuss its imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. Jordan Nepute, Jinping Lai, and Yihua Zhou Copyright © 2016 Jordan Nepute et al. All rights reserved. Investigating Phase Transform Behavior in Indium Selenide Based RAM and Its Validation as a Memory Element Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:14:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2016/6123268/ Phase transform properties of Indium Selenide (In2Se3) based Random Access Memory (RAM) have been explored in this paper. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is an attractive solid-state nonvolatile memory that possesses potential to meet various current technology demands of memory design. Already reported PCRAM models are mainly based upon Germanium-Antimony-Tellurium (Ge2Sb2Te5 or GST) materials as their prime constituents. However, PCRAM using GST material lacks some important memory attributes required for memory elements such as larger resistance margin between the highly resistive amorphous and highly conductive crystalline states in phase change materials. This paper investigates various electrical and compositional properties of the Indium Selenide (In2Se3) material and also draws comparison with its counterpart mainly focusing on phase transform properties. To achieve this goal, a SPICE model of In2Se3 based PCRAM model has been reported in this work. The reported model has been also validated to act as a memory cell by associating it with a read/write circuit proposed in this work. Simulation results demonstrate impressive retentivity and low power consumption by requiring a set pulse of 208 μA for a duration of 100 μs to set the PCRAM in crystalline state. Similarly, a reset pulse of 11.7 μA for a duration of 20 ns can set the PCRAM in amorphous state. Modeling of In2Se3 based PCRAM has been done in Verilog-A and simulation results have been extensively verified using SPICE simulator. Swapnil Sourav, Amit Krishna Dwivedi, and Aminul Islam Copyright © 2016 Swapnil Sourav et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Control for Bufferbloat Queue Management Using Indirect Method with Parametric Optimization Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:13:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/4180817/ Because memory buffers become larger and cheaper, they have been put into network devices to reduce the number of loss packets and improve network performance. However, the consequences of large buffers are long queues at network bottlenecks and throughput saturation, which has been recently noticed in research community as bufferbloat phenomenon. To address such issues, in this article, we design a forward-backward optimal control queue algorithm based on an indirect approach with parametric optimization. The cost function which we want to minimize represents a trade-off between queue length and packet loss rate performance. Through the integration of an indirect approach with parametric optimization, our proposal has advantages of scalability and accuracy compared to direct approaches, while still maintaining good throughput and shorter queue length than several existing queue management algorithms. All numerical analysis, simulation in ns-2, and experiment results are provided to solidify the efficiency of our proposal. In detailed comparisons to other conventional algorithms, the proposed procedure can run much faster than direct collocation methods while maintaining a desired short queue (≈40 packets in simulation and  (ms) in experiment test). Amr Radwan, Hoang-Linh To, and Won-Joo Hwang Copyright © 2016 Amr Radwan et al. All rights reserved. Vascular Transdifferentiation in the CNS: A Focus on Neural and Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:13:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/2759403/ Glioblastomas are devastating and extensively vascularized brain tumors from which glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) have been isolated by many groups. These cells have a high tumorigenic potential and the capacity to generate heterogeneous phenotypes. There is growing evidence to support the possibility that these cells are derived from the accumulation of mutations in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) as well as in oligodendrocyte progenitors. It was recently reported that GSCs could transdifferentiate into endothelial-like and pericyte-like cells both in vitro and in vivo, notably under the influence of Notch and TGFβ signaling pathways. Vascular cells derived from GBM cells were also observed directly in patient samples. These results could lead to new directions for designing original therapeutic approaches against GBM neovascularization but this specific reprogramming requires further molecular investigations. Transdifferentiation of nontumoral neural stem cells into vascular cells has also been described and conversely vascular cells may generate neural stem cells. In this review, we present and discuss these recent data. As some of them appear controversial, further validation will be needed using new technical approaches such as high throughput profiling and functional analyses to avoid experimental pitfalls and misinterpretations. Sophie Guelfi, Hugues Duffau, Luc Bauchet, Bernard Rothhut, and Jean-Philippe Hugnot Copyright © 2016 Sophie Guelfi et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Real-Time DDoS Attack Detection Mechanism Based on MDRA Algorithm in Big Data Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:13:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1467051/ In the wake of the rapid development and wide application of information technology and Internet, our society has come into the information explosion era. Meanwhile, it brings in new and severe challenges to the field of network attack behavior detection due to the explosive growth and high complexity of network traffic. Therefore, an effective and efficient detection mechanism that can detect attack behavior from large scale of network traffic plays an important role. In this paper, we focus on how to distinguish the attack traffic from normal data flows in Big Data and propose a novel real-time DDoS attack detection mechanism based on Multivariate Dimensionality Reduction Analysis (MDRA). In this mechanism, we first reduce the dimensionality of multiple characteristic variables in a network traffic record by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Then, we analyze the correlation of the lower dimensional variables. Finally, the attack traffic can be differentiated from the normal traffic by MDRA and Mahalanobis distance (MD). Compared with previous research methods, our experimental results show that higher precision rate is achieved and it approximates to 100% in True Negative Rate (TNR) for detection; CPU computing time is one-eightieth and memory resource consumption is one-third of the previous detection method based on Multivariate Correlation Analysis (MCA); computing complexity is constant. Bin Jia, Yan Ma, Xiaohong Huang, Zhaowen Lin, and Yi Sun Copyright © 2016 Bin Jia et al. All rights reserved. Web-Based Evaluation System to Measure Learning Effectiveness in Kampo Medicine Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:12:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2043535/ Measuring the learning effectiveness of Kampo Medicine (KM) education is challenging. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based test to measure the learning effectiveness of KM education among medical students (MSs). We used an open-source Moodle platform to test 30 multiple-choice questions classified into 8-type fields (eight basic concepts of KM) including “qi-blood-fluid” and “five-element” theories, on 117 fourth-year MSs. The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) score on the web-based test was (/100). The correct answer rate ranged from 17% to 36%. A pattern-based portfolio enabled these rates to be individualized in terms of KM proficiency. MSs with scores higher () or lower () than mean ± 1SD were defined as high or low achievers, respectively. Cluster analysis using the correct answer rates for the 8-type field questions revealed clear divisions between high and low achievers. Interestingly, each high achiever had a different proficiency pattern. In contrast, three major clusters were evident among low achievers, all of whom responded with a low percentage of or no correct answers. In addition, a combination of three questions accurately classified high and low achievers. These findings suggest that our web-based test allows individual quantitative assessment of the learning effectiveness of KM education among MSs. Norio Iizuka, Koichiro Usuku, Hajime Nakae, Makoto Segawa, Yue Wang, Kahori Ogashiwa, Yusuke Fujita, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Susumu Tazuma, and Yoshihiko Hamamoto Copyright © 2016 Norio Iizuka et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Technique for Conjunctivoplasty in a Rabbit Model: Platelet-Rich Fibrin Membrane Grafting Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:12:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/1965720/ Purpose. To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane on wound healing. Methods. Twenty-four right eyes of 24 New Zealand rabbits equally divided into 2 groups for the study design. After the creation of 5 × 5 mm conjunctival damage, it was secured with PRF membrane, which was generated from the rabbit’s whole blood samples in PRF membrane group, whereas damage was left unsutured in the control group. Three animals were sacrificed in each group on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 28th postoperative days. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings and biomicroscopic evaluation were performed and compared between groups. Results. PRF membrane generated significant expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the early postoperative period. However, the IHC evaluation allowed showing the excessive staining at day 28, in control group. Biomicroscopic evaluation revealed complete epithelialization in PRF membrane group, but none of the cases showed complete healing in the control group. Conclusions. This experimental study showed us the beneficial effects of the PRF membrane on conjunctival healing. Besides its chemical effects, it provides mechanical support as a scaffold for the migrating cells that are important for ocular surface regeneration. These overall results encourage us to apply autologous PRF membrane as a growth factor-enriched endogenous scaffold for ocular surface reconstruction. Mehmet Erol Can, Hasan Basri Çakmak, Gamze Dereli Can, Hatice Ünverdi, Yasin Toklu, and Sema Hücemenoğlu Copyright © 2016 Mehmet Erol Can et al. All rights reserved. Sacro-Iliac Joint Sensory Block and Radiofrequency Ablation: Assessment of Bony Landmarks Relevant for Image-Guided Procedures Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:08:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1432074/ Image-guided sensory block and radiofrequency ablation of the nerves innervating the sacro-iliac joint require readily identifiable bony landmarks for accurate needle/electrode placement. Understanding the relative locations of the transverse sacral tubercles along the lateral sacral crest is important for ultrasound guidance, as they demarcate the position of the posterior sacral network (S1–S3 ± L5/S4) innervating the posterior sacro-iliac joint. No studies were found that investigated the spatial relationships of these bony landmarks. The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the interrelationships of the transverse sacral tubercles and posterior sacral foramina to inform image-guided block and radiofrequency ablation of the sacro-iliac joint. The posterior and lateral surfaces of 30 dry sacra (15 M/15 F) were digitized and modeled in 3D and the distances between bony landmarks quantified. The relationships of bony landmarks (S1–S4) were not uniform. The mean intertubercular and interforaminal distances decreased from S1 to S4, whereas the distance from the lateral margin of the posterior sacral foramina to the transverse sacral tubercles increased from S1 to S3. The mean intertubercular distance from S1 to S3 was significantly () larger in males. The interrelationships of the sacral bony landmarks should be taken into consideration when estimating the site and length of an image-guided strip lesion targeting the posterior sacral network. Trevor J. G. Robinson, Shannon L. Roberts, Robert S. Burnham, Eldon Loh, and Anne M. Agur Copyright © 2016 Trevor J. G. Robinson et al. All rights reserved. Mini Review: Anticholinergic Activity as a Behavioral Pathology of Lewy Body Disease and Proposal of the Concept of “Anticholinergic Spectrum Disorders” Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:49:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2016/5380202/ Given the relationship between anticholinergic activity (AA) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we rereview our hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of AA in AD. Briefly, because acetylcholine (ACh) regulates not only cognitive function but also the inflammatory system, when ACh downregulation reaches a critical level, inflammation increases, triggering the appearance of cytokines with AA. Moreover, based on a case report of a patient with mild AD and slightly deteriorated ACh, we also speculate that AA can appear endogenously in Lewy body disease due to the dual action of the downregulation of ACh and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Based on these hypotheses, we consider AA to be a behavioral pathology of Lewy body disease. We also propose the concept of “anticholinergic spectrum disorders,” which encompass a variety of conditions, including AD, Lewy body disease, and delirium. Finally, we suggest the prescription of cholinesterase inhibitors to patients in this spectrum of disorders to abolish AA by upregulating ACh. Koji Hori, Kimiko Konishi, Misa Hosoi, Hiroi Tomioka, Masayuki Tani, Yuka Kitajima, and Mitsugu Hachisu Copyright © 2016 Koji Hori et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Life Following Early Orthodontic Therapy for Anterior Crossbite: Report of Cases in Twin Boys Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:27:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/3685693/ Anterior crossbite (AC) refers to a condition in which the maxillary anterior teeth are placed lingually in their relationship with the mandibular anterior teeth. This dental condition results in visible incisor differences that are associated with higher levels of dissatisfaction with appearance and have potential to negatively impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the children. The aim of this paper was to report two cases of interceptive orthodontic treatment of twin children with anterior crossbite and its impact on OHRQoL of these children. Although AC affects negatively psychosocial aspects of OHRQoL of the children, the interceptive orthodontic treatment of children with AC was essential to improve their OHRQoL. Eluza Piassi, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Marcia Rejane Thomas Canabarro Andrade, and Lívia Azeredo Alves Antunes Copyright © 2016 Eluza Piassi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Subgrid Stabilization Method for Stokes-Darcy Problems Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:19:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ana/2016/7389102/ A number of techniques, used as remedy to the instability of the Galerkin finite element formulation for Stokes like problems, are found in the literature. In this work we consider a coupled Stokes-Darcy problem, where in one part of the domain the fluid motion is described by Stokes equations and for the other part the fluid is in a porous medium and described by Darcy law and the conservation of mass. Such systems can be discretized by heterogeneous mixed finite elements in the two parts. A better method, from a computational point of view, consists in using a unified approach on both subdomains. Here, the coupled Stokes-Darcy problem is analyzed using equal-order velocity and pressure approximation combined with subgrid stabilization. We prove that the obtained finite element solution is stable and converges to the classical solution with optimal rates for both velocity and pressure. Kamel Nafa Copyright © 2016 Kamel Nafa. All rights reserved. The Hyper-Wiener Index of Trees of Order with Diameter Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:18:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7241349/ The hyper-Wiener index is a kind of extension of the Wiener index, used for predicting physicochemical properties of organic compounds. The hyper-Wiener index is defined as with the summation going over all pairs of vertices in , and denotes the distance of the two vertices and in the graph . In this paper, we obtain the second-minimum hyper-Wiener indices among all the trees with vertices and diameter and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs. Gaixiang Cai, Guidong Yu, Jinde Cao, Ahmad Alsaedi, and Fuad Alsaadi Copyright © 2016 Gaixiang Cai et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Compacting Rate on the Properties of Compressed Earth Blocks Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:17:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/8780368/ Compaction of blocks contributes significantly to the strength properties of compressed earth blocks. This paper investigates the influence of compacting rates on the properties of compressed earth blocks. Experiments were conducted to determine the density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and erosion properties of compressed earth blocks produced with different rates of compacting speed. The study concludes that although the low rate of compaction achieved slightly better performance characteristics, there is no statistically significant difference between the soil blocks produced with low compacting rate and high compacting rate. The study demonstrates that there is not much influence on the properties of compressed earth blocks produced with low and high compacting rates. It was further found that there are strong linear correlations between the compressive strength test and density, and density and the erosion. However, a weak linear correlation was found between tensile strength and compressive strength, and tensile strength and density. Humphrey Danso Copyright © 2016 Humphrey Danso. All rights reserved. A Content Incontinent: Report of Liposomal Bupivacaine Induced Fecal Incontinence Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:17:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/7164983/ Proper surgical management of anal fistula demands sound clinical judgment and extraordinary care to prevent incontinence and adequate postoperative pain control and provide satisfactory resolution to optimize quality of life. Fecal incontinence can be a devastating complication of procedures performed for fistula in ano. We report a unique case in which temporary incontinence (for less than 4 days) followed injection of liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative pain control after draining seton placement for fistula in ano. Patients and physicians should be aware as it may be mistaken for a more serious anatomical and permanent cause of fecal incontinence. Emanuel A. Shapera and Vinay K. Rai Copyright © 2016 Emanuel A. Shapera and Vinay K. Rai. All rights reserved. Advanced Green Energy Nanomaterials for Optoelectronic Devices: Synthesis, Processing, Characterization, and Applications Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:16:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3804765/ Wei-Chun Chen, Shou-Yi Kuo, Ying-Lung Daniel Ho, Kaushik Balakrishnan, and Wei-Heng Shih Copyright © 2016 Wei-Chun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Plasma, RF, and RIE Treatments on Properties of Double-Sided High Voltage Solar Cells with Vertically Aligned p-n Junctions Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:15:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/1815205/ Si-based solar cells with vertically aligned p-n junctions operating at high voltage were designed and fabricated. The plasma treatments and antireflection coating deposition on the working surfaces of both single- and multijunction cells were made using the special holders. It was shown that additional treatment of solar cells in argon plasma prior to hydrogen plasma treatment and deposition of diamond-like carbon antireflection films led to the improvement of the cell efficiency by up to 60%. Radio frequency waves support plasma generation and improve photoelectric conversion mainly due to reduction of internal stresses at the interfaces. Application of reactive ion etching technique removes the broken layer, reduces elastic strain in the wafer, decreases recombination of charge carriers in the bulk, and provides cell efficiency increase by up to ten times. Mykola O. Semenenko, Mykhailo G. Dusheiko, Sergiy V. Mamykin, Valeriy O. Ganus, Mykhailo V. Kirichenko, Roman V. Zaitsev, Mykola M. Kharchenko, and N. I. Klyui Copyright © 2016 Mykola O. Semenenko et al. All rights reserved. Manipulation of Ovarian Function Significantly Influenced Sarcopenia in Postreproductive-Age Mice Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:15:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtrans/2016/4570842/ Previously, transplantation of ovaries from young cycling mice into old postreproductive-age mice increased life span. We anticipated that the same factors that increased life span could also influence health span. Female CBA/J mice received new (60 d) ovaries at 12 and 17 months of age and were evaluated at 16 and 25 months of age, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight among any age or treatment group. The percentage of fat mass was significantly increased at 13 and 16 months of age but was reduced by ovarian transplantation in 16-month-old mice. The percentages of lean body mass and total body water were significantly reduced in 13-month-old control mice but were restored in 16- and 25-month-old recipient mice by ovarian transplantation to the levels found in six-month-old control mice. In summary, we have shown that skeletal muscle mass, which is negatively influenced by aging, can be positively influenced or restored by reestablishment of active ovarian function in aged female mice. These findings provide strong incentive for further investigation of the positive influence of young ovaries on restoration of health in postreproductive females. Rhett L. Peterson, Kate C. Parkinson, and Jeffrey B. Mason Copyright © 2016 Rhett L. Peterson et al. All rights reserved. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:14:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/5474862/ DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one’s self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury. Anna Coluccia, Mario Gabbrielli, Giacomo Gualtieri, Fabio Ferretti, Andrea Pozza, and Andrea Fagiolini Copyright © 2016 Anna Coluccia et al. All rights reserved. Gallbladder Volvulus in a Patient with Type I Choledochal Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:54:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/5626531/ Introduction. Gallbladder volvulus is a rare, potentially fatal condition unless diagnosed and treated early. Choledochal cysts are rare congenital malformations of the biliary tree predisposing to different pathologies and posing the risk of degradation into cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Dealing with both diseases at once has not been published yet in the literature. Presentation of Case. We report a case of gallbladder volvulus in an elderly female who happened to have a concomitant type I choledochal cyst. Treatment was achieved with a cholecystectomy and observation and follow-up of the choledochal cyst. Discussion. Prompt diagnosis and surgical management of gallbladder volvulus is important to avoid the morbidity and mortality of gangrenous cholecystitis and biliary peritonitis in a frail old population of patients. Precise clinical diagnosis, supplemented with specific imaging clues, helps in the diagnosis. Management of choledochal cysts is also surgical; however the timing of surgery is still a matter of debate. Conclusion. We describe in this report the first case of gallbladder volvulus in a patient with a choledochal cyst and propose a management algorithm of a very rare biliary tree pathology combination. George Younan, Max Schumm, Fadwa Ali, and Kathleen K. Christians Copyright © 2016 George Younan et al. All rights reserved. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:48:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2016/6859291/ Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years) and late adolescence (16–19 years). Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%). The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%). Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45). Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation. Pranil Man Singh Pradhan and Kedar Marahatta Copyright © 2016 Pranil Man Singh Pradhan and Kedar Marahatta. All rights reserved. Umbilical Nodule with Cyclical Bleeding: A Case Report and Literature Review of Atypical Endometriosis Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:47:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2016/7401409/ Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus. It affects 3 to 10 percent of women of reproductive age. Umbilical endometriosis is rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.5–1.0% among all cases of endometriosis, and is usually secondary to prior laparoscopic surgery involving the umbilicus. In this report, we described a case of umbilical endometriosis treated with surgical resection and highlight the great importance of medical history compared to complementary diagnostic tests that can be sometimes inconclusive. Marlene Teixeira Andrade, Cláudia V. Marques de Freitas, Sara Filipa Camacho Câmara, and José Joaquim Nunes Vieira Copyright © 2016 Marlene Teixeira Andrade et al. All rights reserved. Small Antennas: Miniaturization Techniques and Applications 2016 Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:47:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/9410108/ Wenhua Yu, Yingsong Li, and Manos M. Tentzeris Copyright © 2016 Wenhua Yu et al. All rights reserved. Remarks on Chern-Simons-Higgs Equations in Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:46:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/9830474/ We prove global existence of solutions to Chern-Simons-Higgs equations under the gauge condition . We also find stationary solutions. Hyungjin Huh and Guanghui Jin Copyright © 2016 Hyungjin Huh and Guanghui Jin. All rights reserved. Micromagnetic Simulation of Strain-Assisted Current-Induced Magnetization Switching Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:45:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2016/9271407/ We investigated the effect of substrate misfit strain on the current-induced magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions by combining micromagnetic simulation with phase-field microelasticity theory. Our results indicate that the positive substrate misfit strain can decrease the critical current density of magnetization switching by pushing the magnetization from out-of-plane to in-plane directions, while the negative strain pushes the magnetization back to the out-of-plane directions. The magnetic domain evolution is obtained to demonstrate the strain-assisted current-induced magnetization switching. H. B. Huang, C. P. Zhao, and X. Q. Ma Copyright © 2016 H. B. Huang et al. All rights reserved. Image Montaging for Creating a Virtual Pathology Slide: An Innovative and Economical Tool to Obtain a Whole Slide Image Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:40:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2016/9084909/ Background. Microscopes are omnipresent throughout the field of biological research. With microscopes one can see in detail what is going on at the cellular level in tissues. Though it is a ubiquitous tool, the limitation is that with high magnification there is a small field of view. It is often advantageous to see an entire sample at high magnification. Over the years technological advancements in optics have helped to provide solutions to this limitation of microscopes by creating the so-called dedicated “slide scanners” which can provide a “whole slide digital image.” These scanners can provide seamless, large-field-of-view, high resolution image of entire tissue section. The only disadvantage of such complete slide imaging system is its outrageous cost, thereby hindering their practical use by most laboratories, especially in developing and low resource countries. Methods. In a quest for their substitute, we tried commonly used image editing software Adobe Photoshop along with a basic image capturing device attached to a trinocular microscope to create a digital pathology slide. Results. The seamless image created using Adobe Photoshop maintained its diagnostic quality. Conclusion. With time and effort photomicrographs obtained from a basic camera-microscope set up can be combined and merged in Adobe Photoshop to create a whole slide digital image of practically usable quality at a negligible cost. Spoorthi Ravi Banavar, Prashanthi Chippagiri, Rohit Pandurangappa, Saileela Annavajjula, and Premalatha Bidadi Rajashekaraiah Copyright © 2016 Spoorthi Ravi Banavar et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma with Osteoblastic Activity: A Case Report of Esophageal and Colonic Primaries Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:34:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2016/1934759/ Adenocarcinoma with osteoblastic metastases is classically seen in prostate, breast, and lung primaries. Less common primary sites include thyroid, kidney, and stomach. We present two cases of primary gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma with metastatic osteoblastic activity from two previously unreported sites. The first case represents an esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia that metastasized with osteoblastic activity to the deltoid muscle. The second case demonstrates a Stage IV sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with osteoblastic metastases to the liver and lymph nodes. The findings indicate that metastases from various gastrointestinal primary adenocarcinomas can have prominent bone formation. Brett Matthew Lowenthal, Ahmed S. Shabaik, and Mark A. Valasek Copyright © 2016 Brett Matthew Lowenthal et al. All rights reserved. Bonding of Metal Orthodontic Attachments to Sandblasted Porcelain and Zirconia Surfaces Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:34:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5762785/ This study evaluates tensile bond strength (TBS) of metal orthodontic attachments to sandblasted feldspathic porcelain and zirconia with various bonding protocols. Thirty-six (36) feldspathic and 36 zirconia disc samples were prepared, glazed, embedded in acrylic blocks and sandblasted, and divided into three groups according to one or more of the following treatments: hydrofluoric acid 4% (HF), Porcelain Conditioner silane primer, Reliance Assure® primer, Reliance Assure plus® primer, and Z Prime™ plus zirconia primer. A round traction hook was bonded to each sample. Static tensile bond strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scoring was done using a digital camera. One-way ANOVA and Pearson chi-square tests were used to analyze TBS (MPa) and ARI scores. No statistically significant mean differences were found in TBS among the different bonding protocols for feldspathic and zirconia, values = 0.369 and 0.944, respectively. No statistically significant distribution of ARI scores was found among the levels of feldspathic, value = 0.569. However, statistically significant distribution of ARI scores was found among the levels of zirconia, value = 0.026. The study concluded that silanization following sandblasting resulted in tensile bond strengths comparable to other bonding protocols for feldspathic and zirconia surface. Amitoj S. Mehta, Carla A. Evans, Grace Viana, Ana Bedran-Russo, and Maria Therese S. Galang-Boquiren Copyright © 2016 Amitoj S. Mehta et al. All rights reserved. Blue Laser Imaging-Bright Improves Endoscopic Recognition of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:34:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6140854/ Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic recognition of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using four different methods (Olympus white light imaging (O-WLI), Fujifilm white light imaging (F-WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI), and blue laser imaging- (BLI-) bright). