Hindawi https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Term Abdominal Pregnancy Revealed by Amnioperitoneum in Rural Area Sun, 26 Feb 2017 12:45:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2017/4096783/ Abdominal pregnancy (AP) accounts for 1% of ectopic implantations. In sub-Saharan Africa, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections explains the increasing frequency of this pathology. In Cameroon it rose from 1/10000 deliveries (1995) to 3.3/10000 (2015). Authors herein report a case of a viable abdominal pregnancy discovered at term during emergency laparotomy for suspected uterine rupture. The 24-year-old G2P0 patient was HIV-positive, under antiretrovirals, though AP exceptionally occurs in HIV patients. She did only two antenatal consultations: her main complaint was abdominal pain but five echographies concluded to normal intrauterine pregnancy. Findings at laparotomy were as follows: amnioperitoneum, a live female baby weighing 3.4 kilogrammes without deformities and a placenta deeply inserted on the uterine fundus. Removal of the placenta triggered massive bleeding (2400 milliliters) with shock managed with a tourniquet on the lower uterine segment and fluid resuscitation. Outcome was favourable for the mother and child. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV was successful with antiretroviral therapy. Henri Donald Mutarambirwa, Bruno Kenfack, and Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue Copyright © 2017 Henri Donald Mutarambirwa et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Functionalized MOFs Incorporated Mixed Matrix Hollow Fiber Membrane for Gas Separation Sun, 26 Feb 2017 12:41:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/2548957/ The metal-organic framework (MOFs) of MIL-53 was functionalized by aminosilane grafting and then incorporated into Ultem®1000 polymer matrix to fabricate mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMHFM) with high separation performance. SEM, XRD, and TGA were performed to characterize the functionalized MIL-53 and prepared MMHFM. The filler particles were embedded in membrane successfully and dispersed well in the polymer matrix. The incorporation of MOFs endowed MMHFM better thermal stability. Moreover, effects of solvent ratio in spinning dope, spinning condition, and testing temperature on gas separation performance of MMHFM were investigated. By optimizing dope composition, air gap distance, and bore fluid composition, MMHFM containing functionalized MIL-53 achieved excellent gas permeance and CO2/N2 selectivity. The CO2 permeance increased from 12.2 GPU for pure Ultem HFM to 30.9 GPU and the ideal CO2/N2 selectivity was enhanced from 25.4 to 34.7 simultaneously. Additionally, gas permeance increased but the selectivity decreased with the temperature increase, which followed the solution-diffusion based transport mechanism. Haitao Zhu, Xingming Jie, and Yiming Cao Copyright © 2017 Haitao Zhu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Role for Brain Natriuretic Peptide: Inhibition of IL-1 Secretion via Downregulation of NF-kB/Erk 1/2 and NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Activation in Human THP-1 Monocyte Sun, 26 Feb 2017 12:30:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/5858315/ Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a crucial mediator of inflammatory and immune responses. IL-1β processing and release are tightly controlled by complex pathways such as NF-kB/ERK1/2, to produce pro-IL-1β, and NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome, to produce the active secreted protein. Dysregulation of both IL-1β and its related pathways is involved in inflammatory/autoimmune disorders and in a wide range of other diseases. Identifying molecules modulating their expression is a crucial need to develop new therapeutic agents. IL-1β is a strong regulator of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), a hormone involved in cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase Natriuretic Peptide Receptor (NPR-1). An emerging role of BNP in inflammation and immunity, although proposed, remains largely unexplored. Here, we newly demonstrated that, in human THP-1 monocytes, LPS/ATP-induced IL-1β secretion is strongly inhibited by BNP/NPR-1/cGMP axis at all the molecular mechanisms that tightly control its production and release, NF-kB, ERK 1/2, and all the elements of NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome cascade, and that NALP3 inflammasome inhibition is directly related to BNP deregulatory effect on NF-kB/ERK 1/2 activation. Our findings reveal a novel potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role for BNP and open new alleys of investigation for a possible employment of this endogenous agent in the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related and