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 25 superficial ESCCs that had been examined using the four different methods. Subjective evaluation was provided by three endoscopists as a ranking score (RS) of each image based on the ease of detection of the cancerous area. For the objective evaluation we calculated the color difference scores (CDS) between the cancerous and noncancerous areas with each of the four methods. Results. There was no difference between the mean RS of O-WLI and F-WLI. The mean RS of NBI was significantly higher than that of O-WLI and that of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of F-WLI. Moreover, the mean RS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of NBI. Furthermore, in the objective evaluation, the mean CDS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of O-WLI, F-WLI, and NBI. Conclusion. The recognition of superficial ESCC using BLI-bright was more efficacious than the other methods tested both subjectively and objectively. Akira Tomie, Osamu Dohi, Nobuaki Yagi, Hiroaki Kitae, Atsushi Majima, Yusuke Horii, Tomoko Kitaichi, Yuriko Onozawa, Kentaro Suzuki, Reiko Kimura-Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Okayama, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tomohisa Takagi, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Yuji Naito, and Yoshito Itoh Copyright © 2016 Akira Tomie et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: What Polyphenols Can Do for Us? Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:23:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/7432797/ Oxidative stress is viewed as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by protective mechanisms, which can lead to chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress can activate a variety of transcription factors, which lead to the differential expression of some genes involved in inflammatory pathways. The inflammation triggered by oxidative stress is the cause of many chronic diseases. Polyphenols have been proposed to be useful as adjuvant therapy for their potential anti-inflammatory effect, associated with antioxidant activity, and inhibition of enzymes involved in the production of eicosanoids. This review aims at exploring the properties of polyphenols in anti-inflammation and oxidation and the mechanisms of polyphenols inhibiting molecular signaling pathways which are activated by oxidative stress, as well as the possible roles of polyphenols in inflammation-mediated chronic disorders. Such data can be helpful for the development of future antioxidant therapeutics and new anti-inflammatory drugs. Tarique Hussain, Bie Tan, Yulong Yin, Francois Blachier, Myrlene C. B. Tossou, and Najma Rahu Copyright © 2016 Tarique Hussain et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Interleukin-18 in Serum and Follicular Fluid during In Vitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:18:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6379850/ Cytokines are key modulators of the immune system and play an important role in the ovarian cycle. IL-18 levels in serum and follicular fluid were analyzed in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. The cohort study group consisted of 90 women, who were undergoing IVF or ICSI. The body mass index (BMI) was determined in all patients; IL-18 levels were measured in follicular fluid and serum. IL-18 levels in serum were significantly higher than those in follicular fluid. The median level in serum was 162.75 (80.21) pg/mL and that in follicular fluid, 138.24 (91.78) pg/mL. Women undergoing IVF treatment had lower IL-18 levels in serum (median, 151.19 (90.73) pg/mL) than those treated with ICSI (median, 163.57 (89.97) pg/mL). The correlation between IL-18 levels in serum and BMI was statistically significant, as well as the correlation between IL-18 levels in follicular fluid and ovarian stimulation response (). IL-18 was correlated with the response to ovarian stimulation and was the reason for successful pregnancy after IVF or ICSI treatment. Among other cytokines, IL-18 appears to be a promising prognostic marker of success in reproductive treatment and should be evaluated as such in further prospective studies. Veronika Günther, Ibrahim Alkatout, Corinna Fuhs, Ali Salmassi, Liselotte Mettler, Jürgen Hedderich, Nicolai Maass, Mohamed Elessawy, Andreas Gerd Schmutzler, and Christel Eckmann-Scholz Copyright © 2016 Veronika Günther et al. All rights reserved. A New Method for Obtaining the Baryons Mass under the Killingbeck Plus Isotonic Oscillator Potentials Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:09:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/5054620/ The spectrum of ground state and excited baryons (N, Δ, Λ, Σ, , and Ω particles) has been investigated by using nonrelativistic quantum mechanics under the Killingbeck plus isotonic oscillator potentials. Using the Jacobi coordinates, anzast method, and generalized Gürsey Radicati (GR) mass formula the three-body-wave equation is solved to calculate the different states of the considered baryons. A comparison between our calculations and the available experimental data shows that the position of the Roper resonances of the nucleon, the ground states, and the excited multiplets up to three GeV are in general well reproduced. Also one can conclude that the interaction between the quark constituents of baryon resonances could be described adequately by using the combination of Killingbeck and isotonic oscillator potentials form. Nasrin Salehi Copyright © 2016 Nasrin Salehi. All rights reserved. Heart-Derived Stem Cells in Miniature Swine with Coronary Microembolization: Novel Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Model to Assess the Efficacy of Cell-Based Therapy Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:58:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/6940195/ A major problem in translating stem cell therapeutics is the difficulty of producing stable, long-term severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a large animal model. For that purpose, extensive infarction was created in sinclair miniswine by injecting microspheres (1.5 × 106 microspheres, 45 μm diameter) in LAD. At 2 months after embolization, animals () were randomized to receive allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells derived from atrium (CDCs: 20 × 106, ) or saline (untreated, ). Four weeks after therapy myocardial function, myocyte proliferation (Ki67), mitosis (phosphor-Histone H3; pHH3), apoptosis, infarct size (TTC), myocyte nuclear density, and cell size were evaluated. CDCs injected into infarcted and remodeled remote myocardium (global infusion) increased regional function and global function contrasting no change in untreated animals. CDCs reduced infarct volume and stimulated Ki67 and pHH3 positive myocytes in infarct and remote regions. As a result, myocyte number (nuclear density) increased and myocyte cell diameter decreased in both infarct and remote regions. Coronary microembolization produces stable long-term ischemic cardiomyopathy. Global infusion of CDCs stimulates myocyte regeneration and improves left ventricular ejection fraction. Thus, global infusion of CDCs could become a new therapy to reverse LV dysfunction in patients with asymptomatic heart failure. Gen Suzuki, Rebeccah F. Young, Merced M. Leiker, and Takayuki Suzuki Copyright © 2016 Gen Suzuki et al. All rights reserved. Intraocular Silicone Oil Masquerading as Terson Syndrome Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:50:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/4942109/ Introduction. Terson syndrome is described as intraocular hemorrhage in association with any type of intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with higher mortality rate and vision loss. Intraocular hemorrhage in Terson syndrome may be diagnosed using computed tomography but there are false positive results. Silicone oil which is widely used for internal tamponade of complicated retinal detachments has high attenuation on computed tomography and hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging that can mimic intraocular hemorrhage. This report shows that silicone oil is another origin of false positive results in interpreting CT findings for detecting Terson syndrome. Case Report. A 71-year-old diabetic woman presented with loss of consciousness. Brain computed tomography revealed right cerebellar hemorrhage and ventricular hemorrhage and hyperdensity in vitreous cavity of the left eye that was initially interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. Terson syndrome was the initial diagnosis but ophthalmoscopic examination and brain MRI showed that the left eye had silicone oil tamponade. Conclusion. Without knowing the history of previous vitreoretinal surgery, CT scan findings of intraocular silicone oil may be interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. In patients with concomitant intracranial hemorrhage, it can masquerade as Terson syndrome. Navid Elmi Sadr, Bijan Samavat, Payam Mehrian, and Alireza Hedayatfar Copyright © 2016 Navid Elmi Sadr et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Distribution of Forest Management Areas by the Forest Environmental Tax in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:50:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2016/4701058/ Forest management approaches vary according to the needs of individual municipalities with unique geographic conditions and local social contexts. Accordingly, there are two types of subsidies: a unified national subsidy and a prefecture-level subsidy, mainly from forest environmental taxes. The latter is a local tax. Our focus is on examining forest management using these two types of taxes (i.e., central and prefecture-level) and their correlations with social and natural environmental factors. In this paper, we examine the spatial distribution of management areas using subsidies from the central government, the Forestry Agency of Japan, and prefectural forest environmental taxes in Ishikawa. In concrete terms, the spatial correlations of the management areas under two tax schemes are compared with the natural hazard areas (as a natural environmental factor) and areas with high aging rates (as a social factor). The results are tested to see whether the correlations of areas with the two factors are significant, to examine whether the taxes are used for areas with natural and social needs. From the result, positive correlations are identified between the distribution of management areas and natural hazard areas and between the distribution of management areas and areas with high aging rates. Yuta Uchiyama and Ryo Kohsaka Copyright © 2016 Yuta Uchiyama and Ryo Kohsaka. All rights reserved. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion for Relieving Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:49:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9410505/ Aim. To compare whether there is different effect between electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion (Mox) on visceral hypersensitivity (their analgesic effects) in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS). Methods. EA at 1 mA and 3 mA and Mox at 43°C and 46°C were applied to the Shangjuxu (ST37, bilateral) acupoint in rats with C-IBS and normal rats. An abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Toluidine blue staining was used to assess mast cell (MC) activity in colon of rats. Immunochemistry was used to measure 5-HT and 5-HT4 receptor expression in the colon. Results. AWR scores in all EA (1 mA and 3 mA) and Mox (43°C and 46°C) treatment groups after colorectal distention (CRD) stimulation pressure of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg were significantly lower than those of the model (MC) group (P all < 0.01). The MC counts and degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups and the MC group were significantly higher than those of the NC group (P all < 0.01). MC degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups were lower than those of the MC group (P all < 0.05). 5-HT expression in colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups was significantly lower than that of the MC group (P all < 0.01), and 5-HT4R expression in colon of both EA groups was significantly higher than that of the MC group (P both < 0.01). Conclusion. EA and Mox treatments may both ameliorate visceral hypersensitivity at different degree in rats with C-IBS, and EA treatment was better than Mox. Ji-Meng Zhao, Liu Chen, Ci-Li Zhou, Yin Shi, Yu-Wei Li, Hai-Xia Shang, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Chuan-Zi Dou, and Huan-Gan Wu Copyright © 2016 Ji-Meng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Pancreaticopleural Fistula Causing Massive Right Hydrothorax and Respiratory Failure Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:48:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/8294056/ Hydrothorax secondary to a pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. In patients with a history of pancreatitis, diagnosis is made by detection of amylase in the pleural exudate. Imaging, particularly magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, aids in the detection of pancreatic ductal disruption. Management includes thoracocentesis and pancreatic duct drainage or pancreatic resection procedures. We present a case of massive right hydrothorax secondary to a PPF due to recurrent acute pancreatitis. Due to respiratory failure, urgent thoracocentesis was done. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The patient remains well at one-year follow-up. Esther Ern-Hwei Chan and Vishalkumar Girishchandra Shelat Copyright © 2016 Esther Ern-Hwei Chan and Vishalkumar Girishchandra Shelat. All rights reserved. Is Low Serum Vitamin D Associated with Early Dental Implant Failure? A Retrospective Evaluation on 1625 Implants Placed in 822 Patients Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:45:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5319718/ Aim. To investigate whether there is a correlation between early dental implant failure and low serum levels of vitamin D. Methods. All patients treated with dental implants in a single centre, in the period 2003–2015, were considered for enrollment in this study. The main outcome was early implant failure. The influence of patient-related variables on implant survival was calculated using the Chi-square test. Results. 822 patients treated with 1625 implants were selected for this study; 27 early failures (3.2%) were recorded. There was no link between gender, age, smoking, history of periodontitis, and an increased incidence of early failures. Statistical analysis reported 9 early failures (2.2%) in patients with serum levels of vitamin D > 30 ng/mL, 16 early failures (3.9%) in patients with levels between 10 and 30 ng/mL, and 2 early failures (9.0%) in patients with levels <10 ng/mL. Although there was an increasing trend in the incidence of early implant failures with the worsening of vitamin D deficiency, the difference between these 3 groups was not statistically significant (). Conclusions. This study failed in proving an effective link between low serum levels of vitamin D and an increased risk of early implant failure. Further studies are needed to investigate this topic. Francesco Mangano, Carmen Mortellaro, Natale Mangano, and Carlo Mangano Copyright © 2016 Francesco Mangano et al. All rights reserved. Does Extending the Waiting Time of Low-Rectal Cancer Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Increase the Perioperative Complications? Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:44:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7870815/ Background. Traditionally, rectal cancer surgery is recommended 6 to 8 weeks after completing neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Extending the waiting time may increase the tumor response rate. However, the perioperative complication rate may increase. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between extending the waiting time of surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and perioperative outcomes. Methods. Sixty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical resection at Siriraj hospital between June 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data and perioperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. The two groups were comparable in term of demographic parameters. The mean time interval from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery was 6.4 weeks in Group A and 11.7 weeks in Group B. The perioperative outcomes were not significantly different between Groups A and B. Pathologic examination showed a significantly higher rate of circumferential margin positivity in Group A than in Group B (30% versus 9.3%, resp.; ). Conclusions. Extending the waiting to >8 weeks from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery did not increase perioperative complications, whereas the rate of circumferential margin positivity decreased. Kittinut Timudom, Natthawut Phothong, Thawatchai Akaraviputh, Vitoon Chinswangwatanakul, Ananya Pongpaibul, Janjira Petsuksiri, Suthinee Ithimakin, and Atthaphorn Trakarnsanga Copyright © 2016 Kittinut Timudom et al. All rights reserved. Cementoblastoma Relating to Right Mandibular Second Primary Molar Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:37:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/2319890/ Cementoblastoma is a benign lesion of the odontogenic ectomesenchymal origin. It rarely occurs in primary dentition. This report describes a case of a cementoblastoma relating to the right mandibular second primary molar in a 7-year-old girl. Her panoramic radiograph revealed a well-defined radiopaque lesion with a radiolucent border extending from the distal surface of the mandibular right first primary molar to the distal surface of mandibular second primary molar. The tumor was attached to the mesial root of primary second molar and was excised along with the teeth involved and sent for histopathological evaluation, which showed irregular trabeculae of mineralized tissue interspersed with fibrovascular connective tissue, trabeculae of mineralized tissue with prominent reversal lines, and peripheral rimming of the mineralized tissue with blast cells. On a six-month follow-up, there has been no recurrence of the lesion. Sivakumar Nuvvula, Swapna Manepalli, Abinash Mohapatra, and Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni Copyright © 2016 Sivakumar Nuvvula et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method of Failure Sample Selection for Electrical Systems Using Ant Colony Optimization Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:37:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/4238734/ The influence of failure propagation is ignored in failure sample selection based on traditional testability demonstration experiment method. Traditional failure sample selection generally causes the omission of some failures during the selection and this phenomenon could lead to some fearful risks of usage because these failures will lead to serious propagation failures. This paper proposes a new failure sample selection method to solve the problem. First, the method uses a directed graph and ant colony optimization (ACO) to obtain a subsequent failure propagation set (SFPS) based on failure propagation model and then we propose a new failure sample selection method on the basis of the number of SFPS. Compared with traditional sampling plan, this method is able to improve the coverage of testing failure samples, increase the capacity of diagnosis, and decrease the risk of using. Jian Xiong, Shulin Tian, Chenglin Yang, and Cheng Liu Copyright © 2016 Jian Xiong et al. All rights reserved. Positioning of Weight Bias: Moving towards Social Justice Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:31:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2016/3753650/ Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity. We suggest that, despite differences, each perspective acknowledges the negative influences that position weight as being within individual control and the negative consequences of weight bias. We call for recognition and discussion of weight bias as a social justice issue in order to change the discourse and professional practices extended towards individuals with large bodies. We advocate for an emphasis on social justice as a uniting framework for interdisciplinary research on weight bias. Sarah Nutter, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Angela S. Alberga, Nancy Arthur, Anusha Kassan, Darren E. Lund, Monica Sesma-Vazquez, and Emily Williams Copyright © 2016 Sarah Nutter et al. All rights reserved. Neuroactive Steroids in First-Episode Psychosis: A Role for Progesterone? Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:31:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/schizort/2016/1942828/ Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (). Progesterone levels were inversely associated with the severity of positive symptoms (). Consistent with preclinical findings, results suggest that progesterone might have a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. Martino Belvederi Murri, Flaminia Fanelli, Uberto Pagotto, Elena Bonora, Federico Triolo, Luigi Chiri, Fabio Allegri, Marco Mezzullo, Marco Menchetti, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine Pariante, Domenico Berardi, and Ilaria Tarricone Copyright © 2016 Martino Belvederi Murri et al. All rights reserved. Study on Complex Advertising and Price Competition Dual-Channel Supply Chain Models Considering the Overconfidence Manufacturer Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:14:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2027146/ In order to explore how the manufacturers make decisions when two manufacturers compete for local advertising investment, we examine two noncooperative models (Stackelberg and Nash game) and propose a cost sharing contract to investigate channel competition of dual-channel supply chain. The dominant power between manufacturer and retailer and the effect of channel competition strategy on price are mainly discussed. In addition, dynamic system concepts are integrated into Stackelberg game model based on bounded rational mechanism. We analyze the local stability and find that the stability level of the dual-channel supply chains depends crucially on the price adjustment speed, the level of demand uncertainty, and the risk preference. The outcome shows that, under the master-slave game model, the profits of manufacturers are greater than that under decentralized decision-making mode, and the profits of retailers under master-slave game model are less than that under decentralized decision-making mode. The profits of manufacturers and retailers in the stable region are greater than that in unstable region. Finally, the delay feedback control method is utilized and effectively controls the chaotic behavior of dual-channel supply chain model. The results have theoretical and practical significance for the game models in terms of advertising and price competition. Junhai Ma, Qiuxiang Li, and Binshuo Bao Copyright © 2016 Junhai Ma et al. All rights reserved. A New Finite-Time Observer for Nonlinear Systems: Applications to Synchronization of Lorenz-Like Systems Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:11:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8342089/ This paper proposes a synchronization methodology of two chaotic oscillators under the framework of identical synchronization and master-slave configuration. The proposed methodology is based on state observer design under the frame of control theory; the observer structure provides finite-time synchronization convergence by cancelling the upper bounds of the main nonlinearities of the chaotic oscillator. The above is showed via an analysis of the dynamic of the so called synchronization error. Numerical experiments corroborate the satisfactory results of the proposed scheme. Ricardo Aguilar-López and Juan L. Mata-Machuca Copyright © 2016 Ricardo Aguilar-López and Juan L. Mata-Machuca. All rights reserved. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:51:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/8294805/ Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients () from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (, 5-ALA-SFC; , placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141. Feryal Al-Saber, Waleed Aldosari, Mariam Alselaiti, Hesham Khalfan, Ahmed Kaladari, Ghulam Khan, George Harb, Riyadh Rehani, Sizuka Kudo, Aya Koda, Tohru Tanaka, Motowo Nakajima, and Abdulla Darwish Copyright © 2016 Feryal Al-Saber et al. All rights reserved. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:46:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7521913/ Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70). The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6%) was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (). Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development. Chih-Ho Lai, Ju-Chun Huang, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Ju-Pi Li, Lii-Tzu Wu, Hua-Shan Wu, Yu-Chen Sun, Mei-Ling Lin, Ju-Fang Lee, and Hwai-Jeng Lin Copyright © 2016 Chih-Ho Lai et al. All rights reserved. Ordered Mesoporous Carbons as Novel and Efficient Adsorbent for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:30:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/6528315/ Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were successfully synthesized by using hard template and soft template methods. These materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). From the obtained results, it is revealed that the obtained OMCs samples showed high surface area (>1000 m2/g) with high pore volume, mainly mesopore volume (1.2–2.4 cm3/g). Moreover, OMCs samples had similar structure of the SBA-15 silica and exhibited high MB adsorption capacity with of 398 mgg−1 for OMCs synthesis with hard template and 476 mgg−1 for OMCs synthesis with soft template, respectively. From kinetics investigation, it is confirmed that MB adsorption from aqueous solution obeys the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Phuong T. Dang, Hoa T. H. Nguyen, Canh D. Dao, Giang H. Le, Quang K. Nguyen, Kien T. Nguyen, Hoa T. K. Tran, Tuyen V. Nguyen, and Tuan A. Vu Copyright © 2016 Phuong T. Dang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Au, Ag, Curcumin Au/Ag, and Au-Ag Nanoparticles and Their Nonlinear Refractive Index Properties Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:23:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5356404/ Nanoparticles of gold and silver were prepared by a reduction method and by employing green chemistry principles such as using curcumin as a reducing and a stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectra and TEM. Mie theory was used to determine the particle sizes. The nonlinear refraction and absorption properties of the particles were measured using the z-scan technique. A large value of third-order nonlinearities was obtained using the nanoparticles produced. F. Abdulwahab, F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, and K. Winser Copyright © 2016 F. Abdulwahab et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Pulmonary Veins in Cancer Progression from a Computed Tomography Viewpoint Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:22:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2016/1872627/ Background. We studied the role of pulmonary veins in cancer progression using computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods. We obtained data from 260 patients with pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome (PVOS). We used CT scans to investigate pulmonary lesions in relation to pulmonary veins. We divided the lesions into central and peripheral lesions by their anatomical location: in the lung parenchymal tissue or pulmonary vein; in the superior or inferior pulmonary vein; and by unilateral or bilateral presence in the lungs. Results. Of the 260 PVOS patients, 226 (87%) had central lesions, 231 (89%) had peripheral lesions, and 190 (75%) had mixed central and peripheral lesions. Among the 226 central lesions, 93% had lesions within the superior pulmonary vein, either bilaterally or unilaterally. Among the 231 peripheral lesions, 65% involved bilateral lungs, 70% involved lesions within the inferior pulmonary veins, and 23% had obvious metastatic extensions into the left atrium. All patients exhibited nodules within their pulmonary veins. The predeath status included respiratory failure (40%) and loss of consciousness (60%). Conclusion. CT scans play an important role in following tumor progression within pulmonary veins. Besides respiratory distress, PVOS cancer cells entering centrally can result in cardiac and cerebral events and loss of consciousness or can metastasize peripherally from the pulmonary veins to the lungs. Chuang-Chi Liaw, Hung Chang, Tzu-Yao Liao, Ming-Sheng Wen, Chih-Teng Yu, and Yu-Hsiang Juan Copyright © 2016 Chuang-Chi Liaw et al. All rights reserved. On a Five-Dimensional Nonautonomous Schistosomiasis Model with Latent Period Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:21:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8707258/ A five-dimensional nonautonomous schistosomiasis model which include latent period is proposed and studied. By constructing several auxiliary functions and using some skills, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the extinction and permanence (uniform persistence) of infectious population of the model. New threshold values of integral form are obtained. For the corresponding autonomous schistosomiasis model, our results are consistent with the past results. For the periodic and almost periodic cases, some corollaries for the extinction and permanence of the disease are established. In order to illustrate our theoretical analysis, some numerical simulations are presented. Shujing Gao, Yanfei Dai, and Dehui Xie Copyright © 2016 Shujing Gao et al. All rights reserved. Chromobacterium violaceum Septicaemia and Urinary Tract Infection: Case Reports from a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:21:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/6795743/ Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram negative oxidase positive bacillus that causes human infections infrequently. It is a normal inhabitant of soil and stagnant water of the tropical and subtropical areas. In humans, it can cause infections ranging from life threatening sepsis with metastatic abscesses to skin infections and urinary tract infections. The organism is notoriously resistant to most cephalosporins and Ampicillin. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides show good in vitro susceptibility. High mortality rates associated with these infections necessitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Here we present three cases of Chromobacterium violaceum infection from Government Medical College Kozhikode, Kerala. Vishnu Kaniyarakkal, Shabana Orvankundil, Saradadevi Karunakaran Lalitha, Raji Thazhethekandi, and Jahana Thottathil Copyright © 2016 Vishnu Kaniyarakkal et al. All rights reserved. Infliximab Combined with Enteral Nutrition for Managing Crohn’s Disease Complicated with Intestinal Fistulas Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:01:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/5947926/ Aim. This study was performed to evaluate the additional enteral nutrition (EN) in the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) compared with the conventional therapy in managing Crohn’s disease (CD) complicated with intestinal fistulas. Methods. A total of 42 CD with intestinal fistulas were randomly divided into infliximab treatment group () and conventional therapy group (). We evaluated the laboratory indexes, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), Crohn’s disease simplified endoscopic score (SES-CD), and healing of fistula in the two groups before treatment, at 14 weeks, and at 30 weeks, respectively. Results. In the IFX treatment group, the CDAI score, the SES-CD, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased during treatment compared with those before treatment. The body mass index and albumin levels were increased in both groups. Moreover, in the IFX treatment group, fistula healing was found in 8 at the 14th week and 18 at the 30th week, respectively, which was greater than that in the conventional therapy group. Conclusion. Our study suggested that infliximab combined with EN is an effective treatment for CD patients complicated with intestinal fistulas. Xiao-Li Wu, Ren-Pin Chen, Li-Ping Tao, Jian-Sheng Wu, Xiang-Rong Chen, and Wei-Chang Chen Copyright © 2016 Xiao-Li Wu et al. All rights reserved. Complexing Agents on Carbon Content and Lithium Storage Capacity of LiFePO4/C Cathode Synthesized via Sol-Gel Approach Thu, 22 Sep 2016 10:47:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7213916/ Olivine-structured LiFePO4 faces its intrinsic challenges in terms of poor electrical conductivity and lithium-ion diffusion capability for application to lithium-ion batteries. Cost-effective sol-gel approach is advantageous to in situ synthesize carbon-coated LiFePO4 (LiFePO4/C) which can not only improve electronic conductivity but also constrain particle size to nanometer scale. In this study, the key parameter is focused on the choice and amount of chelating agents in this synthesis route. It was found that stability of complexing compounds has significant impacts on the carbon contents and electrochemical properties of the products. At the favorable choice of precursors, composition, and synthesis conditions, nanocrystalline LiFePO4/C materials with appropriate amount of carbon coating were successfully obtained. A reversible capacity of 162 mAh/g was achieved at 0.2 rate, in addition to good discharge rate capability. C. Guan and H. Huang Copyright © 2016 C. Guan and H. Huang. All rights reserved. Serum Cytokines Th1, Th2, and Th17 Expression Profiling in Active Lupus Nephritis-IV: From a Southern Chinese Han Population Thu, 22 Sep 2016 10:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4927530/ Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by aberrant T cell immune response. Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (LN-IV) is the most common, severe, and active form of lupus nephritis. In this study, we investigated the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in prediction of active form of LN-IV. ProcartaPlex multiplex immunoassays panels were used for detection of serum Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines profiling. Th1 and Th17 cytokines (IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6, and IL-17A) were considerably expressed in the serum of lupus nephritis IV patients in comparison to the healthy control. However, only IL18 and IL6 were higher in class IV versus class III lupus nephritis. Importantly, the ratios of Th1/Th2 (IL-18/IL-4) and Th17/Th2 (IL-17A/IL-4) were significantly elevated in LN-IV when compared with LN-III, LN-V, and healthy controls. Consistently, the serum cytokines IL-18, IL-17A, and IFN-γ were markedly expressed in LN-IV patient glomeruli and interstitial tissue compared to other classes of LN by IHC. ROC further suggests that IL-18 was a potential marker for LN-IV. The data from our study suggests that the early detection and quantification of these cytokines may help in prediction of active form of LN-IV. Keshav Raj Sigdel, Lihua Duan, Yin Wang, Weiping Hu, Ning Wang, Qingyi Sun, Qingyan Liu, Xiaocong Liu, Xianghua Hou, Ao Cheng, Guixiu Shi, and Yanlin Zhang Copyright © 2016 Keshav Raj Sigdel et al. All rights reserved. Adult Onset Vitiligo: Multivariate Analysis Suggests the Need for a Thyroid Screening Thu, 22 Sep 2016 10:29:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8065765/ Background. There are limited epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of age at onset on disease features in vitiligo. Objectives. To identify factors associated with adult onset vitiligo in comparison with childhood onset vitiligo. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively collected medical records of 191 patients. Such records included clinical examination, personal and familial medical history, laboratory evaluations, concomitant vitiligo treatment and drug assumption. Results. 123 patients with a disease onset after the age of 40 (adult onset vitiligo) were compared with 68 patients who developed vitiligo before the age of 12 (childhood onset vitiligo). Multivariate analysis revealed that personal history of thyroid diseases (; OR 0.4), stress at onset (; OR = 0.34), personal history of autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) (; OR = 0.23), and thyroid nodules (; OR 0.90) were independently associated with adult onset vitiligo, whereas family history of dermatological diseases (; OR = 2.87) and Koebner phenomenon (; OR = 4.73) with childhood onset vitiligo. Moreover, in the adult onset group, concomitant thyroid disease preceded vitiligo in a statistically significant number of patients (). Conclusions. Childhood onset and adult onset vitiligo have different clinical features. In particular, ATD and thyroid nodules were significantly associated with adult onset vitiligo, suggesting that a thyroid screening should be recommended in this group of patients. L. Lazzeri, R. Colucci, A. Cammi, F. Dragoni, and S. Moretti Copyright © 2016 L. Lazzeri et al. All rights reserved. Natural Products for Infectious Diseases Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:40:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9459047/ Kang-Ju Kim, Xiangqian Liu, Takashi Komabayashi, Seung-Il Jeong, and Serkan Selli Copyright © 2016 Kang-Ju Kim et al. All rights reserved. Validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among General Medical Outpatients in Botswana Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:35:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/4968350/ This was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Participants aged ≥20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were screened by (1) an 8-item Finnish diabetes risk assessment questionnaire and (2) Haemoglobin A1c test. Data from 291 participants were analyzed (74.2% were females). The mean age of the participants was 50.1 (SD = ±11) years, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 42 (14.4%) with no significant differences between the gender (20% versus 12.5%, ). The area under curve for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.55–0.72) for the total population, 0.65 (95% CI: 0.56–0.75) for women, and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52–0.83) for men. The optimal cut-off point for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 17 (sensitivity = 48% and specificity = 73%) for the total population, 17 (sensitivity = 56% and specificity = 66%) for females, and 13 (sensitivity = 53% and specificity = 77%) for males. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 20% and 89.5%, respectively. The findings indicate that the Finnish questionnaire was only modestly effective in predicting undiagnosed diabetes among outpatients in Botswana. Bernard Omech, Julius Chacha Mwita, Jose-Gaby Tshikuka, Billy Tsima, Oathokwa Nkomazna, and Kennedy Amone-P’Olak Copyright © 2016 Bernard Omech et al. All rights reserved. Suicidal Ideation, Attempt, and Determining Factors among HIV/AIDS Patients, Ethiopia Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:35:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drt/2016/8913160/ Background. Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is more frequent in peoples living with HIV/AIDS than in general population. Objective. To assess the proportion and determining factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among peoples living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 by selecting 393 participants using systematic random sampling technique. Suicide manual of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to collect data. Logistic regression was carried out and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was computed. Results. The proportion of suicidal ideation and attempt was 33.6% and 20.1%, respectively. Female sex (AOR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.27–5.22), marital status (AOR = 13.5, 95%CI: 4.69–39.13), depression (AOR = 17.0, 95%CI: 8.76–33.26), CD4 level (AOR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.34–4.90), and presence of opportunistic infection (AOR = 5.23, 95%CI: 2.51–10.88) were associated with suicidal ideation, whereas marital status (AOR = 8.44, 95%CI: 3.117–22.84), perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.45–5.99), opportunistic infection (AOR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.18–4.76), and poor social support (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.58–5.41) were significantly associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Suicidal ideation and attempt were high among HIV positive patients. Therefore early screening, treatment, and referral of suicidal patients are necessary in HIV clinics. Huluagresh Bitew, Gashaw Andargie, Agitu Tadesse, Amsalu Belete, Wubalem Fekadu, and Tesfa Mekonen Copyright © 2016 Huluagresh Bitew et al. All rights reserved. Sentiment Contagion Based on the Modified SOSa-SPSa Model Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:34:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/9682538/ Sentiment contagion is similar to an infectious disease that spreads in a crowd. In this study, we extend the proposed SOSa-SPSa model (susceptible-optimistic-susceptible and susceptible-pessimistic-susceptible) by considering the interaction between optimists and pessimists. Simulation results show that our model is reasonable and can better explain the entire contagion process by considering three groups of people. The recovery speed of pessimists has an obvious regulative effect on the number of pessimists and the possibility of optimists coming in contact with pessimists to be infected as pessimism plays a greater role than that of reverting to susceptibility. The number of pessimists is positively related to the possibility that optimists come in contact with pessimists to become pessimistic but is negatively related to the possibility of the other way around. When the speed of spontaneous generation is slow, the number of pessimists sharply increases. However, the increase is not so apparent when the speed of spontaneous generation reaches a certain number. Zhijie Song, Rui Shi, Jie Jia, and Jian Wang Copyright © 2016 Zhijie Song et al. All rights reserved. Audiovestibular Function Deficits in Vestibular Schwannoma Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:26:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4980562/ Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS. Since hearing loss correlates poorly with tumour size, a retrocochlear lesion is probably not the only cause for hearing loss. Also cochlear mechanisms seem to play a role. This can be revealed by abnormal otoacoustic emissions, despite normal ABR and new MRI techniques which have demonstrated endolymphatic hydrops of the inner ear. Caloric and head impulse tests show frequency specific dynamics and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may help to identify the location of the tumour regarding the involved nerve parts. Conclusion. In order to preserve audiovestibular function in VS, it is important to stop the growth of the tumour and to avoid degenerative changes in the inner ear. A detailed neurotological workup helps to diagnose VS of all sizes and can also provide useful prognostic information. Constantin von Kirschbaum and Robert Gürkov Copyright © 2016 Constantin von Kirschbaum and Robert Gürkov. All rights reserved. Certain Concepts in -Polar Fuzzy Graph Structures Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:16:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6301693/ We apply the concept of -polar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain concepts in -polar fuzzy graph structures, including strong -polar fuzzy graph structure, -polar fuzzy -cycle, -polar fuzzy -tree, -polar fuzzy -cut vertex, and -polar fuzzy -bridge, and we illustrate these concepts by several examples. We present the notions of -complement of an -polar fuzzy graph structure and self-complementary, strong self-complementary, totally strong self-complementary -polar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their properties. Muhammad Akram, Noura Alshehri, and Rabia Akmal Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Akram et al. All rights reserved. iPSCs: From Bench to Clinical Bed Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:15:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/8367587/ Yujing Li, Changwon Park, Luciano Vellón, and Xuekun Li Copyright © 2016 Yujing Li et al. All rights reserved. Role of Cilostazol Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients with Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:01:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8236903/ Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its relevant complications are more common in hemodialysis (HD) patients, while the evidence regarding antiplatelet therapy in CKD patients is scarce. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of cilostazol on outcomes in HD patients with asymptomatic PAD (aPAD). Methods. This cohort study enrolled 217 HD patients (median follow-up time: 5.75 years). Associations between cilostazol use and the outcomes were evaluated by time-dependent Cox regression analysis. Results. During follow-up, 39.5% (47/119) patients used cilostazol for aPAD and 31.8% (69/217) patients died. Cilostazol users had significantly lower CVD and all-cause mortalities (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.11 [0.03, 0.51] and 0.2 [0.08, 0.52]) than nonusers. Both death risks were nonsignificantly higher in cilostazol users than in HD patients without aPAD. The unadjusted and adjusted HR [95% CI] of CVD death risk were 0.4 [0.07, 2.12] and 0.14 [0.02, 0.8] for patients with aPAD during follow-up and were 0.74 [0.16, 3.36] and 0.19 [0.04, 0.93] for those with aPAD at initial. Conclusions. In HD patients with aPAD, lower CVD and all-cause mortality rates were observed in low-dose cilostazol user. Further evidences from large-scale prospective study and randomization trial are desired to confirm the effect of cilostazol. Paik Seong Lim, Yachung Jeng, Ming Ying Wu, Mei-Ann Pai, Tsai-Kun Wu, and Chang Hsu Chen Copyright © 2016 Paik Seong Lim et al. All rights reserved. Design of Integrated Limited-Stop and Short-Turn Services for a Bus Route Thu, 22 Sep 2016 08:43:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7901634/ As a major choice for daily travel, public transit plays an important role in transporting passengers, thus relieving congestion on urban transit routes. In high-demand bus networks, urban transit demand presents imbalance of use of urban bus corridors. The demand patterns in both directions are asymmetric. In this paper, we develop a model which calculates the network and transportation costs in terms of wait time, in-vehicle travel time, and operator costs. We propose an integrated strategy, with an integrated limited-stop and short-turn line, by adjusting a variety of frequencies to meet the unbalanced and asymmetric demand. To minimize these costs, a model with a genetic algorithm can determine frequencies and the proper stations which can be skipped, as well as where turning back can occur, given an origin-destination trip matrix. Numerical examples are optimized to test the availability of an integrated service by minimizing the objective function, and the results are analyzed. Our results show that integrated service patterns can be adjusted to meet the demand under different conditions. In addition, the optimized schemes of an integrated service and the frequencies derived from the model can significantly reduce total cost. Hu Zhang, Shuzhi Zhao, Huasheng Liu, and Shidong Liang Copyright © 2016 Hu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Formula for the Energy of Circulant Graphs with Two Generators Thu, 22 Sep 2016 08:34:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2016/1793978/ We derive closed formulas for the energy of circulant graphs generated by and , where is an integer. We also find a formula for the energy of the complete graph without a Hamilton cycle. Justine Louis Copyright © 2016 Justine Louis. All rights reserved. 3D Modeling of Transformer Substation Based on Mapping and 2D Images Thu, 22 Sep 2016 08:09:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9320502/ A new method for building 3D models of transformer substation based on mapping and 2D images is proposed in this paper. This method segments objects of equipment in 2D images by using -means algorithm in determining the cluster centers dynamically to segment different shapes and then extracts feature parameters from the divided objects by using FFT and retrieves the similar objects from 3D databases and then builds 3D models by computing the mapping data. The method proposed in this paper can avoid the complex data collection and big workload by using 3D laser scanner. The example analysis shows the method can build coarse 3D models efficiently which can meet the requirements for hazardous area classification and constructions representations of transformer substation. Lei Sun, Xuesong Suo, Yifan Liu, Meng Zhang, and Lijuan Han Copyright © 2016 Lei Sun et al. All rights reserved. Perch Selection by Three Cooccurring Species of Celithemis (Odonata: Libellulidae): Testing for a Competitive Hierarchy among Similar Species Thu, 22 Sep 2016 08:03:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/2016/9028105/ In many communities of perching dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae), a size-dependent competitive hierarchy creates a positive relationship between male body size and perch height. We tested for this pattern among three similar-sized species: Celithemis elisa, C. fasciata, and C. ornata. Males were caught and photographed from May to July 2015 at Ashmore Heritage Preserve, Greenville County, SC, USA, and perch heights and perch distance to open water were measured. Five indices of body size were measured with ImageJ software: abdomen length, forewing length, hindwing length, area of forewing, and area of hindwing. Celithemis fasciata was significantly larger than the other two species for all five anatomical characters and used perches that were significantly taller and closer to open water than the other species, though these differences changed over the summer. Aggressive interactions between and within species were tallied and compared to expected distributions based on mean relative abundances derived from hourly abundance counts. Patterns of interspecific aggression were also consistent with a size-dependent hierarchy: the large C. fasciata was attacked less frequently, and the small C. ornata more frequently, than predicted by their relative abundances. We conclude that even small differences in body size may contribute to niche partitioning in perch selection. Wade B. Worthen and Parker H. Morrow Copyright © 2016 Wade B. Worthen and Parker H. Morrow. All rights reserved. Plasma C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP-3) and High-Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1) Concentrations in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:47:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/9438760/ Aims. To detect the association of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3) and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in subjects with prediabetes (pre-DM) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2DM). Methods. 224 eligible participants were included. The 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and several clinical parameters of metabolic disorders and cytokines were measured. All participants were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, ), pre-DM (), and nT2DM group (). Results. Plasma CTRP-3 concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with pre-DM and nT2DM than that of the NGT group, while plasma HMGB-1 levels were higher in pre-DM and nT2DM group compared with the NGT group (). A multiple linear regression analysis showed both plasma CTRP-3 and HMGB-1 concentrations were independently associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) ( for all). Further multiple logistical regression analyses revealed that both plasma CTRP-3 and HMGB-1 levels were significantly associated with pre-DM and nT2DM after adjusting for several confounders ( for all). Conclusions. Circulating CTRP-3 and HMGB-1 concentrations might be promising biomarkers to predict prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Huili Wei, Hua Qu, Hang Wang, and Huacong Deng Copyright © 2016 Huili Wei et al. All rights reserved. Smooth Muscle Tumor Originating in the Pleura: A Case Report and Updated Literature Review Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:47:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2016/9581395/ Smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) of the pleura are exceptionally rare. At present and to the best of these authors’ knowledge, there are only 17 cases reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 51-year-old woman who complained of left sided pleuritic chest pain. Further, computed tomography (CT) revealed a left sided localized pleural-based mass involving the 9th rib. She underwent an interventional radiology guided percutaneous core biopsy of the lesion, which disclosed a “Smooth Muscle Tumor of Undetermined Malignant Potential (SMT-UMP).” A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Resections of the pleural-based mass and 9th rib were performed. SMT-UMP was the definitive diagnosis. Santiago Fabián Moscoso Martínez, Vadim Zarubin, Geethapriya Rajasekaran Rathnakumar, and Alireza Zarineh Copyright © 2016 Santiago Fabián Moscoso Martínez et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of PD-L1 Expression in Tumor Tissue of Patients with Lung Carcinoma and Correlation with Clinical and Demographic Data Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:46:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/9839685/ Lung cancer is the leading world cause of cancer-related death, in both genders, and smoking is the main etiological factor. The discovery of immune checkpoints corroborates the hypothesis that ligands presented in tumors modulate the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the immune activity of tumor microenvironment. Among the most studied coregulatory molecules, PD-1 (programmed cell death 1) and its ligand PD-L1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1) are noteworthy. The present study aims to enhance the understanding of the tumor microenvironment of lung cancer patients who underwent surgery, by means of analysis of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and in intratumoral immune cells (IICs). It was found that PD-L1 expression was more frequent in tumor cells than in IICs. Collective analysis by Tissue Microarray Assay (TMA) for PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and IICs did not reproduce the findings for separate individual analysis of tumor tissues. Patients with past history of smoking were more likely to express PD-L1 in tumor cells than those who never smoked. Patients with past history of smoking were less likely to have PD-L1 positive IICs compared to those who had never smoked. The immunohistochemical expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells and IICs did not correlate with survival. Gustavo Dix Junqueira Pinto, Luciano de Souza Viana, Cristovam Scapulatempo Neto, and Sérgio Vicente Serrano Copyright © 2016 Gustavo Dix Junqueira Pinto et al. All rights reserved. Sedation for Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:43:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8767410/ Although anesthetic requirements for minimally invasive neurosurgical techniques have been described in detail and applied successfully since the early 2000s, most of the literature on this subject has dealt with cranial cases that were operated on in the supine or sitting positions. However, spinal surgery has also used minimally invasive techniques that were performed in prone position for more than 30 years to date. Although procedures in both these neurosurgical techniques require the patient to be awake for a certain period of time, the main surgical difference with minimally invasive spinal surgery is that the patients are in the prone position, which may result in increased requirement of airway management because of deep sedation. In addition, although minimally invasive spinal surgery progresses slowly and different techniques are used with no agreement on the terminology used to describe these techniques thus far, the anesthetist needs to understand the surgical and anesthetic requirements for each type of intervention in order to take necessary precautions. This paper reviews the literature on this topic and discusses the anesthetic necessities for percutaneous endoscopic laser surgery. Menekse Oksar Copyright © 2016 Menekse Oksar. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Constrained Probabilistic Inventory Models Depending on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:35:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/afs/2016/3673267/ We discussed two different cases of the probabilistic continuous review mixture shortage inventory model with varying and constrained expected order cost, when the lead time demand follows some different continuous distributions. The first case is when the total cost components are considered to be crisp values, and the other case is when the costs are considered as trapezoidal fuzzy number. Also, some special cases are deduced. To investigate the proposed model in the crisp case and the fuzzy case, illustrative numerical example is added. From the numerical results we will conclude that Uniform distribution is the best distribution to get the exact solutions, and the exact solutions for fuzzy models are considered more practical and close to the reality of life and get minimum expected total cost less than the crisp models. Mona F. El-Wakeel and Kholood O. Al-yazidi Copyright © 2016 Mona F. El-Wakeel and Kholood O. Al-yazidi. All rights reserved. Segmentation of Hyperacute Cerebral Infarcts Based on Sparse Representation of Diffusion Weighted Imaging Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:34:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/2581676/ Segmentation of infarcts at hyperacute stage is challenging as they exhibit substantial variability which may even be hard for experts to delineate manually. In this paper, a sparse representation based classification method is explored. For each patient, four volumetric data items including three volumes of diffusion weighted imaging and a computed asymmetry map are employed to extract patch features which are then fed to dictionary learning and classification based on sparse representation. Elastic net is adopted to replace the traditional -norm/-norm constraints on sparse representation to stabilize sparse code. To decrease computation cost and to reduce false positives, regions-of-interest are determined to confine candidate infarct voxels. The proposed method has been validated on 98 consecutive patients recruited within 6 hours from onset. It is shown that the proposed method could handle well infarcts with intensity variability and ill-defined edges to yield significantly higher Dice coefficient (0.755 ± 0.118) than the other two methods and their enhanced versions by confining their segmentations within the regions-of-interest (average Dice coefficient less than 0.610). The proposed method could provide a potential tool to quantify infarcts from diffusion weighted imaging at hyperacute stage with accuracy and speed to assist the decision making especially for thrombolytic therapy. Xiaodong Zhang, Shasha Jing, Peiyi Gao, Jing Xue, Lu Su, Weiping Li, Lijie Ren, and Qingmao Hu Copyright © 2016 Xiaodong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010 Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:33:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2016/5871313/ The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes. Nancy Baugh, David E. Harris, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Cheryl Sarton, and Erika Lichter Copyright © 2016 Nancy Baugh et al. All rights reserved. TNF-α Autocrine Feedback Loops in Human Monocytes: The Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Roles of the TNF-α Receptors Support the Concept of Selective TNFR1 Blockade In Vivo Thu, 22 Sep 2016 07:14:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/1079851/ Selective TNFR1 blockade in inflammatory diseases is emerging as a clinical strategy. We studied the roles of the two TNF-α receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, in human monocytes, the principal producer of TNF-α and central to many TNF-α driven diseases. We hypothesised that TNF-α has pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on monocytes, occurring differentially via TNFR1 and TNFR2. Monocytes were isolated from healthy human subjects and exposed to LPS, plus/minus the addition of blocking antibodies to TNF-α or its receptors. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was quantified using real-time PCR and ELISAs. Cell surface expression of TNFR1/2 was measured by flow cytometry. We demonstrated that monocytes vary in the expression patterns of TNFR1 and TNFR2. Autocrine binding of TNF-α led to sustained upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines via TNFR1. In contrast, autocrine binding via TNFR2 upregulated the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, without proinflammatory effect. TNFR2 was responsible for binding soluble TNF-α secreted by monocytes, clearing the cytokine from the pericellular environment. TNFR1 blockade did not change the cell surface expression of TNFR2, leaving this receptor free to upregulate IL-10. These novel results support the concept of selective TNFR1 blockade in vivo in order that positive anti-inflammatory effects of TNF-α can be retained via TNFR2 ligation. Jennie M. Gane, Robert A. Stockley, and Elizabeth Sapey Copyright © 2016 Jennie M. Gane et al. All rights reserved. Magnifying Endoscopic Features of Follicular Lymphoma Involving the Stomach: A Report of Two Cases Thu, 22 Sep 2016 06:56:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2016/2082698/ A 70-year-old woman presented with follicular lymphoma involving the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, bone, and lymph nodes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple depressed lesions in the stomach. Examination with magnifying endoscopy showed branched abnormal vessels along with gastric pits, which were irregularly shaped but were preserved. The second case was a 45-year-old man diagnosed with stage II1 follicular lymphoma with duodenal, ileal, and colorectal involvement, as well as lymphadenopathy of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed six years after the diagnosis revealed multiple erosions in the gastric body and angle. Magnifying endoscopic observation with narrow-band imaging showed that the gastric pits were only partially preserved and were destroyed in most of the stomach. Branched abnormal vessels were also seen. Pathological features were consistent with follicular lymphoma in both cases. The structural differences reported between the two cases appear to reflect distinct pathologies. Disappearance of gastric pits in the latter case seems to result from loss of epithelial cells, probably due to chronic inflammation. In both cases, branched abnormal vasculature was observed. These two cases suggest that magnified observations of abnormal branched microvasculature may facilitate endoscopic detection and recognition of the extent of gastric involvement in patients with follicular lymphoma. Masaya Iwamuro, Katsuyoshi Takata, Seiji Kawano, Nobuharu Fujii, Yoshiro Kawahara, Tadashi Yoshino, and Hiroyuki Okada Copyright © 2016 Masaya Iwamuro et al. All rights reserved. Neurostimulation Thu, 22 Sep 2016 06:34:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1830405/ Helena Knotkova, Michael A. Nitsche, and Volker Tronnier Copyright © 2016 Helena Knotkova et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Moving Targets Detection and Parameters Estimation in Strong Reverberation Environments Thu, 22 Sep 2016 06:19:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5274371/ This paper considers the problem of multiple moving targets detection and parameters estimation (direction of arrival and range) in strong reverberation environments. As reverberation has a strong correlation with target echo, the performance of target detection and parameters estimation is significantly degraded in practical underwater environments. In this paper, we utilize two uniform circular arrays to receive plane wave of the linear frequency modulation signal reflected from far-field targets. On the basis of received signal, we build a variance matrix of multiple beams by using modal decomposition, conventional beamforming, and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). We then propose a novel detection method and an estimation method of parameters based on the constructed image. A significant feature of the proposed methods is that our design does not involve any a priori knowledge about targets number and parameters of marine environments. Finally, we demonstrate via numerical simulation examples that the detection probability and the accuracy of estimated parameters of the proposed method are higher than the existing methods in both low signal-to-reverberation ratio and signal-to-noise ratio environment. Ge Yu and Shengchun Piao Copyright © 2016 Ge Yu and Shengchun Piao. All rights reserved. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thu, 22 Sep 2016 06:13:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijso/2016/3743420/ Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC. Rajan P. Dang, Daniel McFarland, Valerie H. Le, Nadia Camille, Brett A. Miles, Marita S. Teng, Eric M. Genden, and Krzysztof J. Misiukiewicz Copyright © 2016 Rajan P. Dang et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Removal of Ingested Dentures and Dental Instruments: A Retrospective Analysis Thu, 22 Sep 2016 06:05:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/3537147/ Background. Dentures and dental instruments are frequently encountered ingested foreign bodies. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopically removing ingested dental objects. Methods. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with 29 dental objects who were treated at the Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital from August 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics of the patients and the ingested dental objects, the clinical features and findings of radiological imaging tests, and outcomes of endoscopic removal were analyzed. Results. Patients’ mean age was years. The ingested dental objects included 23 dentures (13 crowns, 4 bridges, 4 partial dentures, and 2 other dentures) and 6 dental instruments. Twenty-seven upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and 2 colonoscopies were performed, and their success rates were 92.6% and 100%, respectively. There were 2 cases of removal failure; one case involved an impacted partial denture in the cervical esophagus, and this case required surgical removal. Conclusions. Endoscopic removal of ingested dentures and dental instruments is associated with a favorable success rate and acceptable complications. The immediate intervention and appropriate selection of devices are essential for managing ingested dental objects. Ken-ichi Mizuno, Kazuya Takahashi, Kentaro Tominaga, Yuki Nishigaki, Hiroki Sato, Satoshi Ikarashi, Kazunao Hayashi, Takashi Yamamoto, Yutaka Honda, Satoru Hashimoto, Kenya Kamimura, Manabu Takeuchi, Junji Yokoyama, Yuichi Sato, Masaaki Kobayashi, and Shuji Terai Copyright © 2016 Ken-ichi Mizuno et al. All rights reserved. Case Report of a Fatal Antifreeze Ingestion with a Record High Level and Impressive Renal Crystal Deposition Thu, 22 Sep 2016 06:02:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2016/3101476/ Ethylene glycol, methanol, and diethylene glycol are readily available in many household and commercially available products. While these alcohols are relatively nontoxic themselves, their acidic metabolites are toxic and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Herein we report a lethal case of massive ethylene glycol ingestion in a suicide with a record high level (1254 mg/dL) and images of the histologic examination of the kidneys revealing impressive calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Autopsy findings also showed evidence of mild cerebral edema. Heidi L. Erickson Copyright © 2016 Heidi L. Erickson. All rights reserved. Shear Behavior of Frozen Rock-Soil Mixture Thu, 22 Sep 2016 05:50:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1646125/ Mechanical behavior of frozen rock-soil mixture was investigated through direct shear test based on remolded specimens. The peak shear strength of rock-soil mixture increases greatly when it is fully frozen. The shear process goes through four stages including compaction, elastic deformation, plastic yield, and failure. The specimen has slight compaction in vertical direction at the beginning of shear test; then it changes to dilatancy. The temperature and ice content have vital important effect on the shear behavior of frozen rock-soil mixture. Results indicated that the peak shear strength of rock-soil mixture increases with temperature decreasing when temperature ranges from −1°C to −16°C. But the curve has clear inflexion at −5°C. When temperature is higher than this degree, the peak shear strength increases sharply with temperature decreasing. Otherwise, the rise of the peak shear strength with the decrease of temperature becomes gentle. The shear strength of rock-soil mixture goes up first and then down with ice content increasing at −5°C for samples with initial water contents varying from 9% to 14%. The shear strength reaches its peak value at initial water content ranging between 10% and 12% by weight. Changqing Qi, Liuyang Li, Jihong Wei, and Jin Liu Copyright © 2016 Changqing Qi et al. All rights reserved. Long Noncoding RNA H19 in Digestive System Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Its Association with Pathological Features Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:31:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4863609/ Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been reported to be upregulated in malignant digestive tumors, but its clinical relevance is not yet established. The meta-analysis was to investigate the association between H19 expression and pathological features of digestive system cancers. The databases of PubMed, EMBase, Web of Science, CNKI, and WanFang were searched for the related studies. A total of 478 patients from 6 studies were finally included. The meta-analysis showed that the patient group of high H19 expression had a higher risk of poorly differentiated grade, deep tumor invasion (T2 stage or more), lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage than the group of low H19 expression, although there was no difference between them in terms of distant metastasis. Therefore, the high expression of lncRNA H19 might predict poor oncological outcomes of patients with digestive system cancers. Yang Lin, Lijian Xu, Wei Wei, Xiaohui Zhang, and Rongchao Ying Copyright © 2016 Yang Lin et al. All rights reserved. Composites: Preparation and Magnetodielectric Properties Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:30:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2016/7518468/ Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and silica (SiO2) nanopowders have been prepared by the microwave hydrothermal (M-H) method using metal nitrates as precursors of CoFe2O4 and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a precursor of SiO2. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD and FESEM. The () (CoFe2O4) + SiO2 (where = 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) composites with different weight percentages have been prepared using ball mill method. The composite samples were sintered at 800°C/60 min using the microwave sintering method and then their structural and morphological studies were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The effect of SiO2 content on the magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites has been studied via the magnetic hysteresis loops, complex permeability, permittivity spectra, and DC resistivity measurements. The synthesized nanocomposites with adjustable grain sizes and controllable magnetic properties make the applicability of cobalt ferrite even more versatile. T. Ramesh, S. Bharadwaj, and S. R. Murthy Copyright © 2016 T. Ramesh et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Dapagliflozin on Glycemic Variations in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:29:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/5347262/ Objectives. To observe changes in blood glycemic variations and oxidative stress level before and after dapagliflozin treatment in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Methods. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. A total of 28 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM with levels of 7.5–10.5% were randomly selected to receive dapagliflozin or placebo treatment for 24 weeks. After baseline data were collected, we analyzed glycemic variations and plasma 8-iso PGF2α level at baseline and at the endpoint. Primary outcome was the changes of mean amplitude glycemic excursion (MAGE) within groups. Results. After 24-week dapagliflozin therapy, our data showed the significant improvement of MAGE with dapagliflozin therapy (). Compared with control group, patients in dapagliflozin group exhibited reduction in 24-hour MBG () and lower mean plasma glucose concentrations, especially during periods from 2400 to 0200 and 1300 to 1800 (, resp.). In addition, plasma 8-iso PGF2α level was notably decreased in the treatment group compared to the control group (). Conclusions. In conclusion, this study shows the ability of dapagliflozin to improve glycemic variations and associate with reduction of oxidative stress in patients with T2DM, which may benefit the cardiovascular system. Feng-fei Li, Gu Gao, Qian Li, Hong-hong Zhu, Xiao-fei Su, Jin-dan Wu, Lei Ye, and Jian-hua Ma Copyright © 2016 Feng-fei Li et al. All rights reserved. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:22:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2016/8608534/ Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years) constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6%) followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%), and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%). Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs. Deepak Dimri, Venkatashiva Reddy B, and Amit Kumar Singh Copyright © 2016 Deepak Dimri et al. All rights reserved. The Evolution of Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:22:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/8570581/ The Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo has a large dataset of carbon monoxide measurements: 20 years of records in 18 automatic stations inside the metropolitan area. However, a thorough investigation on the time evolution of CO concentration tendency and cycles also considering spatial variability is lacking. The investigation consists of a trend line analysis, a periodogram analysis, a correlation between CO concentration and meteorological variables, and spatial distribution of CO concentration. Local and federal policies helped in decreasing CO concentrations and the highest decreasing rate was 0.7% per month. This tendency is lately stabilizing, since the vehicles fleet is increasing. CO most relevant cycles are annual and diurnal and a few series indicate a weekly cycle. Diurnal cycle shows two peaks, morning and evening rush hours, 1.2 and 1.1 ppm, respectively, in 2012. However, lately there is an extended evening peak (20 h to 23 h), related to changes in emission patterns. The spatial analysis showed that CO concentration has high spatial variability and is influenced by proximity to heavy traffic and vegetated areas. The present work indicates that several processes affect CO concentration and these results form a valuable basis for other studies involving air quality modeling, mitigation, and urban planning. Flavia Noronha Dutra Ribeiro, Delhi Teresa Paiva Salinas, Jacyra Soares, Amauri Pereira de Oliveira, Regina Maura de Miranda, and Luana Antunes Tolentino Souza Copyright © 2016 Flavia Noronha Dutra Ribeiro et al. All rights reserved. Thermodynamic Partition Function from Quantum Theory for Black Hole Horizons in Loop Quantum Gravity Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:12:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/1068757/ We establish the link between the thermodynamics and the quantum theory of black hole horizons through the construction of the thermodynamic partition function, partly based on some physically plausible arguments, by beginning from the description of quantum states of the horizon, considering loop quantum gravity (LQG) as the underlying theory. Although the effective “thermalized” form of the partition function has been previously used in the literature to study the effect of thermal fluctuations of the black hole horizon, nonetheless the direct link to any existing quantum theory (which is here taken to be LQG), especially a derivation of the partition function from the quantum states of the horizon, appears to be hitherto absent. This work is an attempt to bridge this small, but essential, gap that appears to be present between the existing literature of quantum theory and thermodynamics of black holes. Furthermore, it may be emphasized that this work is only concerned with the metric independent approaches to black hole thermodynamics. Abhishek Majhi Copyright © 2016 Abhishek Majhi. All rights reserved. Modeling and Analysis of New Multilevel Inverter for Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:09:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/4063167/ Solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant is an effective way to utilize the renewable energy sources. EMI is one of the major concerns in PV power plant. Typically, the multilevel inverters are used in high voltage PV power plant. However, the conventional multilevel inverters require more semiconductors, which complicate the circuit structure and control algorithm. In this paper, a novel five-level inverter is introduced for the high voltage PV power plant applications. The model of the inverter is analyzed. With the redundant switching states, a new modulation strategy is proposed to reduce the common-mode voltage and EMI. The proposed approach is able to eliminate the common-mode voltage; meanwhile it has the capability of balancing the capacitor voltages. The cosimulation tests with the Matlab/Simulink and S-function are carried out. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Xiaoqiang Guo, Ran He, and Mehdi Narimani Copyright © 2016 Xiaoqiang Guo et al. All rights reserved. Activated Müller Cells Involved in ATP-Induced Upregulation of P2X7 Receptor Expression and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:55:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9020715/ P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptotic death, in which activated retinal Müller glial cells may be involved by releasing ATP. In the present study, we investigated whether and how activated Müller cells may induce changes in P2X7R expression in RGCs by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Intravitreal injection of DHPG, a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) agonist, induced upregulation of GFAP expression, suggestive of Müller cell activation (gliosis), as we previously reported. Accompanying Müller cell activation, P2X7R protein expression was upregulated, especially in the cells of ganglion cell layer (GCL), which was reversed by coinjection of brilliant blue G (BBG), a P2X7R blocker. In addition, intravitreal injection of ATP also induced upregulation of P2X7R protein expression. Similar results were observed in cultured retinal neurons by ATP treatment. Moreover, both DHPG and ATP intravitreal injection induced a reduction in the number of fluorogold retrogradely labeled RGCs, and the DHPG effect was partially rescued by coinjection of BBG. All these results suggest that activated Müller cells may release ATP and, in turn, induce upregulation of P2X7R expression in the cells of GCL, thus contributing to RGC death. Ying Xue, Yuting Xie, Bo Xue, Nan Hu, Guowei Zhang, Huaijin Guan, and Min Ji Copyright © 2016 Ying Xue et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Parking Space Guidance Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:49:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5126808/ An evolutionary approach of parking space guidance based upon a novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm is proposed. In the newly proposed CPSO algorithm, the chaotic dynamics is combined into the position updating rules of Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the diversity of solutions and to avoid being trapped in the local optima. This novel approach, that combines the strengths of Particle Swarm Optimization and chaotic dynamics, is then applied into the route optimization (RO) problem of parking lots, which is an important issue in the management systems of large-scale parking lots. It is used to find out the optimized paths between any source and destination nodes in the route network. Route optimization problems based on real parking lots are introduced for analyzing and the effectiveness and practicability of this novel optimization algorithm for parking space guidance have been verified through the application results. Na Dong, Xing Fang, and Ai-guo Wu Copyright © 2016 Na Dong et al. All rights reserved. Intraplaque Expression of C-Reactive Protein Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Severe Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Stenosis Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:48:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9153673/ Serum c-reactive protein (CRP) was suggested for the assessment of intermediate cardiovascular (CV) risk. Here, systemic or intraplaque CRP levels were investigated as predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with severe carotid stenosis. CRP levels were assessed in the serum and within different portions (upstream and downstream) of carotid plaques of 217 patients undergoing endarterectomy. The association between CRP and intraplaque lipids, collagen, neutrophils, smooth muscle cells (SMC), and macrophage subsets was determined. No correlation between serum CRP and intraplaque biomarkers was observed. In upstream portions, CRP content was directly correlated with intraplaque neutrophils, total macrophages, and M1 macrophages and inversely correlated with SMC content. In downstream portions, intraplaque CRP correlated with M1 and M2 macrophages. According to the cut-off point (CRP > 2.9%) identified by ROC analysis in upstream portions, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high CRP levels had a greater rate of MACEs. This risk of MACEs increased independently of age, male gender, serum CRP, and statin use. In conclusion, in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis, high CRP levels within upstream portions of carotid plaques directly and positively correlate with intraplaque inflammatory cells and predict MACEs at an 18-month follow-up period. Aldo Bonaventura, François Mach, Aline Roth, Sébastien Lenglet, Fabienne Burger, Karim J. Brandt, Aldo Pende, Maria Bertolotto, Giovanni Spinella, Bianca Pane, Domenico Palombo, Franco Dallegri, Michele Cea, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Fabrizio Montecucco, and Federico Carbone Copyright © 2016 Aldo Bonaventura et al. All rights reserved. Highly Reflective Dielectric Back Reflector for Improved Efficiency of Tandem Thin-Film Solar Cells Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:46:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/7390974/ We report on the prototyping and development of a highly reflective dielectric back reflector for application in thin-film solar cells. The back reflector is fabricated by Snow Globe Coating (SGC), an innovative, simple, and cheap process to deposit a uniform layer of TiO2 particles which shows remarkably high reflectance over a broad spectrum (average reflectance of 99% from 500 nm to 1100 nm). We apply the highly reflective back reflector to tandem thin-film silicon solar cells and compare its performance with conventional ZnO:Al/Ag reflector. By using SGC back reflector, an enhancement of 0.5 mA/cm2 in external quantum efficiency of the bottom solar cell and an absolute value of 0.2% enhancement in overall power conversion efficiency are achieved. We also show that the increase in power conversion efficiency is due to the reduction of parasitic absorption at the back contact; that is, the use of the dielectric reflector avoids plasmonic losses at the reference ZnO:Al/Ag back reflector. The Snow Globe Coating process is compatible with other types of solar cells such as crystalline silicon, III–V, and organic photovoltaics. Due to its cost effectiveness, stability, and excellent reflectivity above a wavelength of 400 nm, it has high potential to be applied in industry. Chog Barugkin, Ulrich W. Paetzold, Kylie R. Catchpole, Angelika Basch, and Reinhard Carius Copyright © 2016 Chog Barugkin et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Screening Method for Detecting Ethinyl Estradiol in Natural Water Employing Voltammetry Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:28:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2016/3217080/ 17α-Ethinyl estradiol (EE2), which is used worldwide in the treatment of some cancers and as a contraceptive, is often found in aquatic systems and is considered a pharmaceutically active compound (PhACs) in the environment. Current methods for the determination of this compound, such as chromatography, are expensive and lengthy and require large amounts of toxic organic solvents. In this work, a voltammetric procedure is developed and validated as a screening tool for detecting EE2 in water samples without prior extraction, clean-up, or derivatization steps. Application of the method we elaborate here to EE2 analysis is unprecedented. EE2 detection was carried out using differential pulse adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP AdCSV) with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in pH 7.0 Britton-Robinson buffer. The electrochemical process of EE2 reduction was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates. Electroreduction of the hormone on a mercury electrode exhibited a peak at − V versus Ag/AgCl. The experimental parameters were as follows: −0.7 V accumulation potential, 150 s accumulation time, and 60 mV s−1 scan rate. The limit of detection was 0.49 μg L−1 for a preconcentration time of 150 s. Relative standard deviations were less than 13%. The method was applied to the detection of EE2 in water samples with recoveries ranging from 93.7 to 102.5%. Chalder Nogueira Nunes, Lucas Ely Pauluk, Maria Lurdes Felsner, Vanessa Egéa dos Anjos, and Sueli Pércio Quináia Copyright © 2016 Chalder Nogueira Nunes et al. All rights reserved. Hyperammonemia: What Urea-lly Need to Know: Case Report of Severe Noncirrhotic Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy and Review of the Literature Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:11:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/8512721/ Purpose. A 66-year-old man who presented with coma was found to have isolated severe hyperammonemia and diagnosed with a late-onset urea-cycle disorder. He was treated successfully and had full recovery. Methods. We report a novel case of noncirrhotic hyperammonemia and review the literature on this topic. Selected literature for review included English-language articles concerning hyperammonemia using the search terms “hyperammonemic encephalopathy”, “non-cirrhotic encephalopathy”, “hepatic encephalopathy”, “urea-cycle disorders”, “ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency”, and “fulminant hepatic failure”. Results. A unique case of isolated hyperammonemia diagnosed as late-onset OTC deficiency is presented. Existing evidence about hyperammonemia is organized to address pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The case report is discussed in context of the reviewed literature. Conclusion. Late-onset OTC deficiency presenting with severe hyperammonemic encephalopathy and extensive imaging correlate can be fully reversible if recognized promptly and treated aggressively. Ruby Upadhyay, Thomas P. Bleck, and Katharina M. Busl Copyright © 2016 Ruby Upadhyay et al. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Fluid Excess Is a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Fistula after Partial Pancreaticoduodenectomy Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:11:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2016/1601340/ Background. After pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), pancreatic fistulas (PF) are a frequent complication. Infusions may compromise anastomotic integrity. This retrospective analysis evaluated associations between intraoperative fluid excess and PF. Methods. Data on perioperative parameters including age, sex, laboratory findings, histology, infusions, surgery time, and occurrence of grade B/C PF was collected from all PD with pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) performed in our department from 12/2011 till 02/2015. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR), infusion rate, and the ratio of both and its association with PF were calculated. ROC analysis was employed to identify a threshold. Results. Complete datasets were available for 83 of 86 consecutive cases. Median age was 66 years (34–84; 60% male), GFR was 93 mL/min (IQR 78–113), and surgery time was 259 min (IQR 217–307). Intraoperatively, 13.6 mL/min (7–31) was infused. In total, (21%) PF occurred. When the infusion : GFR ratio exceeded 0.15, PF increased from 11% to 34% (). No significant association was detected for any of the other parameters. Conclusions. This analysis demonstrates for the first time an association between intraoperative fluid excess and PF after PD with PJ even in patients with normal renal function. A carefully patient-adopted fluid management with due regard to renal function may help to prevent postoperative PF. Helge Bruns, Veronika Kortendieck, Hans-Rudolf Raab, and Dalibor Antolovic Copyright © 2016 Helge Bruns et al. All rights reserved. Fractional Mathematical Operators and Their Computational Approximation Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4356371/ Usual applied mathematics employs three fundamental arithmetical operators: addition, multiplication, and exponentiation. However, for example, transcendental numbers are said not to be attainable via algebraic combination with these fundamental operators. At the same time, simulation and modelling frequently have to rely on expensive numerical approximations of the exact solution. The main purpose of this article is to analyze new fractional arithmetical operators, explore some of their properties, and devise ways of computing them. These new operators may bring new possibilities, for example, in approximation theory and in obtaining closed forms of those approximations and solutions. We show some simple demonstrative examples. José Crespo and Francisco Javier Montáns Copyright © 2016 José Crespo and Francisco Javier Montáns. All rights reserved. Blast Protection of Unreinforced Masonry Walls: A State-of-the-Art Review Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:51:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ace/2016/8958429/ The recent rise of terrorist attacks has reinforced the need for mitigation of damage caused by blast loading on unreinforced masonry walls. The primary goal of the techniques is to prevent the loss of life while simultaneously preserving the integrity of the structure. This paper presents a compilation of recently available literature on blast protection of unreinforced masonry walls. It seeks to present the state of the art in this field, including mitigation techniques considered as well as testing methods selected. Fiber reinforced polymers and polyurea are the two dominant retrofitting techniques being assessed in the field. Other techniques include but are not limited to polyurethane, steel sheets, and aluminum foam. Since there is no widely implemented standard for blast loading test procedures, direct comparisons between the efficiencies of the mitigation techniques proposed are not always feasible. Although fragmentation is an indicator of the efficiency of retrofits, it is currently measured by subjective observation of postblast debris. Lucas Lantz, Joshua Maynez, Wesley Cook, and Claudia Mara Dias Wilson Copyright © 2016 Lucas Lantz et al. All rights reserved. Hard and Soft Tissue Management of a Localized Alveolar Ridge Atrophy with Autogenous Sources and Biomaterials: A Challenging Clinical Case Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:26:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/8468763/ Particularly in the premaxillary area, the stability of hard and soft tissues plays a pivotal role in the success of the rehabilitation from both a functional and aesthetic aspect. The present case report describes the clinical management of a localized alveolar ridge atrophy in the area of the upper right canine associated with a thin gingival biotype with a lack of keratinized tissue. An autogenous bone block harvested from the chin associated with heterologous bone particles was used to replace the missing bone, allowing for a prosthetic driven implant placement. Soft tissues deficiency was corrected by means of a combined epithelialized and subepithelial connective tissue graft. The 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated symmetric gingival levels of the upper canines, with physiological peri-implant probing depths and bone loss. Thus, the use of autogenous tissues combined with biomaterials might be considered a reliable technique in case of highly aesthetic demanding cases. C. Maiorana, D. Andreoni, and P. P. Poli Copyright © 2016 C. Maiorana et al. All rights reserved. Cochlear Synaptopathy and Noise-Induced Hidden Hearing Loss Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:24:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/6143164/ Recent studies on animal models have shown that noise exposure that does not lead to permanent threshold shift (PTS) can cause considerable damage around the synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and type-I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). Disruption of these synapses not only disables the innervated ANFs but also results in the slow degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons if the synapses are not reestablished. Such a loss of ANFs should result in signal coding deficits, which are exacerbated by the bias of the damage toward synapses connecting low-spontaneous-rate (SR) ANFs, which are known to be vital for signal coding in noisy background. As there is no PTS, these functional deficits cannot be detected using routine audiological evaluations and may be unknown to subjects who have them. Such functional deficits in hearing without changes in sensitivity are generally called “noise-induced hidden hearing loss (NIHHL).” Here, we provide a brief review to address several critical issues related to NIHHL: (1) the mechanism of noise induced synaptic damage, (2) reversibility of the synaptic damage, (3) the functional deficits as the nature of NIHHL in animal studies, (4) evidence of NIHHL in human subjects, and (5) peripheral and central contribution of NIHHL. Lijuan Shi, Ying Chang, Xiaowei Li, Steve Aiken, Lijie Liu, and Jian Wang Copyright © 2016 Lijuan Shi et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Vibration Control under Broadband Excitation and Variable Temperature Using Viscoelastic Neutralizer and Adaptive Feedforward Approach Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:19:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5375309/ Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive) vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber), the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm) working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive) has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper. João C. O. Marra, Eduardo M. O. Lopes, José João de Espíndola, and Walter Antônio Gontijo Copyright © 2016 João C. O. Marra et al. All rights reserved. Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Rare Cause of Cutaneous Ulceration and One Easily Misdiagnosed Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:19:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/5971706/ Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis often misdiagnosed. It is uncommon in infants and children accounting for 4% of cases. A one-year-old male in paediatric ICU ventilated for bronchopneumonia was referred with ulcerated areas on his neck and axilla corresponding to sites of recent removal of central and arterial lines. Examination revealed areas of deep ulceration with violaceous undermined borders in keeping with PG. This was supported by a skin biopsy showing a neutrophilic infiltrate in the deeper dermis. Topical clobetasol propionate was commenced and a dramatic improvement within 24 hours noted. Blood results showed a leucocytosis of 29.7; a differential WCC showed toxic granulation in neutrophils with myeloid left shift; immunoglobulins showed elevated IgG 23 and IgA 4.86. The elevated WCC made us consider a leukaemic trigger; however, they settled with treatment of the underlying infection. PG in children is more likely to have an atypical distribution involving the head and neck (26.6%) or buttocks (15%). An interesting feature in this case is the presence of pathergy, a term used to describe the induction or exacerbation of PG at sites of iatrogenic or incidental trauma. It is seen in 31% of patients with PG. Wedad Abdelrahman, Maureen Y. Walsh, Susannah E. Hoey, and Donal O’Kane Copyright © 2016 Wedad Abdelrahman et al. All rights reserved. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Presenting with Oculomotor Ophthalmoplegia and Distal Myopathy Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/1701509/ Neurofibromatosis type 2 usually presents with bilateral acoustic schwannomas. We highlight the rare presentation of neurofibromatosis initially involving third nerve. A 23-year-old Malay female presented with left eye drooping of the upper lid and limitation of upward movement for 8 years. It was associated with right-sided body weakness, change in voice, and hearing disturbance in the right ear for the past 2 years. On examination, there was mild ptosis and limitation of movement superiorly in the left eye. Both eyes had posterior subcapsular cataract. Fundoscopy showed generalised optic disc swelling in both eyes. She also had palsy of the right vocal cord, as well as the third and eighth nerve. There was wasting of the distal muscles of her right hand, with right-sided decreased muscle power. Pedunculated cutaneous lesions were noted over her body and scalp. MRI revealed bilateral acoustic and trigeminal schwannomas with multiple extra-axial lesions and intradural extramedullary nodules. Patient was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 and planned for craniotomy and tumour debulking, but she declined treatment. Neurofibromatosis type 2 may uncommonly present with isolated ophthalmoplegia, so a thorough physical examination and a high index of suspicion are required to avoid missing this condition. Jessica Mani Penny Tevaraj, Evelyn Tai Li Min, Raja Azmi Mohd Noor, Azhany Yaakub, and Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam Copyright © 2016 Jessica Mani Penny Tevaraj et al. All rights reserved. Electrocardiographic Study in Adult Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Lagos, Nigeria Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:18:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2016/4214387/ Background. This study sought to identify the pattern of electrocardiographic changes in steady state adult sickle cell anaemia. Methods. A case-control, cross-sectional study was conducted amongst sickle cell patients attending the sickle cell clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, and HbAA controls. All consenting participants had haemoglobin electrophoresis done and were subjected to electrocardiography (ECG). The descriptive data were given as means ± standard deviation (SD). The differences were considered to be statistically significant when the p value obtained was <0.05. Results. A total of ninety-three sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients and ninety haemoglobin AA (controls) were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the age of the participants with SCA and that of the controls but the body mass index was significantly higher in controls (). Overall, 73.1% (68 of 93) had abnormal ECG while only 2 of 90 (2.2%) of controls had abnormal ECG. The common abnormalities observed were left ventricular hypertrophy, biventricular hypertrophy, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion. Patients with SCA in steady state tend to have normal heart rate but about 50% of them would have had ECG changes before the age of 20 years. ECG being a noninvasive test may be used to identify patients at risk for early intervention. Adedoyin Dosunmu, Akinsegun Akinbami, Ebele Uche, Adewumi Adediran, and Sarah John-Olabode Copyright © 2016 Adedoyin Dosunmu et al. All rights reserved. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor in the Setting of Dorsal Agenesis of the Pancreas Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:18:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2016/3801962/ Dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) is an uncommon embryological abnormality where there is absence of the distal pancreas. DAP is mostly asymptomatic, but common presenting symptoms include diabetes mellitus, abdominal pain, pancreatitis, enlarged pancreatic head, and, in a few cases, polysplenia. MRCP and ERCP are the gold standard imaging techniques to demonstrate the absence of the dorsal pancreatic duct. The literature on the association of pancreatic neoplasia and DAP is limited. We present the case of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with dorsal agenesis of the pancreas, with a review of the related literature. Samih Nassif, Cecilia Ponchiardi, and Teviah Sachs Copyright © 2016 Samih Nassif et al. All rights reserved. The -174G/C Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphism as a Genetic Marker of Differences in Therapeutic Response to Methotrexate and Leflunomide in Rheumatoid Arthritis Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:18:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4193538/ Objective. To evaluate the association of -174G/C IL-6 polymorphism with failure in therapeutic response to methotrexate (MTX) or leflunomide (LEF). This prospective, observational cohort included 96 Mexican-Mestizo patients with moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), initiating MTX or LEF, genotyped for IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. Therapeutic response was strictly defined: only if patients achieved remission or low disease activity (DAS-28 < 3.2). Results. Patients with MTX or LEF had significant decrement in DAS-28 (); nevertheless, only 14% and 12.5% achieved DAS-28 < 3.2 at 3 and 6 months. After 6 months with any of these drugs the -174G/G genotype carriers (56%) had higher risk of therapeutic failure compared with GC (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07–1.56). By analyzing each drug separately, after 6 months with LEF, GG genotype confers higher risk of therapeutic failure than GC (RR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.05–2.3; ), or CC (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.07–3.14; ). This risk was also observed in the dominant model (RR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.03–1.72; ). Instead, in patients receiving MTX no genotype was predictor of therapeutic failure. We concluded that IL-6 -174G/G genotype confers higher risk of failure in therapeutic response to LEF in Mexicans and if confirmed in other populations this can be used as promissory genetic marker to differentiate risk of therapeutic failure to LEF. A. J. Ruiz-Padilla, J. I. Gamez-Nava, A. M. Saldaña-Cruz, J. D. Murillo-Vazquez, M. L. Vazquez-Villegas, S. A. Zavaleta-Muñiz, B. T. Martín-Márquez, J. M. Ponce-Guarneros, N. A. Rodriguez Jimenez, A. Flores-Chavez, F. Sandoval-Garcia, J. C. Vasquez-Jimenez, E. G. Cardona-Muñoz, S. E. Totsuka-Sutto, and L. Gonzalez-Lopez Copyright © 2016 A. J. Ruiz-Padilla et al. All rights reserved. Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Ligustrazine in Cerebral Infarction Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:17:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3595946/ Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ligustrazine in the treatment of cerebral infarction. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted in 6 databases until 30 June 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ligustrazine in the treatment of cerebral infarction. The quality of all the included studies was evaluated. All data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.1 Software. Results. 19 RCTs totally involving 1969 patients were included. The primary outcome measures were Neurological Deficit Score (NDS) and clinical effective rate. The secondary outcome measure was adverse events. Meta-analysis showed that ligustrazine could improve clinical efficacy and NDS of cerebral infarction with [OR = 3.60, 95% CI (2.72, 4.78), ] and [WMD = −3.87, 95% CI (−4.78, −2.95), ]. Moreover, ligustrazine in treatment group exerted better clinical effects in improving the Blood Rheology Index (BRI) in patients compared with control group. Ten trials contained safety assessments and stated that no obvious side effects were found. Conclusions. Ligustrazine demonstrated definite clinical efficacy for cerebral infarction, and it can also improve NDS in patients without obvious adverse events. However, due to the existing low-quality research, more large-scale and multicentric RCTs are required to provide clear evidence for its clinical efficacy in the near future. Tian Yu, Xiaoheng Guo, Zhen Zhang, Rong Liu, Liang Zou, Jia Fu, and Zheng Shi Copyright © 2016 Tian Yu et al. All rights reserved. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:17:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6307107/ Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, ) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2) and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3) were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test (). Results. Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions. Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain), with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended. Andreas Hellak, Jennifer Ebeling, Michael Schauseil, Steffen Stein, Matthias Roggendorf, and Heike Korbmacher-Steiner Copyright © 2016 Andreas Hellak et al. All rights reserved. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:16:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/1984198/ The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, years old, :    mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  . All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample -tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK:  kJ versus NoBK:  kJ; ) and evening (BK:  kJ versus NoBK: ; ) energy intake and RQ (BK: versus NoBK: ; ) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise ( versus  mmol/L; ). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. Jessica L. Bachman, Ronald W. Deitrick, and Angela R. Hillman Copyright © 2016 Jessica L. Bachman et al. All rights reserved. Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Lymphoma in Sjögren Syndrome Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:00:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/2798304/ A 31-year-old female with Primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS) presented with bilateral puffiness around the eye for 3 years. The lacrimal glands were hypertrophic and edematous bilaterally. Schirmer 1 score was 2 and 1 mm and tear-film break-up time was 3 and 4 seconds, in the right and the left eyes, respectively. An incisional biopsy from the left lacrimal gland revealed diffuse and intense CD20, CD5, and bcl-2 positivity with negative cyclin D1 and CD23 which supported lymphoma. Upon haematology consultation extranodal marginal zone lymphoma diagnosis was made. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and methyl prednisolone) treatment was initiated. In conclusion, pSS is a well known autoimmune disease in which increased rate of lymphoma is present. Early detection with histopathologic confirmation and multidisciplinary approach with ophthalmology, rheumatology, and haematology are mandatory in these patients. Melis Palamar, Nazan Ozsan, and Fahri Sahin Copyright © 2016 Melis Palamar et al. All rights reserved. Pregnancy Predictors after Intrauterine Insemination in Cases of Unexplained Infertility: A Prospective Study Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:59:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrmed/2016/5817823/ Introduction. Aim of the study was to find the effect of various prognostic factors in cases of unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods. 146 cases of unexplained infertility were included. A maximum of 3 cycles of IUI were done with clomiphene citrate/HMG. Ovulation trigger was given when the largest follicle diameter was >18 mm, and IUI was planned 36 hours later. Luteal phase support was given for 15 days, urine pregnancy test was done on day 15, ultrasonography was done at 7 weeks, and pregnancy was followed up till delivery. Results. A total of 146 couples have undergone 239 cycles of IUI out of which 27 had UPT positive after 15 days. 14.8% had 1st-trimester abortion while 3.7% were ectopic. 86.3% were singleton pregnancies and 13.6% were twins. CPR was 11.29% per cycle and 18.4% per couple; LBR was 9.2% per cycle. Apart from duration of stimulation () and number of treatment cycles (), no other factors had significant prognostic value. Conclusion. For unexplained infertility, IUI can be done to provide patients with the time that they need before moving on to IVF while providing a respectable chance of pregnancy. Ishita Ganguly, Aparna Singh, Shilpa Bhandari, Pallavi Agrawal, and Nitika Gupta Copyright © 2016 Ishita Ganguly et al. All rights reserved. Self-Care for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: A European Multicenter Survey on the Prevalence and Patterns of Practices—The COCO Study Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:43:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6949202/ Background. Patients use self-care to relieve symptoms of common colds, yet little is known about the prevalence and patterns across Europe. Methods/Design. In a cross-sectional study 27 primary care practices from 14 countries distributed 120 questionnaires to consecutive patients (≥18 years, any reason for consultation). A 27-item questionnaire asked for patients’ self-care for their last common cold. Results. 3,074 patients from 27 European sites participated. Their mean age was 46.7 years, and 62.5% were females. 99% of the participants used ≥1 self-care practice. In total, 527 different practices were reported; the age-standardized mean was 11.5 (±SD 6.0) per participant. The most frequent self-care categories were foodstuffs (95%), extras at home (81%), preparations for intestinal absorption (81%), and intranasal applications (53%). Patterns were similar across all sites, while the number of practices varied between and within countries. The most frequent single practices were water (43%), honey (42%), paracetamol (38%), oranges/orange juice (38%), and staying in bed (38%). Participants used 9 times more nonpharmaceutical items than pharmaceutical items. The majority (69%) combined self-care with and without proof of evidence, while ≤1% used only evidence-based items. Discussion. This first cross-national study on self-care for common colds showed a similar pattern across sites but quantitative differences. Anika Thielmann, Biljana Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Krzysztof Buczkowski, Tuomas H. Koskela, Vildan Mevsim, Slawomir Czachowski, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Marija Petek-Šter, Heidrun Lingner, Robert D. Hoffman, Selda Tekiner, Juliette Chambe, Tamer Edirne, Kathryn Hoffmann, Enzo Pirrotta, Ayşegül Uludağ, Hülya Yikilkan, Sanda Kreitmayer Pestic, Andrzej Zielinski, Clara Guede Fernández, and Birgitta Weltermann Copyright © 2016 Anika Thielmann et al. All rights reserved. Hyers-Ulam Stability of Fractional Nabla Difference Equations Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:42:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijanal/2016/7265307/ We investigate the Hyers-Ulam stability, the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability, and the -Hyers-Ulam stability of a linear fractional nabla difference equation using discrete Laplace transform. We provide a few examples to illustrate the applicability of established results. Jagan Mohan Jonnalagadda Copyright © 2016 Jagan Mohan Jonnalagadda. All rights reserved. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:40:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/6460386/ A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT) scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal. Balraj Singh, Jennifer M. Treece, Ghulam Murtaza, Samit Bhatheja, Steven J. Lavine, and Timir K. Paul Copyright © 2016 Balraj Singh et al. All rights reserved. Contralateral Cochlear Labyrinthine Concussion without Temporal Bone Fracture: Unusual Posttraumatic Consequence Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:33:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/2123182/ Introduction. Labyrinthine concussion is a term used to describe a rare cause of sensorineural hearing loss with or without vestibular symptoms occurring after head trauma. Isolated damage to the inner ear without involving the vestibular organ would be designated as a cochlear labyrinthine concussion. Hearing loss is not a rare finding in head trauma that involves petrous bone fractures. Nevertheless it generally occurs ipsilateral to the side of the head injury and extraordinarily in the contralateral side and moreover without the presence of a fracture. Case Report. The present case describes a 37-year-old patient with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus in his right ear after a blunt head trauma of the left-sided temporal bone (contralateral). Otoscopy and radiological images showed no fractures or any abnormalities. A severe sensorineural hearing loss was found in his right ear with a normal hearing of the left side. Conclusion. The temporal bone trauma requires a complete diagnostic battery which includes a neurotologic examination and a high resolution computed tomography scan in the first place. Hearing loss after a head injury extraordinarily occurs in the contralateral side of the trauma as what happened in our case. In addition, the absence of fractures makes this phenomenon even more unusual. I. M. Villarreal, D. Méndez, J. M. Duque Silva, and P. Ortega del Álamo Copyright © 2016 I. M. Villarreal et al. All rights reserved. Safety Needs Mediate Stressful Events Induced Mental Disorders Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:28:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/8058093/ “Safety first,” we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a “safety circuitry,” whose major behavior function is “fight or flight” and “fear and anger” emotions. This is similar to the Appraisal theory for emotions: fear is due to the primary appraisal, which is related to safety of individual, while anger is due to secondary appraisal, which is related to coping with the unsafe situations. If coping is good, the individual will be happy; if coping failed, the individual will be sad or depressed. Zheng Zheng, Simeng Gu, Yu Lei, Shanshan Lu, Wei Wang, Yang Li, and Fushun Wang Copyright © 2016 Zheng Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Using Innovative Acoustic Analysis to Predict the Postoperative Outcomes of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:24:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7821415/ Objective. Autologous fat injection laryngoplasty is ineffective for some patients with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis, and additional laryngeal framework surgery is often required. An acoustically measurable outcome predictor for lipoinjection laryngoplasty would assist phonosurgeons in formulating treatment strategies. Methods. Seventeen thyroid surgery patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis participated in this study. All subjects underwent lipoinjection laryngoplasty to treat postsurgery vocal hoarseness. After treatment, patients were assigned to success and failure groups on the basis of voice improvement. Linear prediction analysis was used to construct a new voice quality indicator, the number of irregular peaks (NIrrP). It compared with the measures used in the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP), such as jitter (frequency perturbation) and shimmer (perturbation of amplitude). Results. By comparing the [i] vowel produced by patients before the lipoinjection laryngoplasty (AUC = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.78–0.99), NIrrP was shown to be a more accurate predictor of long-term surgical outcomes than jitter (AUC = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.47–0.91) and shimmer (AUC = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.37–0.85), as identified by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusions. NIrrP measured using the LP model could be a more accurate outcome predictor than the parameters used in the MDVP. Yung-An Tsou, Yi-Wen Liu, Wen-Dien Chang, Wei-Chen Chen, Hsiang-Chun Ke, Wen-Yang Lin, Hsing-Rong Yang, Dung-Yun Shie, and Ming-Hsui Tsai Copyright © 2016 Yung-An Tsou et al. All rights reserved. Melanocortin-4 Receptor Deficiency Phenotype with an Interstitial 18q Deletion: A Case Report of Severe Childhood Obesity and Tall Stature Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:15:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/6123150/ Childhood obesity is a growing health concern, associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Childhood obesity is known to have a strong genetic component, with mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene being the most common monogenetic cause of obesity. Over 166 different MC4R mutations have been identified in persons with hyperphagia, severe childhood obesity, and increased linear growth. However, it is unclear whether the MC4-R deficiency phenotype is due to haploinsufficiency or dominant-negative effects by the mutant receptor. We report the case of a four-and-a-half-year-old boy with an interstitial deletion involving the long arm of chromosome 18 (46,XY,del(18)(q21.32q22.1)) encompassing the MC4R gene. This patient presented with tall stature and hyperphagia within his first 18 months of life leading to significant obesity. This case supports haploinsufficiency of MC4-R as it describes a MC4-R deficiency phenotype in a patient heterozygous for a full MC4R gene deletion. The intact functional allele with MC4-R haploinsufficiency has the potential to favor a therapeutic response to gastric surgery. Currently, small molecule MC4-R agonists are under development for pharmacologic therapy. Sarah Abdullah, William Reginold, Courtney Kiss, Karen J. Harrison, and Jennifer J. MacKenzie Copyright © 2016 Sarah Abdullah et al. All rights reserved. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Pure Neuritic Leprosy: First Experience Report and Review of the Literature Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:14:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/2767856/ Five years after both right ulnar and median nerve decompression for paraesthesias and palsy, a patient, coming from Nigeria but living in Italy, came to our unit claiming to have persistent pain and combined median and ulnar palsy. Under suspicion of leprosy, skin and left sural nerve biopsy were performed. Skin tests were negative, but Schwann cells resulted as positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), leading to the diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy (PNL). The patient was given PB multidrug therapy and recovered from pain in two months. After nine months both High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing thickening of the nerves. Since demyelination is common in PNL, the Authors started to use Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography (DTIT) to get better morphological and functional data about myelination than does the traditional imaging. DTIT proved successful in showing myelin discontinuity, reorganization, and myelination, and the Authors suggest that it can give more information about the evolution of the disease, as well as further indications for surgery (nerve decompression, nerve transfers, and babysitting for distal effector protection), and should be added to traditional imaging tools in leprosy. Michele R. Colonna, Giuseppe Tallarida, Francesco Stagno d’Alcontres, Salvatore Noto, Aurora Parodi, and Alberto Tagliafico Copyright © 2016 Michele R. Colonna et al. All rights reserved. Radiation-Guided Peptide Delivery in a Mouse Model of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Wed, 21 Sep 2016 10:58:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5382047/ Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the HVGGSSV peptide, exploring radiation-guided delivery in a mouse model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods. Mice with CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma were assigned to two different groups treated with Cy7-NHS and Cy7-HVGGSSV, respectively. Meanwhile, each mouse received a single dose of 3 Gy radiation. Biological distribution of the recombinant peptide was assessed on an in vivo small animal imaging system. Results. The experimental group showed maximum fluorescence intensity in irradiated tumors treated with Cy7-labeled HVGGSSV, while untreated (0 Gy) control tumors showed lower intensity levels. Fluorescence intensities of tumors in the right hind limbs of experimental animals were , , , , and photons/s/cm2 higher compared with left hind limb values at 1, 2, 15, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Fluorescence intensities of tumor in the right hind limbs of the experimental group were , , , , and photons/s/cm2 higher compared with control group values at 1, 2, 15, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Fluorescence was not specifically distributed in the control group. Compared with low fluorescence intensity in the heart, lungs, and tumors, high fluorescence distribution was found in the liver and kidney at 48 h. Conclusions. HVGGSSV was selectively bound to irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, acting as a targeting transport carrier for radiation-guided drugs that are mainly metabolized in the kidney and liver. Pei-cheng Lin, Jun-yan He, Yu-yin Le, Kai-xin Du, Wei-feng Zhu, Qing-qin Peng, Ya-ping Dong, Jin-luan Li, and Jun-xin Wu Copyright © 2016 Pei-cheng Lin et al. All rights reserved. Neuroprotective Effects of Salidroside in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Pathway Wed, 21 Sep 2016 10:58:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2016/9450137/ The degenerative loss through apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta plays a primary role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our in vitro experiments suggested that salidroside (Sal) could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced cell apoptosis in part by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the protective mechanisms of Sal in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine- (MPTP-) induced PD mouse model. We found that pretreatment with Sal could protect against MPTP-induced increase of the time of turning downwards and climbing down to the floor. Sal also prevented MPTP-induced decrease of locomotion frequency and the increase of the immobile time. Sal provided a protection of in MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in SNpc and the level of DA, DOPAC, and HVA in the striatum. Furthermore, Sal could increase the phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK3β, upregulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibit the activation of caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-9. These results show that Sal prevents the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway signaling pathway may have mediated the protection of Sal against MPTP, suggesting that Sal may be a potential candidate in neuroprotective treatment for PD. Wei Zhang, Hong He, Hujie Song, Junjie Zhao, Tao Li, Leitao Wu, Xiaojun Zhang, and Jianzong Chen Copyright © 2016 Wei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection Wed, 21 Sep 2016 10:39:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/7013708/ Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation. Hideki Katagiri, Kentaro Yoshikawa, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Tadao Kubota, and Ken Mizokami Copyright © 2016 Hideki Katagiri et al. All rights reserved. Biological Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Periodontitis: A Systematic Review Wed, 21 Sep 2016 10:06:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2016/3719879/ Objective. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the advances in the study of medicinal plants and their biologic effects on periodontitis in animal models. Study Design. A systematic search was conducted by three independent researchers, who screened articles published up to March/2016, to identify the studies that contained sufficient and clear information on the association of the medicinal plants and periodontitis in murine models. The searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases. Results. After a critical analysis of titles and abstracts, 30 studies were finally eligible for analysis. The studies presented a great diversity of the experiment designed regarding the methods of induced periodontitis and the evaluation of the medicinal plants efficacy. None of the studies described the possible toxic effects associated with the administration of the plant material to animals and whether they could prevent damage to organs caused by systemic effect of induced periodontitis. Gel-based formulations containing plant substances are seen as an interesting strategy to treat periodontitis. Conclusions. In this systematic review, the state-of-the-art knowledge on the medicinal plants and the induced periodontitis was critically evaluated and discussed from the experiment designed to the possible clinical application. Jefferson Soares de Oliveira, Moara e Silva Conceição Pinto, Lucas de Araújo de Bastos Santana, Antonione Santos Bezerra Pinto, David di Lenardo, and Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos Copyright © 2016 Jefferson Soares de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Time-Dependent Neutronic Analysis of a Power-Flattened Gas Cooled Accelerator Driven System Fuelled with Thorium, Uranium, Plutonium, and Curium Dioxides TRISO Particles Wed, 21 Sep 2016 10:06:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2016/2612459/ This study presents the power flattening and time-dependent neutronic analysis of a conceptual helium gas cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) loaded with TRISO (tristructural-isotropic) fuel particles. Target material is lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). ThO2, UO2, PuO2, and CmO2 TRISO particles are used as fuel. PuO2 and CmO2 fuels are extracted from PWR-MOX spent fuel. Subcritical core is radially divided into 10 equidistant subzones in order to flatten the power produced in the core. Tens of thousands of these TRISO fuel particles are embedded in the carbon matrix fuel pebbles as five different cases. The high-energy Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.7 with the LA150 library is used for the neutronic calculations. Time-dependent burnup calculations are carried out for thermal fission power () of 1000 MW using the BURN card. The energy gain of the ADS is in the range of 99.98–148.64 at the beginning of a cycle. Furthermore, the peak-to-average fission power density ratio is obtained between 1.021 and 1.029 at the beginning of the cycle. These ratios show a good quasi-uniform power density for each case. Furthermore, up to 155.1 g 233U and 103.6 g 239Pu per day can be produced. The considered system has a high neutronic capability in terms of energy multiplication, fissile breeding, and spent fuel transmutation with thorium utilization. Gizem Bakır, Gamze Genç, and Hüseyin Yapıcı Copyright © 2016 Gizem Bakır et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Immunoregulatory Properties of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Toll-Like Receptors: Potential Applications on GVHD Wed, 21 Sep 2016 10:04:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/9434250/ In the last decade, the immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted a lot of attention, due to their potential applicability in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition frequently associated with opportunistic infections. The present review addresses how Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS) modulate the immunosuppressive phenotype of human MSCs by signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Overall, we observed that regardless of the source tissue, human MSCs express TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9. Stimulation of distinct TLRs on MSCs elicits distinct inflammatory signaling pathways, differentially influencing the expression of inflammatory factors and the ability of MSCs to suppress the proliferation of immune system cells. The capacity to enhance the immunosuppressive phenotype of MSCs through TLRs stimulation might be properly elucidated in order to improve the MSC-based immunotherapy against GVHD. Bruno Sangiorgi and Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci Copyright © 2016 Bruno Sangiorgi and Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:54:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3121402/ We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group ( < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group ( < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. Honglei Tu, Bo Lei, Shan Meng, Hailing Liu, Yongchang Wei, Aili He, Wanggang Zhang, and Fuling Zhou Copyright © 2016 Honglei Tu et al. All rights reserved. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the Link Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:50:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/4576012/ Sleep is a vital phenomenon related to immunomodulation at the central and peripheral level. Sleep deficient in duration and/or quality is a common problem in the modern society and is considered a risk factor to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep loss in rodents induces blood-brain barrier disruption and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Several reports indicate that sleep loss induces a systemic low-grade inflammation characterized by the release of several molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins; all of them may promote changes in cellular components of the blood-brain barrier, particularly on brain endothelial cells. In the present review we discuss the role of inflammatory mediators that increase during sleep loss and their association with general disturbances in peripheral endothelium and epithelium and how those inflammatory mediators may alter the blood-brain barrier. Finally, this manuscript proposes a hypothetical mechanism by which sleep loss may induce blood-brain barrier disruption, emphasizing the regulatory effect of inflammatory molecules on tight junction proteins. G. Hurtado-Alvarado, E. Domínguez-Salazar, L. Pavon, J. Velázquez-Moctezuma, and B. Gómez-González Copyright © 2016 G. Hurtado-Alvarado et al. All rights reserved. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:46:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2016/7579069/ The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF), and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89%) were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; = NS). Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant values. Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Mitra Rahimi, Mohammad Mashayekhian, Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh, Peyman Erfantalab, and Ali Ostadi Copyright © 2016 Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh et al. All rights reserved. T4SP Database 2.0: An Improved Database for Type IV Secretion Systems in Bacterial Genomes with New Online Analysis Tools Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:45:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/9415459/ Type IV secretion system (T4SS) can mediate the passage of macromolecules across cellular membranes and is essential for virulent and genetic material exchange among bacterial species. The Type IV Secretion Project 2.0 (T4SP 2.0) database is an improved and extended version of the platform released in 2013 aimed at assisting with the detection of Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) in bacterial genomes. This advanced version provides users with web server tools for detecting the existence and variations of T4SS genes online. The new interface for the genome browser provides a user-friendly access to the most complete and accurate resource of T4SS gene information (e.g., gene number, name, type, position, sequence, related articles, and quick links to other webs). Currently, this online database includes T4SS information of 5239 bacterial strains. Conclusions. T4SS is one of the most versatile secretion systems necessary for the virulence and survival of bacteria and the secretion of protein and/or DNA substrates from a donor to a recipient cell. This database on virB/D genes of the T4SS system will help scientists worldwide to improve their knowledge on secretion systems and also identify potential pathogenic mechanisms of various microbial species. Na Han, Weiwen Yu, Yujun Qiang, and Wen Zhang Copyright © 2016 Na Han et al. All rights reserved. Pseudopheochromocytoma Associated with Domestic Assault Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:45:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/6580215/ Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past. Treatment of pseudopheochromocytoma can be challenging due to normal blood pressure values in between the hypertensive peaks; it includes alpha- and beta-blockers for moderate crises and prevention and must be combined with psychopharmacologic agents such as anxiolytics or antidepressant drugs. Psychotherapy and dietetic treatment are also crucial in pseudopheochromocytoma management. H. M. Le, G. Carbutti, D. Ilisei, E. Bouccin, and X. Vandemergel Copyright © 2016 H. M. Le et al. All rights reserved. Heuristics for the Economic Production Quantity Problem under Restrictions on Production and Maintenance Time Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:45:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8704750/ This paper proposes an economic production quantity problem with the maximal production run time and minimal preventive maintenance time over a finite planning horizon. The objective is to find the efficient production and maintenance policy to minimize the total cost composed of production, maintenance, shortages, and holding costs under the restriction on the production run time and the preventive maintenance time. The production and maintenance decisions include the production and maintenance frequencies and the production run and the maintenance time. The variability and the boundedness of the production run and maintenance time make the problem difficult to solve. Two heuristic algorithms are developed using different techniques based on the optimal properties of the relaxed problem. The performance comparison between the two algorithms is illustrated by numerical examples. The numerical results show that, for the most part, there exists a heuristic algorithm which is more effective than the other. Qi Xu and Jianteng Xu Copyright © 2016 Qi Xu and Jianteng Xu. All rights reserved. IL-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity through a PPARδ-Dependent-PPARα-Independent Mechanism in Skeletal Muscle Cells Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:44:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2016/5465804/ Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPARα and/or PPARδ as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPARα inhibitor (GW-6471), a PPARδ inhibitor (GSK-3787), or both IL-15 and the inhibitors. IL-15 increased mitochondrial activity and induced PPARα, PPARδ, PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1 expression. There was no effect of inhibiting PPARα, in combination with IL-15, on the aforementioned mRNA levels except for PGC1β and Nrf1. However, with PPARδ inhibition, IL-15 failed to induce the expression levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1. Further, inhibition of PPARδ abolished IL-15 induced increases in citrate synthase activity, ATP production, and overall mitochondrial activity. IL-15 had no effects on mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data indicates that PPARδ activity is required for the beneficial metabolic effects of IL-15 signaling in SKM. Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, and Marcia J. Abbott Copyright © 2016 Shantaé M. Thornton et al. All rights reserved. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:26:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/1909260/ Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates. Gamze Ozgurhan, Oznur Vermezoglu, Didem Ocal Topcu, Adem Karbuz, Aysel Vehapoglu, and Bulent Hacihamdioglu Copyright © 2016 Gamze Ozgurhan et al. All rights reserved. Upscaling of Helmholtz Equation Originating in Transmission through Metallic Gratings in Metamaterials Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:25:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/7436136/ We investigate the transmission properties of a metallic layer with narrow slits. We consider (time-harmonic) Maxwell’s equations in the -parallel case with a fixed incident wavelength. We denote as the typical size of the complex structure and obtain the effective equations by letting . For metallic permittivities with negative real part, plasmonic waves can be excited on the surfaces of the slits. For the waves to be in resonance with the height of the metallic layer, the corresponding results can be perfect transmission through the layer. Hari Shankar Mahato Copyright © 2016 Hari Shankar Mahato. All rights reserved. Colocutaneous Fistula after Open Inguinal Hernia Repair Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:25:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/2019212/ The plug-and-patch technique is frequently used for the open repair of inguinal hernias; however, serious complications may arise on rare occasions. We present the case of a 69-year-old patient who presented with a colocutaneous fistula with the sigmoid colon 9 years after the repair of a left sliding inguinal hernia with the plug-and-patch technique. The patient underwent sigmoidectomy and excision of the fistulous track. He was discharged on postoperative day 5 and had an uneventful recovery. Although such complications are reported rarely, the surgeon must be aware of them when deciding upon the method of hernia repair. Maria Isaia, Demetris Christou, Panayiotis Kallis, Nikolaos Koronakis, and Panayiotis Hadjicostas Copyright © 2016 Maria Isaia et al. All rights reserved. Putative Key Role of Inositol Messengers in Endothelial Cells in Preeclampsia Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:24:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/7695648/ Immunological alterations, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance characterize preeclampsia. Endothelial cells hold the key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The signaling pathways mediating these biological abnormalities converge on PKB/Akt, an intracellular kinase regulating cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Inositol second messengers are involved in metabolic and cell signaling pathways and are highly expressed during preeclampsia. Intracellular action of these molecules is deeply affected by zinc, manganese, and calcium. To evaluate the pathophysiological significance, we present the response of the intracellular pathways of inositol phosphoglycans involved in cellular metabolism and propose a link with the disease. Sirilaksana Kunjara, Patricia McLean, Laurens Rademacher, Thomas W. Rademacher, Fabiana Fascilla, Stefano Bettocchi, and Marco Scioscia Copyright © 2016 Sirilaksana Kunjara et al. All rights reserved. Cost-Sensitive Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier for Software Defect Prediction Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:21:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/2401496/ Effective prediction of software modules, those that are prone to defects, will enable software developers to achieve efficient allocation of resources and to concentrate on quality assurance activities. The process of software development life cycle basically includes design, analysis, implementation, testing, and release phases. Generally, software testing is a critical task in the software development process wherein it is to save time and budget by detecting defects at the earliest and deliver a product without defects to the customers. This testing phase should be carefully operated in an effective manner to release a defect-free (bug-free) software product to the customers. In order to improve the software testing process, fault prediction methods identify the software parts that are more noted to be defect-prone. This paper proposes a prediction approach based on conventional radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and the novel adaptive dimensional biogeography based optimization (ADBBO) model. The developed ADBBO based RBFNN model is tested with five publicly available datasets from the NASA data program repository. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ADBBO-RBFNN classifier approach with respect to the considered metrics in comparison with that of the early predictors available in the literature for the same datasets. P. Kumudha and R. Venkatesan Copyright © 2016 P. Kumudha and R. Venkatesan. All rights reserved. A Structural Based Thermal Model Description for Vertical SiC Power MOSFETs under Fault Conditions Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:18:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apec/2016/9414901/ The accurate prediction of the SiC MOSFET withstanding time for single fault events greatly influences the requirements for device protection circuits for these devices in power converter applications, like voltage source inverters or power electronic transformers. For this reason, a thermal model, based on the structural design and the physical dimensions of the chip as well as material properties of 4H-SiC, is proposed. This article gives a general description of the thermal behaviour of vertical SiC MOSFET under various driving and boundary conditions in case of a short-circuit event. The thermal model substitutes destructive tests of a device for an individual set of boundary conditions of an occurring fault event. The validity of the analytically parametrised thermal model is verified by experimental short-circuit tests of state-of-the-art vertical SiC MOSFETs for a set of various boundary conditions. The investigated thermal model can furthermore be used to standardise different gate-oxide degradation values from the literature for means of lifetime prediction of the gate oxide for an individual application under repetitive occurring fault or overload conditions. These manufacturer specific reported values measured with no standardised testing procedures can be translated into a maximum junction temperature, which is repeatedly reached. The thermal model therefore provides a unifying parameter for the gate-oxide lifetime calculation for an individual chip and application. Andreas Maerz, Teresa Bertelshofer, and Mark-M. Bakran Copyright © 2016 Andreas Maerz et al. All rights reserved. Azimuth and Elevation Dynamic Tracking of UAVs via 3-Axial ULA and Particle Filtering Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:17:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/7630950/ Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) localization has become crucial in recent years, mainly for navigation or self-positioning and for UAV based security monitoring and surveillance. In this paper, azimuth and elevation radio positioning of UAVs are considered. The localization is based on multiple differential phase-of-arrival measures exploiting a 3-Axial Uniform Linear Array of antennas. An ad hoc particle filtering algorithm is applied to improve the positioning performance using a dynamic motion model. A novel adaptive algorithm, namely, Particles Swarm Adaptive Scattering (PSAS), is proposed to increment the algorithm stability and precision. To assess performance a Confined Area Random Aerial Trajectory Emulator (CARATE) algorithm has been developed to generate actual paths of flying UAVs. The algorithm performance is compared with the baseline method and with the average trajectory Cramér Rao lower bound to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Andrea Papaiz and Andrea M. Tonello Copyright © 2016 Andrea Papaiz and Andrea M. Tonello. All rights reserved. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:15:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2016/7010519/ Zuotai (gTso thal) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100–800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1–30 μm loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β-HgS, S8, and α-HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai, and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug. Cen Li, Hongxia Yang, Yuzhi Du, Yuancan Xiao, Zhandui, Sanglao, Zhang Wang, Duojie Ladan, Hongtao Bi, and Lixin Wei Copyright © 2016 Cen Li et al. All rights reserved. An Intelligent Complex Event Processing with Numbers under Fuzzy Environment Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:08:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3713518/ Efficient matching of incoming mass events to persistent queries is fundamental to complex event processing systems. Event matching based on pattern rule is an important feature of complex event processing engine. However, the intrinsic uncertainty in pattern rules which are predecided by experts increases the difficulties of effective complex event processing. It inevitably involves various types of the intrinsic uncertainty, such as imprecision, fuzziness, and incompleteness, due to the inability of human beings subjective judgment. Nevertheless, D numbers is a new mathematic tool to model uncertainty, since it ignores the condition that elements on the frame must be mutually exclusive. To address the above issues, an intelligent complex event processing method with D numbers under fuzzy environment is proposed based on the Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. The novel method can fully support decision making in complex event processing systems. Finally, a numerical example is provided to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Fuyuan Xiao Copyright © 2016 Fuyuan Xiao. All rights reserved. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Mud Codigested to Improve Biomethane Production Wed, 21 Sep 2016 08:27:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8650597/ To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature ()°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24.70) when codigestion ratio between filter mud and bagasse was 25 : 75 in comparison to filter mud as single substrate (C/N ratio 9.68). All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of 86.27% and cumulative yield of biomethane (195.8 mL·g, digestion of pretreated bagasse as single substrate) obtained after 45 minutes of cooking by NaOH 1 N at 100°C. Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed (126.2 mL·g) at codigestion ratio of 25 : 75 between filter mud and bagasse by increase of 81.20% from untreated composition. Zahir Talha, Weimin Ding, Esmaeil Mehryar, Muhammad Hassan, and Jinhua Bi Copyright © 2016 Zahir Talha et al. All rights reserved. MMSE-NP-RISIC-Based Channel Equalization for MIMO-SC-FDE Troposcatter Communication Systems Wed, 21 Sep 2016 08:24:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5158406/ The impact of intersymbol interference (ISI) on single-carrier frequency-domain equalization with multiple input multiple output (MIMO-SC-FDE) troposcatter communication systems is severe. Most of the channel equalization methods fail to solve it completely. In this paper, given the disadvantages of the noise-predictive (NP) MMSE-based and the residual intersymbol interference cancellation (RISIC) equalization in the single input single output (SISO) system, we focus on the combination of both equalization schemes mentioned above. After extending both of them into MIMO system for the first time, we introduce a novel MMSE-NP-RISIC equalization method for MIMO-SC-FDE troposcatter communication systems. Analysis and simulation results validate the performance of the proposed method in time-varying frequency-selective troposcatter channel at an acceptable computational complexity cost. Zedong Xie, Xihong Chen, Xiaopeng Liu, and Yu Zhao Copyright © 2016 Zedong Xie et al. All rights reserved. An Optimal Decision Assessment Model Based on the Acceptable Maximum LGD of Commercial Banks and Its Application Wed, 21 Sep 2016 08:16:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/9751243/ This paper introduces a novel decision assessment method which is suitable for customers’ credit risk evaluation and credit decision. First of all, the paper creates an optimal credit rating model, and it consisted of an objective function and two constraint conditions. The first constraint condition of the strictly increasing LGDs eliminates the unreasonable phenomenon that the higher the credit rating is, the higher the LGD (loss given default) is. Secondly, on the basis of the credit rating results, a credit decision-making assessment model based on measuring the acceptable maximum LGD of commercial banks is established. Thirdly, empirical results using the data on 2817 farmers’ microfinance of a Chinese commercial bank suggest that the proposed approach can accurately find out the good customers from all the loan applications. Moreover, our approach contributes to providing a reference for decision assessment of customers in other commercial banks in the world. Baofeng Shi, Bin Meng, and Jing Wang Copyright © 2016 Baofeng Shi et al. All rights reserved. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas Wed, 21 Sep 2016 08:09:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3436192/ A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT) to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting. Feilong Qin, Bingli Liu, and Ke Guo Copyright © 2016 Feilong Qin et al. All rights reserved. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons Wed, 21 Sep 2016 08:05:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6716058/ This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks. Jing Hou and Lijun Sun Copyright © 2016 Jing Hou and Lijun Sun. All rights reserved. Transport of Corilagin, Gallic Acid, and Ellagic Acid from Fructus Phyllanthi Tannin Fraction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers Wed, 21 Sep 2016 07:52:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9205379/ Objective. To investigate the absorption property of the representative hydrolyzable tannin, namely corilagin, and its hydrolysates gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) from the Fructus Phyllanthi tannin fraction (PTF) in vitro. Methods. Caco-2 cells monolayer model was established. Influences of PTF on Caco-2 cells viability were detected with MTT assay. The transport across monolayers was examined for different time points, concentrations, and secretory directions. The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) and sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and tight junction modulators were used to study the transport mechanism. LC-MS method was employed to quantify the absorption concentration. Results. The apparent permeability coefficient values of the three compounds were below 1.0 × 10−6 cm/s. The absorption of corilagin and GA were much lower than their efflux, and the uptake of both compounds was increased in the presence of inhibitors of P-gp and MRPs. The absorption of EA was decreased in the company of OATP and SGLT1 inhibitors. Moreover, the transport of corilagin, GA, and EA was enhanced by tight junction modulators. Conclusion. These observations indicated that the three compounds in PTF were transported via passive diffusion combined with protein mediated transport. P-gp and MRPs might get involved in the transport of corilagin and GA. The absorption of EA could be attributed to OATP and SGLT1 protein. Xin Mao, Ling-Fang Wu, Hai-juan Zhao, Wen-Yi Liang, Wen-Jing Chen, Shu-Xian Han, Qi Qi, Ya-Ping Cui, Shi Li, Guang-Hui Yang, Yan-Yan Shao, Dan Zhu, Ru-Feng Wang, Yun You, and Lan-Zhen Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xin Mao et al. All rights reserved. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir Wed, 21 Sep 2016 07:42:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpr/2016/8901518/ The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence. Asifa Wali, Masood-ul Hassan Balkhi, Rafia Maqbool, Mohammed Maqbool Darzi, Feroz Ahmad Shah, Farooz Ahmad Bhat, and Bilal Ahmad Bhat Copyright © 2016 Asifa Wali et al. All rights reserved. Motion Predicting of Autonomous Tracked Vehicles with Online Slip Model Identification Wed, 21 Sep 2016 07:39:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6375652/ Precise understanding of the mobility is essential for high performance autonomous tracked vehicles in challenging circumstances, though the complex track/terrain interaction is difficult to model. A slip model based on the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICRs) of treads is presented and identified to predict the motion of the vehicle in a short term. Unlike many research studies estimating current ICRs locations using velocity measurements for feedback controllers, we focus on predicting the forward trajectories by estimating ICRs locations using position measurements. ICRs locations are parameterized over both tracks rolling speeds and the kinematic parameters are estimated in real time using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) without requiring prior knowledge of terrain parameters. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm performs better than the traditional method when the pose measuring frequencies are low. Experiments are conducted on a tracked vehicle with a weight of 13.6 tons. Results demonstrate that the predicted position and heading errors are reduced by about 75% and the reduction of pose errors is over 24% in the absence of the real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS). Hao Lu, Guangming Xiong, and Konghui Guo Copyright © 2016 Hao Lu et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Sandwich Panels with Steel Facesheets and GFRP Core Wed, 21 Sep 2016 06:49:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7159205/ This study presented a new form of composite sandwich panels, with steel plates as facesheets and bonded glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded hollow square tubes as core. In this novel panel, GFRP and steel were optimally combined to obtain high bending stiffness, strength, and good ductility. Four-point bending test was implemented to analyze the distribution of the stress, strain, mid-span deflection, and the ultimate failure mode. A section transformation method was used to evaluate the stress and the mid-span deflection of the sandwich panels. The theoretical values, experimental results, and FEM simulation values are compared and appeared to be in good agreement. The influence of thickness of steel facesheet on mid-span deflection and stress was simulated. The results showed that the mid-span deflection and stress decreased and the decent speed was getting smaller as the thickness of steel facesheet increases. A most effective thickness of steel facesheet was advised. Hai Fang, Huiyuan Shi, Yue Wang, Yujun Qi, and Weiqing Liu Copyright © 2016 Hai Fang et al. All rights reserved. Neglected Fournier’s Gangrene Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii: A Rare Case Report Tue, 20 Sep 2016 17:19:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/8461354/ Fournier’s gangrene, rare but life threatening disease, is characterized by an acute necrotic infection of the scrotum, penis, or perineum. Fournier’s gangrene is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fournier’s gangrene caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported rarely. The mainstay of treatment is prompt recognition and a combination of antibiotics with radical debridement. We describe a case of a 56-year-old male patient presenting with neglected Fournier’s gangrene caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Many treatment modalities including broad-spectrum antibiotics, aggressive debridement, negative pressure wound therapy, diversion colostomy, and partial-thickness skin grafts were applied to save the patient’s life. Arif Emre, Mehmet Sertkaya, Sami Akbulut, Yakup Duman, and Ilhami Taner Kale Copyright © 2016 Arif Emre et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:53:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2016/9475476/ Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. Geneviève Painchaud Guérard, Simone Lemieux, Éric Doucet, Sonia Pomerleau, and Véronique Provencher Copyright © 2016 Geneviève Painchaud Guérard et al. All rights reserved. Vision Based Displacement Detection for Stabilized UAV Control on Cloud Server Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:49:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/8937176/ Nowadays, image processing solution is used in many fields such as traffic information systems and illegal intrusion detection systems. Now, to assist with the control of camera-equipped devices, appropriate image processing techniques are needed for moving rather than fixed observers. For achieving this goal, an algorithm should derive the desired results quickly and accurately; thus, this paper considers two characteristics: functional performance (reliability) and temporal performance (efficiency). Reliability means how well the desired results can be achieved, and efficiency means how quickly the result can be calculated. This paper suggests an optimized real-time image algorithm based on the integration of the optical flow and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithms. This algorithm determines horizontal or vertical movement of the camera and then extracts its displacement. The proposed algorithm can be used to stabilize an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in situations where it is drifting due to inertia and external forces, like wind, in parallel. The proposed algorithm is efficient in achieving drift stabilization by movement detection; however, it is not appropriate for image processing in small UAVs. To solve this problem, this study proposes an image processing method that uses a high-performance computer. Hyeok-June Jeong, Jeong Dan Choi, and Young-Guk Ha Copyright © 2016 Hyeok-June Jeong et al. All rights reserved. The Synthesis of Hydroxybutyrate-Based Block Polyurethane from Telechelic Diols with Robust Thermal and Mechanical Properties Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:49:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/9635165/ A series of novel amphiphilic block polyurethanes (PUHE) have been successfully synthesized by solution polymerization of the derived PHB-diol and poly(ethylene glycol) with a coupling agent of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), while the PHB-diol was prepared via the transesterification of PHB and ethylene glycol. The hydroxyl contents in PHB-diols range from 1.36 to 1.99 (the molar ratio) as determined by nonaqueous titration. The molecular weight and chemical compositions of PUHE and PHB-diol were investigated by GPC, 1H NMR, and FTIR in detail, which confirm the successful synthesis of PUHE. The tensile strength and elongation at break of PUHE could reach as high as 20 MPa and 210%, as the content of PHB in PUHE is 33%. TGA curves indicate that block-bonding between PHB-diol and PEG increases the thermal stability of PHB-diol. Film degradation of PUHE was studied by weight loss and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It could be concluded that degradation occurred gradually from the surface to the inside and that the degradation rate could be controlled by adjusting the PHB/PEG ratios. These properties make PUHE able to be used as a biodegradable thermoplastic elastomer. Dan Xue, Xiaodong Fan, Zengping Zhang, and Wei Lv Copyright © 2016 Dan Xue et al. All rights reserved. Defensins: The Case for Their Use against Mycobacterial Infections Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/7515687/ Human tuberculosis remains a huge global public health problem with an estimated 1/3rd of the population being infected. Defensins are antibacterial cationic peptides produced by a number of cell types, most notably neutrophil granulocytes and epithelial cells. All three defensin types (α-, β-, and θ-defensins) have antibacterial activities, mainly through bacterial membrane permeabilization. Defensins are effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria and are active both intra- and extracellularly. Mycobacterial resistance has never been demonstrated although the mprF gene encoding resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. In addition to their antibacterial effect, defensins are chemoattractants for macrophages and neutrophils. There are many cases for their use for therapy or prophylaxis in tuberculosis as well. In conclusion, we propose that there is considerable scope and potential for exploring their use as therapeutic/prophylactic agents and more comprehensive survey of defensins from different species and their bioactivity is timely. Haodi Dong, Yue Lv, Deming Zhao, Paul Barrow, and Xiangmei Zhou Copyright © 2016 Haodi Dong et al. All rights reserved. Exercise Alters Gait Pattern but Not Knee Load in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:47:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7468937/ Six female patients with bilateral medial knee OA and 6 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with knee OA received a 6-week physiotherapist-supervised and home-based exercise program. Outcome measures, including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey as well as objective biomechanical indices were obtained at baseline and follow-up. After treatment, no significant difference was observed in the knee abductor moment (KAM), lever arm, and ground reaction force. We, however, observed significantly improved pain and physical function as well as altered gait patterns, including a higher hip flexor moment and hip extension angle with a faster walking speed. Although KAM was unchanged, patients with bilateral knee OA showed an improved walking speed and altered the gait pattern after 6 weeks of supervised exercise. This finding suggests that the exercise intervention improves proximal joint mechanics during walking and can be considered for patients with bilateral knee OA. Non-weight-bearing strengthening without external resistance combined with stretching exercise may be an option to improve pain and function in individuals with OA who cannot perform high resistance exercises owing to pain or other reasons. Ssu-Yu Chang, Yi-Jia Lin, Wei-Chun Hsu, Lin-Fen Hsieh, Yuan-Hsiang Lin, Chao-Chin Chang, You-Cai Chou, and Li-Fei Chen Copyright © 2016 Ssu-Yu Chang et al. All rights reserved. Recent Changes and Variation in Precipitation over Asia-Pacific Region in relation to Long-Term Temperature and MSLP Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:47:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/6769427/ The years 2014 and 2015 turned out to be quite catastrophic for the Asia-Pacific region which took a major toll on the socioeconomic stature of all the entities of the region. The agricultural sector which is one of the most contributing factors to the economy of the region has been highly sensitive to the global climatic changes. Hence this endeavor shall greatly help in an efficient prediction of monsoon cycles, thus enabling the hapless farmers to be better informed and avoid major losses of any kind. The paper focuses on the climatology of air temperature and MSLP with the variation pattern in precipitation over the Asia-Pacific region. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data is used for air temperature and MSLP along with high-resolution precipitation dataset for Asia-Pacific monsoon region obtained from GPCP. The temperature datasets are analyzed up to the level 500 hPa. Monte Carlo method of correlation and Bootstrapping method of confidence interval are used to analyze the relation of GPCP with MSLP and temperature at all defined levels. So, in this paper authors attempt to assess the nature and relationship of temperature and MSLP to precipitation over the Asia-Pacific region with the recent 10-year changes which are quantified in detail. Gargi Akhoury, Kirti Avishek, and Moushumi Hazra Copyright © 2016 Gargi Akhoury et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Exerts Neuroprotection through Caveolin-1 Mediated Molecular Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:47:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/7308261/ Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke. Here, we aim to demonstrate that electroacupuncture on Baihui (GV20) exerts neuroprotection for acute ICH possibly via the caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. The model of ICH was established by using collagenase VII. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group, Sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to the time points of 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH. The methods were used including examination of neurological deficit scores according to Longa’s scale, measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability through Evans Blue content, in situ immunofluorescent detection of caveolin-1 in brains, western blot analysis of caveolin-1 in brains, and in situ zymography for measuring matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity in brains. Compared with Sham electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture group has resulted in a significant improvement in neurological deficit scores and in a reduction in Evans Blue content, expression of caveolin-1, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH (). In conclusion, the present results suggested that electroacupuncture on GV20 can improve neurological deficit scores and reduce blood-brain barrier permeability after ICH, and the mechanism possibly targets caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. Hui-Qin Li, Yan Li, Zi-Xian Chen, Xiao-Guang Zhang, Xia-wei Zheng, Wen-ting Yang, Shuang Chen, and Guo-Qing Zheng Copyright © 2016 Hui-Qin Li et al. All rights reserved. Training-Specific Neural Plasticity in Spinal Reflexes after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:46:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/6718763/ The neural plasticity of spinal reflexes after two contrasting forms of walking training was determined in individuals with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Endurance Training involved treadmill walking for as long as possible, and Precision Training involved walking precisely over obstacles and onto targets overground. Twenty participants started either Endurance or Precision Training for 2 months and then crossed over after a 2-month rest period to the other form of training for 2 months. Measures were taken before and after each phase of training and rest. The cutaneomuscular reflex (CMR) during walking was evoked in the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior muscles by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. Clonus was estimated from the EMG power in the SOL during unperturbed walking. The inhibitory component of the SOL CMR was enhanced after Endurance but not Precision Training. Clonus did not change after either form of training. Participants with lower reflex excitability tended to be better walkers (i.e., faster walking speeds) prior to training, and the reduction in clonus was significantly correlated with the improvement in walking speed and distance. Thus, reflex excitability responded in a training-specific way, with the reduction in reflex excitability related to improvements in walking function. Trial registration number is NCT01765153. Atif S. Khan, Susan K. Patrick, Francois D. Roy, Monica A. Gorassini, and Jaynie F. Yang Copyright © 2016 Atif S. Khan et al. All rights reserved. Shear Stress-Relative Slip Relationship at Concrete Interfaces Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:44:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/6475161/ This study develops a simple and rational shear stress-relative slip model of concrete interfaces with monolithic castings or smooth construction joints. In developing the model, the initial shear cracking stress and relative slip amount at peak stress were formulated from a nonlinear regression analysis using test data for push-off specimens. The shear friction strength was determined from the generalized equations on the basis of the upper-bound theorem of concrete plasticity. Then, a parametric fitting analysis was performed to derive equations for the key parameters determining the shapes of the ascending and descending branches of the shear stress-relative slip curve. The comparisons of predictions and measurements obtained from push-off tests confirmed that the proposed model provides superior accuracy in predicting the shear stress-relative slip relationship of interfacial shear planes. This was evidenced by the lower normalized root mean square error than those in Xu et al.’s model and the CEB-FIB model, which have many limitations in terms of the roughness of the substrate surface along an interface and the magnitude of equivalent normal stress. Keun-Hyeok Yang Copyright © 2016 Keun-Hyeok Yang. All rights reserved. Application of Generalized Fractional Thermoelasticity Theory with Two Relaxation Times to an Electromagnetothermoelastic Thick Plate Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:43:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5821604/ The fractional mathematical model of Maxwell’s equations in an electromagnetic field and the fractional generalized thermoelastic theory associated with two relaxation times are applied to a 1D problem for a thick plate. Laplace transform is used. The solution in Laplace transform domain has been obtained using a direct method and its inversion is calculated numerically using a method based on Fourier series expansion technique. Finally, the effects of the two fractional parameters (thermo and magneto) on variable fields distributions are made. Numerical results are represented graphically. A. M. Abd El-Latief Copyright © 2016 A. M. Abd El-Latief. All rights reserved. Inverse Strategies for Identifying the Parameters of Constitutive Laws of Metal Sheets Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:43:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/4152963/ This article is a review regarding recently developed inverse strategies coupled with finite element simulations for the identification of the parameters of constitutive laws that describe the plastic behaviour of metal sheets. It highlights that the identification procedure is dictated by the loading conditions, the geometry of the sample, the type of experimental results selected for the analysis, the cost function, and optimization algorithm used. Also, the type of constitutive law (isotropic and/or kinematic hardening laws and/or anisotropic yield criterion), whose parameters are intended to be identified, affects the whole identification procedure. P. A. Prates, A. F. G. Pereira, N. A. Sakharova, M. C. Oliveira, and J. V. Fernandes Copyright © 2016 P. A. Prates et al. All rights reserved. State-Dependent Impulsive Control Strategies for a Tumor-Immune Model Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:42:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2979414/ Controlling the number of tumor cells leads us to expect more efficient strategies for treatment of tumor. Towards this goal, a tumor-immune model with state-dependent impulsive treatments is established. This model may give an efficient treatment schedule to control tumor’s abnormal growth. By using the Poincaré map and analogue of Poincaré criterion, some conditions for the existence and stability of a positive order-1 periodic solution of this model are obtained. Moreover, we carry out numerical simulations to illustrate the feasibility of our main results and compare fixed-time impulsive treatment effects with state-dependent impulsive treatment effects. The results of our simulations say that, in determining optimal treatment timing, the model with state-dependent impulsive control is more efficient than that with fixed-time impulsive control. Kwang Su Kim, Giphil Cho, Lin-Fei Nie, and Il Hyo Jung Copyright © 2016 Kwang Su Kim et al. All rights reserved. Optimized Collection Protocol for Plasma MicroRNA Measurement in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:39:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2901938/ Background. Various microRNAs (miRNAs) are used as markers of acute coronary syndrome, in which heparinization is considered mandatory therapy. Nevertheless, a standard method of handling plasma samples has not been proposed, and the effects of heparin treatment on miRNA detection are rarely discussed. Materials and Method. This study used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis to investigate how storage temperature, standby time, hemolysis, and heparin treatment affect miRNA measurement in plasma samples from 25 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Results. For most miRNAs, the qPCR results remained consistent during the first 2 hours. The miRNA signals did not significantly differ between samples stored at 4°C before processing and samples stored at room temperature (RT) before processing. miR-451a/miR-23a ratio < 60 indicated < 0.12% hemolysis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Pretreatment with 0.25 U heparinase I recovered qPCR signals that were reduced by in vivo heparinization. Conclusions. For miRNA measurement, blood samples stored at RT should be processed into plasma within 2 hours after withdrawal and should be pretreated with 0.25 U heparinase I to overcome heparin-attenuated miRNA signals. The miR-451a/miR-23a ratio is a reliable indicator of significant hemolysis. Chi-Sheng Wu, Fen-Chiung Lin, Shu-Jen Chen, Yung-Lung Chen, Wen-Jung Chung, and Cheng-I Cheng Copyright © 2016 Chi-Sheng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Fe3O4/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Its Application for Toxic Metal Ion Removal Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:39:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/2418172/ The synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified by magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4/rGO) and its application for heavy metals removal were demonstrated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and magnetic measurement. The results showed that the obtained graphene oxide (GO) contains a small part of initial graphite as well as reduced oxide graphene. GO exhibits very high surface area in comparison with initial graphite. The morphology of Fe3O4/rGO consists of very fine spherical iron nanooxide particles in nanoscale. The formal kinetics and adsorption isotherms of As(V), Ni(II), and Pb(II) over obtained Fe3O4/rGO have been investigated. Fe3O4/rGO exhibits excellent heavy metal ions adsorption indicating that it is a potential adsorbent for water sources contaminated by heavy metals. Nguyen Thi Vuong Hoan, Nguyen Thi Anh Thu, Hoang Van Duc, Nguyen Duc Cuong, Dinh Quang Khieu, and Vien Vo Copyright © 2016 Nguyen Thi Vuong Hoan et al. All rights reserved. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:39:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2016/2890219/ HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from to %, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity () in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from to  ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. Thamani T. Gondo, Veronica C. Obuseng, Lesego C. Mmualefe, and Harriet Okatch Copyright © 2016 Thamani T. Gondo et al. All rights reserved. Chaos in Essentially Singular 3D Dynamical Systems with Two Quadratic Nonlinearities Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:38:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jndy/2016/2410806/ A new class of 3D autonomous quadratic systems, the dynamics of which demonstrate a chaotic behavior, is found. This class is a generalization of the well-known class of Lorenz-like systems. The existence conditions of limit cycles in systems of the mentioned class are found. In addition, it is shown that, with the change of the appropriate parameters of systems of the indicated class, chaotic attractors different from the Lorenz attractor can be generated (these attractors are the result of the cascade of limit cycles bifurcations). Examples are given. Vasiliy Belozyorov Copyright © 2016 Vasiliy Belozyorov. All rights reserved. Effect of Removal of Enamel on Rebonding Strength of Resin Composite to Enamel Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:36:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1818939/ Objective. To examine the effect of removing the surface layer of enamel on the rebonding strength of resin composite. Methods. Teeth in four groups () were etched, a small amount of resin composite was bonded and debonded, then specimens in three groups were ground for different lengths of time (10 s, 20 s, 30 s) to remove an increasing amount of enamel, one group was left untouched. The teeth were bonded again and the bond strengths of 1st and 2nd bonding were compared and analysed against the amount of enamel loss in different groups (7 µm (±2); 12 µm (±1); 16 µm (±3)). Specimens were examined with SEM and by noncontacting optical profilometer. Results. Although results indicated higher rebonding strength with increasing enamel removal ANOVA showed low statistical differences between the groups (). However, values between first bonding and rebonding strengths differed significantly () in the group that was not ground. SEM revealed that enamel-surfaces that were ground after debonding etched well, compared to the surfaces that still contained adhesive remnants. Conclusions. Removal of small amount of enamel refreshed the surface for rebonding. Rebonding strengths without grinding the surface before bonding were lower than bond strength to intact enamel. L. Kilponen, L. Lassila, M. Tolvanen, J. Varrela, and P. K. Vallittu Copyright © 2016 L. Kilponen et al. All rights reserved. Smoothed Norm Regularization for Sparse-View X-Ray CT Reconstruction Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:36:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2180457/ Low-dose computed tomography (CT) reconstruction is a challenging problem in medical imaging. To complement the standard filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction, sparse regularization reconstruction gains more and more research attention, as it promises to reduce radiation dose, suppress artifacts, and improve noise properties. In this work, we present an iterative reconstruction approach using improved smoothed (SL0) norm regularization which is used to approximate norm by a family of continuous functions to fully exploit the sparseness of the image gradient. Due to the excellent sparse representation of the reconstruction signal, the desired tissue details are preserved in the resulting images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed SL0 regularization method, we reconstruct the simulated dataset acquired from the Shepp-Logan phantom and clinical head slice image. Additional experimental verification is also performed with two real datasets from scanned animal experiment. Compared to the referenced FBP reconstruction and the total variation (TV) regularization reconstruction, the results clearly reveal that the presented method has characteristic strengths. In particular, it improves reconstruction quality via reducing noise while preserving anatomical features. Ming Li, Cheng Zhang, Chengtao Peng, Yihui Guan, Pin Xu, Mingshan Sun, and Jian Zheng Copyright © 2016 Ming Li et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Engineered Liver Models for Investigating Drug-Induced Liver Injury Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:36:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1829148/ Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of drug attrition. Testing drugs on human liver models is essential to mitigate the risk of clinical DILI since animal studies do not always suffice due to species-specific differences in liver pathways. While primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can be cultured on extracellular matrix proteins, a rapid decline in functions leads to low sensitivity (<50%) in DILI prediction. Semiconductor-driven engineering tools now allow precise control over the hepatocyte microenvironment to enhance and stabilize phenotypic functions. The latest platforms coculture PHHs with stromal cells to achieve hepatic stability and enable crosstalk between the various liver cell types towards capturing complex cellular mechanisms in DILI. The recent introduction of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human hepatocyte-like cells can potentially allow a better understanding of interindividual differences in idiosyncratic DILI. Liver models are also being coupled to other tissue models via microfluidic perfusion to study the intertissue crosstalk upon drug exposure as in a live organism. Here, we review the major advances being made in the engineering of liver models and readouts as they pertain to DILI investigations. We anticipate that engineered human liver models will reduce drug attrition, animal usage, and cases of DILI in humans. Christine Lin and Salman R. Khetani Copyright © 2016 Christine Lin and Salman R. Khetani. All rights reserved. Hybrid Artificial Root Foraging Optimizer Based Multilevel Threshold for Image Segmentation Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:35:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/1476838/ This paper proposes a new plant-inspired optimization algorithm for multilevel threshold image segmentation, namely, hybrid artificial root foraging optimizer (HARFO), which essentially mimics the iterative root foraging behaviors. In this algorithm the new growth operators of branching, regrowing, and shrinkage are initially designed to optimize continuous space search by combining root-to-root communication and coevolution mechanism. With the auxin-regulated scheme, various root growth operators are guided systematically. With root-to-root communication, individuals exchange information in different efficient topologies, which essentially improve the exploration ability. With coevolution mechanism, the hierarchical spatial population driven by evolutionary pressure of multiple subpopulations is structured, which ensure that the diversity of root population is well maintained. The comparative results on a suit of benchmarks show the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Finally, the proposed HARFO algorithm is applied to handle the complex image segmentation problem based on multilevel threshold. Computational results of this approach on a set of tested images show the outperformance of the proposed algorithm in terms of optimization accuracy computation efficiency. Yang Liu, Junfei Liu, Liwei Tian, and Lianbo Ma Copyright © 2016 Yang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Agroindustrial Wastes as Alternative for Lipase Production by Candida viswanathii under Solid-State Cultivation: Purification, Biochemical Properties, and Its Potential for Poultry Fat Hydrolysis Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:32:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/er/2016/1353497/ The aims of this work were to establish improved conditions for lipase production by Candida viswanathii using agroindustrial wastes in solid-state cultivation and to purify and evaluate the application of this enzyme for poultry fat hydrolysis. Mixed wheat bran plus spent barley grain (1 : 1, w/w) supplemented with 25.0% (w/w) olive oil increased the lipase production to 322.4%, compared to the initial conditions. When olive oil was replaced by poultry fat, the highest lipase production found at 40% (w/w) was 31.43 U/gds. By selecting, yeast extract supplementation (3.5%, w/w), cultivation temperature (30°C), and substrate moisture (40%, w/v), lipase production reached 157.33 U/gds. Lipase was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, presenting a molecular weight of 18.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The crude and purified enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 50°C and at pH 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. The estimated half-life at 50°C was of 23.5 h for crude lipase and 6.7 h at 40°C for purified lipase. Lipase presented high activity and stability in many organic solvents. Poultry fat hydrolysis was maximum at pH 4.0, reaching initial hydrolysis rate of 33.17 mmol/L/min. Thus, C. viswanathii lipase can be successfully produced by an economic and sustainable process and advantageously applied for poultry fat hydrolysis without an additional acidification step to recover the released fatty acids. Alex Fernando de Almeida, Kleydiane Braga Dias, Ana Carolina Cerri da Silva, César Rafael Fanchini Terrasan, Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo, and Eleonora Cano Carmona Copyright © 2016 Alex Fernando de Almeida et al. All rights reserved. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Varies Widely: A Need for Further Education Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:27:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2016/6193275/ Background. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects patients in their young reproductive years. Women with IBD require maintenance therapies during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been well characterized. Objective. To characterize physician perceptions and management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians who are involved in the care of women with IBD was conducted. The survey included multiple-choice and Likert scale questions about perceptions and practice patterns regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Results. 183 practicing physicians completed the questionnaire: 97/183 (53.0%) gastroenterologists; 75/183 (41.0%) general practitioners; and 11/183 (6.0%) other physicians. Almost half (87/183, 47.5%) of the physicians felt comfortable managing pregnant IBD patients. For specified IBD medications, proportions of physicians who indicated they would continue them during pregnancy were as follows: sulfasalazine, 47.4%; oral mesalamine, 67.0%; topical mesalamine, 70.3%; oral prednisone, 68.0%; topical prednisone, 78.0%; oral budesonide, 61.6%; topical budesonide, 75.0%; ciprofloxacin, 15.3%; metronidazole, 31.4%; azathioprine, 57.1%; methotrexate, 2.8%; infliximab, 55.6%; adalimumab, 78.1%. Similar proportions of physicians would continue these medications during breastfeeding. A higher proportion of gastroenterologists than nongastroenterologists indicated appropriate use of these IBD medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Conclusions. Physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding varies widely. Relative to other physicians, responses of gastroenterologists more frequently reflected best practices pertaining to medications for control of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. There is a need for further education regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Vivian Wai-Mei Huang, Hsiu-Ju Chang, Karen Ivy Kroeker, Karen Jean Goodman, Kathleen M. Hegadoren, Levinus Albert Dieleman, and Richard Neil Fedorak Copyright © 2016 Vivian Wai-Mei Huang et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:26:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2016/6240703/ Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement water pipes. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug was found in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems. Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr, Maha Kamal Gohar, and Amal Hassan Atta Copyright © 2016 Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr et al. All rights reserved. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:26:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apec/2016/3982594/ Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM) technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM) and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests. Yanbin Hou, Wanrong Sun, Aifeng Ren, and Shuming Liu Copyright © 2016 Yanbin Hou et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Molecular Imaging Strategies for In Vivo Tracking of Immune Cells Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:25:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1946585/ Tracking of immune cells in vivo is a crucial tool for development and optimization of cell-based therapy. Techniques for tracking immune cells have been applied widely for understanding the intrinsic behavior of immune cells and include non-radiation-based techniques such as optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiation-based techniques such as computerized tomography (CT), and nuclear imaging including single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Each modality has its own strengths and limitations. To overcome the limitations of each modality, multimodal imaging techniques involving two or more imaging modalities are actively applied. Multimodal techniques allow integration of the strengths of individual modalities. In this review, we discuss the strengths and limitations of currently available preclinical in vivo immune cell tracking techniques and summarize the value of immune cell tracking in the development and optimization of immune cell therapy for various diseases. Ho Won Lee, Prakash Gangadaran, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, and Byeong-Cheol Ahn Copyright © 2016 Ho Won Lee et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:25:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1834646/ Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat TS written in English or Chinese without restrictions on publication status. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined with the fixed-effect model based on a heterogeneity test. Results were presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. This review included 7 RCTs with a total of 564 participants. The combined results showed that acupuncture may have better short-term effect than Western medicine for TS and that acupuncture may be an effective adjuvant therapy in improving the effect of Western medicine on TS, but the evidence is limited because of existing biases. Rigorous high-quality RCTs are needed to verify these findings. Jinna Yu, Yongming Ye, Jun Liu, Yang Wang, Weina Peng, and Zhishun Liu Copyright © 2016 Jinna Yu et al. All rights reserved. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:53:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8792548/ In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. L. D. Zhu, Z. H. Li, and E. Hiltunen Copyright © 2016 L. D. Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Line-of-Credit Payment Scheme and Its Impact on the Retailer’s Ordering Policy with Inventory-Level-Dependent Demand Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:37:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4027454/ Practically, the supplier frequently offers the retailer credit period to stimulate his/her ordering quantity. However, such credit-period-only policy may lead to the dilemma that the supplier’s account receivable increases with sale volume during delay period, especially for the item with inventory-level-dependent demand. Thus, a line-of-credit (LOC) payment scheme is usually adopted by the supplier for better controlling account receivables. In this paper, the two-parameter LOC clause is firstly applied to develop an economic order quantity (EOQ) model with inventory-level-dependent demand, aiming to explore its influences on the retailer’s ordering policy. Under this new policy, the retailer will be granted full delay payment if his/her order quantity is below a predetermined quantity. Otherwise, the retailer should make immediate payment for the excess part. After analyzing the relationships among parameters, two distinct cases and several theoretical results can be derived. From numerical examples, two incentives, a longer credit period and a lower rate of the retailer’s capital opportunity cost, should account for the retailer’s excessive ordering policy. And a well-designed LOC clause can be applied to induce the retailer to place an appropriate ordering quantity and ensure the supplier maintains a reasonable account receivable. Tao Jia, Feng Lin, Zhengwen He, and Nengmin Wang Copyright © 2016 Tao Jia et al. All rights reserved. Development and Implementation of an RFID-Based Tunnel Access Monitoring System Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:37:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2016/9897675/ Due to safety reasons, the exact number and location of people working in an underground tunnel need to be known all the time. This work introduces the development and implementation of an RFID-based access monitoring system for the ONKALO nuclear waste storage facility. This system was taken into use in 2010 and was systematically monitored for one year. The system principle and the used equipment are presented in this paper together with the reliability evaluation results of the implemented system. According to the field use evaluation of the ready system, the reading reliability at the end of the monitoring period was 100%. In addition, even after the successful monitoring period, the system has been updated and new features for safety improvement have been created based on fire department guidelines and achieved user experience. In the future, the RFID system has been planned to be used also in the final depositing of the used nuclear fuel and buffer materials. Kai Kordelin, Jaana Kordelin, Markku Johansson, Johanna Virkki, Leena Ukkonen, and Lauri Sydänheimo Copyright © 2016 Kai Kordelin et al. All rights reserved. On the Singularity of Multivariate Hermite Interpolation of Total Degree Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:36:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7515876/ We study the singularity of multivariate Hermite interpolation of type total degree on nodes with . We first check the number of the interpolation conditions and the dimension of interpolation space. And then the singularity of the interpolation schemes is decided for most cases. Also some regular interpolation schemes are derived, a few of which are proved due to theoretical argument and most of which are verified by numerical method. There are some schemes to be decided and left open. Zhongyong Hu, Zhaoliang Meng, and Zhongxuan Luo Copyright © 2016 Zhongyong Hu et al. All rights reserved. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing and Expression in the Rat Brain Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:36:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/7950781/ The effects of the Shuyu capsule on and expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on and expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal and expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal and levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to and expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal and expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression. Fang Li, Jizhen Feng, Dongmei Gao, Jieqiong Wang, Chunhong Song, Sheng Wei, and Mingqi Qiao Copyright © 2016 Fang Li et al. All rights reserved. Community-Based Family Literacy Program: Comparing Different Durations and Family Characteristics Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:33:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/4593167/ The current study investigated the influence of the community-based family literacy program on parent’s and children’s engagement in family reading practices and language/literacy activities at home. Parent’s and children’s engagement in family reading practices and language/literacy activities based on different family characteristics and the lengths of program attended were compared. Six-week and four-week Family Storyteller Program for Preschoolers series were taught between 2013 and 2015. Three hundred seventy-five parents completed both presurveys and postsurveys. Parents showed promising results in enhancing parents’ and child’s engagement in family reading practices and language/literacy activities at home after participating in the intervention. It was also found that durations of the program and family characteristics were correlated to different outcomes. YaeBin Kim and Teresa Byington Copyright © 2016 YaeBin Kim and Teresa Byington. All rights reserved. Review of Anisotropic Flow Correlations in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:33:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/9365637/ Anisotropic flow phenomena are a key probe of the existence of Quark-Gluon Plasma. Several new observables associated with correlations between anisotropic flow harmonics are developed, which are expected to be sensitive to the initial fluctuations and transport properties of the created matter in heavy-ion collisions. I review recent developments of correlations of anisotropic flow harmonics. The experimental measurements, together with the comparisons to theoretical model calculations, open up new opportunities of exploring novel QCD dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. You Zhou Copyright © 2016 You Zhou. All rights reserved. Terpenes: Natural Products for Controlling Insects of Importance to Human Health—A Structure-Activity Relationship Study Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:32:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/2016/4595823/ Many insects affect food production and human health, and in an attempt to control these insects the use of synthetic insecticides has become widespread. However, this has resulted in the development of resistance in these organisms, human diseases, contamination of food, and pollution of the environment. Plants natural products and essential oil components such as terpenes and phenylpropenes have been shown to have a significant potential for insect control. However, the molecular properties related to their insecticidal activity are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the toxicity of terpene compounds against three insects of importance to human health: lice, cockroaches, and Triatominae bugs and to evaluate which molecular descriptors are important in the bioactivity of terpenes. For the insects studied, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed in order to predict the insecticidal activity of terpene compounds. The obtained QSAR models indicated that the activity of these compounds depends on their ability to reach the targets and to interact with them. The QSAR analysis can be used to predict the bioactivities of other structurally related molecules. Our findings may provide an important contribution in the search for new compounds with insecticidal activity. José S. Dambolena, María P. Zunino, Jimena M. Herrera, Romina P. Pizzolitto, Vanessa A. Areco, and Julio A. Zygadlo Copyright © 2016 José S. Dambolena et al. All rights reserved. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:30:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8098092/ This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry. Jian Wang, Xiaoting Wang, Xintian Zhuang, and Jiliang Sheng Copyright © 2016 Jian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:00:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/4673526/ At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers. Zhenhua Luo, Jian He, Haize Pan, and Yiluan Yang Copyright © 2016 Zhenhua Luo et al. All rights reserved. Oxygen Defect-Mediated Magnetism in Fe-C Codoped TiO2 Tue, 20 Sep 2016 12:51:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/6270129/ The magnetic properties of the C doped and C-Fe codoped TiO2 films fabricated by sol-gel and spin coating have been investigated combining experiments and first-principles calculations. All the samples exhibit the anatase crystal phase and the room temperature ferromagnetism. The values of the saturation magnetizations are in the order of Fe-C codoped TiO2 > Fe-C codoped TiO2 (annealed in O2) > C doped TiO2 > C doped TiO2 (annealed in O2). The calculated net moment values are in the order of Fe-C codoped TiO2 > C doped TiO2 with oxygen vacancies existing, in accord with the experimental results. The hybridization of Fe 3d, C 2p, and O 2p (nearest to the Fe defect) led to the spin split of Fe 3d, C 2p, and O 2p which contributed to the ferromagnetism. Zhaorui Zou, Zhongpo Zhou, Haiying Wang, and Meng Du Copyright © 2016 Zhaorui Zou et al. All rights reserved. Fish Collagen Promotes the Expression of Genes Related to Osteoblastic Activity Tue, 20 Sep 2016 12:43:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/5785819/ Tilapia type I atelocollagen (TAC) is a strong candidate for clinical application as its biological scaffold due to a high degeneration temperature and biologically safe properties. The aim of this study was to confirm the biological effects of TAC in vitro on osteoblastic cells, simulating its clinical application. The proliferation and differentiation of typical preosteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells, were investigated using a microarray analysis, staining assay for mineralization, and real-time PCR analysis of the expression of mineralization-related genes. The mRNA expression of 10 genes involved in proliferation and differentiation increased after 3-day culture on an TAC gel, with an average balanced score ratio exceeding 1.5 compared to the control. After two weeks of culture, all three experimental groups showed stronger alkaline phosphatase staining than after one week. The genes expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein increased under the experimental conditions. The gene expression of osteopontin did not increase, and no statistical differences were noted among the three experimental groups. The present and previous findings suggest that TAC is not only a suitable alternative to collagen products originating from mammals but also a novel biomaterial with cell differentiation ability for regenerative medicine. Mark Luigi Fabian Capati, Ayako Nakazono, Kohei Yamamoto, Kouji Sugimoto, Kajiro Yanagiguchi, Shizuka Yamada, and Yoshihiko Hayashi Copyright © 2016 Mark Luigi Fabian Capati et al. All rights reserved. Vibration Analysis of Aeroengine Blisk Structure Based on a Prestressed CMS Super-Element Method Tue, 20 Sep 2016 12:32:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/1021402/ For vibration analysis of aeroengine blisk structure, a prestressed component modal synthesis (CMS) super-element method is put forward with the fixed interface prestressing and free interface super-element approach. Based on this method, natural vibration characteristics of blisk structure are calculated at different modal truncation numbers. Comparing with the accurate result of global method, the selection principle of modal truncation number is obtained which affects the accuracy of prestressed CMS super-element method. Vibration response of two-stage blisk structure is calculated by this method, and the effects of different blade aspect ratios have been discussed on vibration characteristics. The results show that prestressed CMS super-element method is in the high accuracy and efficiency on blisk vibration analysis. Resonant frequencies in vibration response are nearly the same between the first-stage blisk and the second-stage blisk, and they are both approximately located in the range 588 Hz–599 Hz. The maximum displacement and dynamic stress are at blade tip and root of the first-stage blisk, respectively. Blade aspect ratio is a key factor of blisk vibration; the effects of blade aspect ratio on natural frequencies are different in the conditions of fixed width and fixed length. This research provides the theoretical basis for dynamic design of aeroengine compressor rotor system. Zhijun Li, Wenjun Yang, and Huiqun Yuan Copyright © 2016 Zhijun Li et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Features and Visual Outcomes of Optic Neuritis in Chinese Children Tue, 20 Sep 2016 12:09:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/9167361/ Purpose. Although optic neuritis (ON) in children is relatively common, visual outcomes and factors associated with the condition have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and visual outcomes of ON in Chinese children. Methods. Patients with a first episode of ON at a tertiary neuroophthalmic centre in China were assessed and followed up for at least three months. Visual outcomes and clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. In patients with bilateral ON, only the eyes with worse visual acuity (VA) at presentation were used for statistical analysis. Results. Seventy-six children (76 eyes) with a first episode of ON were included. The mean age was 11.8 years, 60.5% were females, and 48.7% had bilateral involvement. The children were followed up for an average of 18.5 months (age range, 3–48 months). Vision loss at presentation was severe, with VA < 20/200 in 37 eyes (48.7%). At the final visit, 3 (3.9%) eyes had VA of at least 20/20, and 41 (53.9%) eyes had VA of at least 20/40. The final VA in 35 eyes (46.1%) was worse than 20/40. Children aged ≤ 10 years had better predicted visual outcomes when compared to children over 10 years (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidential interval: 1.05–7.07, and ). The other features of this cohort, such as sex, experienced bilateral attack, VA at presentation, presence of optic disc edema, systemic diseases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibody status, were not significantly correlated with the final visual outcome. Conclusion. The data revealed the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of ON in Chinese children. ON in children was associated with severe vision loss and relatively good visual recovery. The age at onset could predict the final visual function. Huanfen Zhou, Wei Wang, Quangang Xu, Shaoying Tan, Shuo Zhao, Mo Yang, Chunxia Peng, and Shihui Wei Copyright © 2016 Huanfen Zhou et al. All rights reserved.