IL-1β/NF-kB/ERK1/2/NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1-associated diseases. Letizia Mezzasoma, Cinzia Antognelli, and Vincenzo Nicola Talesa Copyright © 2017 Letizia Mezzasoma et al. All rights reserved. Development and In Vitro Evaluation of Liposomes Using Soy Lecithin to Encapsulate Paclitaxel Sun, 26 Feb 2017 11:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2017/8234712/ The formulation of a potential delivery system based on liposomes (Lips) formulated from soy lecithin (SL) for paclitaxel (PTX) was achieved (PTX-Lips). At first, PTX-Lips were prepared by thin film method using SL and cholesterol and then were characterized for their physiochemical properties (particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and morphology). The results indicated that PTX-Lips were spherical in shape with a dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size of  nm. Besides, PTX was efficiently encapsulated in Lips, % for drug loading efficiency, and slowly released up to 96 h, compared with free PTX. More importantly, cell proliferation kit I (MTT) assay data showed that Lips were biocompatible nanocarriers, and in addition the incorporation of PTX into Lips has been proven successful in reducing the toxicity of PTX. As a result, development of Lips using SL may offer a stable delivery system and promising properties for loading and sustained release of PTX in cancer therapy. Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Hiep Nguyen, and Dai Hai Nguyen Copyright © 2017 Thi Lan Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Control of Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC System via Command-Filter Backstepping Sun, 26 Feb 2017 11:42:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2017/7410392/ This paper proposed a command-filtered backstepping controller to improve the dynamic performance of back-to-back voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current (BTB VSC-HVDC). First, the principle and model of BTB VSC-HVDC in and frame are described. Then, backstepping method is applied to design a controller to maintain the voltage balance and realize coordinated control of active and reactive power. Meanwhile, command filter is introduced to deal with the problem of input saturation and explosion of complexity in conventional backstepping, and a filter compensation signal is designed to diminish the adverse effects caused by the command filter. Next, the stability and convergence of the whole system are proved via the Lyapunov theorem of asymptotic stability. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate that proposed controller has a better dynamic performance and stronger robustness compared to the traditional PID algorithm, which also proves the effectiveness and possibility of the designed controller. Jie Huang, Dezhi Xu, Wenxu Yan, Le Ge, and Xiaodong Yuan Copyright © 2017 Jie Huang et al. All rights reserved. Determining the Optimal Number of Stimuli per Cranial Site during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Mapping Sun, 26 Feb 2017 11:26:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/neuroscience/2017/6328569/ The delivery of five stimuli to each cranial site is recommended during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) mapping. However, this time-consuming practice restricts the use of TMS mapping beyond the research environment. While reducing the number of stimuli administered to each cranial site may improve efficiency and decrease physiological demand, doing so may also compromise the procedure’s validity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the minimum number of stimuli per cranial site required to obtain valid outcomes during TMS mapping. Map volume and centre of gravity (CoG) recordings obtained using five stimuli per cranial site were retrospectively compared to those obtained using one, two, three, and four stimuli per cranial site. For CoG longitude, one stimulus per cranial site produced valid recordings (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95). However, this outcome is rarely explored in isolation. As two stimuli per cranial site were required to obtain valid CoG latitude (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.99 to 0.99) and map volume (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.99 to 0.99) recordings, it is recommended that a minimum of two stimuli be delivered to each cranial site during TMS mapping in order to obtain valid outcomes. Rocco Cavaleri, Siobhan M. Schabrun, and Lucy S. Chipchase Copyright © 2017 Rocco Cavaleri et al. All rights reserved. Effect on Gait Speed, Balance, Motor Symptom Rating, and Quality of Life in Those with Stage I Parkinson’s Disease Utilizing LSVT BIG® Sun, 26 Feb 2017 11:25:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/rerp/2017/9871070/ Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are often not referred to Physical Therapy (PT) until there are issues with mobility in later Hoehn and Yahr Stages. There have been no studies outlining the benefits of PT intervention in Stage I only. For persons with PD, deficits in motor function increase over time due to destruction of dopamine-producing cells. LSVT BIG, an exercise program for PD, has been shown to be effective in improving mobility. The purpose of this study was to assess participants functional improvement at a level of minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in one of four outcome measures: Gait Speed, Berg Balance Assessment, Functional Gait Assessment, and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Motor Section. Case Description. Nine participants with Stage I PD received LSVT BIG 4x/week for 4 weeks followed by bimonthly participation in a community class. Outcome measurement occurred at baseline, after LSVT BIG, and three months after LSVT BIG. Outcomes. Eight of nine participants (88.9%) achieved MCID in at least one of the four measures at both after and 3 months after LSVT BIG training indicating improvement based on our criteria. Participants in Stage I of PD in this study completed LSVT BIG and demonstrated improved function. Beth Millage, Erin Vesey, Marsha Finkelstein, and Mattie Anheluk Copyright © 2017 Beth Millage et al. All rights reserved. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study Sun, 26 Feb 2017 10:07:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/art/2017/2838059/ Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received. Grace O. Kolawole, Hannah N. Gilbert, Nancin Y. Dadem, Becky L. Genberg, Patricia A. Agaba, Prosper Okonkwo, Oche O. Agbaji, and Norma C. Ware Copyright © 2017 Grace O. Kolawole et al. All rights reserved. Meta-Analysis of the Correlation between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Standardized Uptake Value in Malignant Disease Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:57:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmi/2017/4729547/ The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included), EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher’s -to- transformation, correlation coefficient () values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled for all studies was −0.35 (95% CI: −0.42–0.28) and exhibited a notable heterogeneity ( = 78.4%; < 0.01). In terms of the cancer type subgroup analysis, combined correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from −0.12 (lymphoma, = 5) to −0.59 (pancreatic cancer, = 2). We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types. Shengming Deng, Zhifang Wu, Yiwei Wu, Wei Zhang, Jihui Li, Na Dai, Bin Zhang, and Jianhua Yan Copyright © 2017 Shengming Deng et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Macroscopic Volume Delay Functions with the Traffic Density Derived from Measured Speeds and Flows Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:56:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jat/2017/4629792/ This paper proposes a new method to estimate the macroscopic volume delay function (VDF) from the point speed-flow measures. Contrary to typical VDF estimation methods it allows estimating speeds also for hypercritical traffic conditions, when both speeds and flow drop due to congestion (high density of traffic flow). We employ the well-known hydrodynamic relation of fundamental diagram to derive the so-called quasi-density from measured time-mean speeds and flows. This allows formulating the VDF estimation problem with a speed being monotonically decreasing function of quasi-density with a shape resembling the typical VDF like BPR. This way we can use the actually observed speeds and propose the macroscopic VDF realistically reproducing actual speeds also for hypercritical conditions. The proposed method is illustrated with half-year measurements from the induction loop system in city of Warsaw, which measured traffic flows and instantaneous speeds of over 5 million vehicles. Although the proposed method does not overcome the fundamental limitations of static macroscopic traffic models, which cannot represent dynamic traffic phenomena like queue, spillback, wave propagation, capacity drop, and so forth, we managed to improve the VDF goodness-of-fit from of 27% to 72% most importantly also for hypercritical conditions. Thanks to this traffic congestion in macroscopic traffic models can be reproduced more realistically in line with empirical observations. Rafał Kucharski and Arkadiusz Drabicki Copyright © 2017 Rafał Kucharski and Arkadiusz Drabicki. All rights reserved. Study of Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Nanomica Dispersed Hydroxyapatite Based Composites for Biomedical Applications Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:32:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/9814624/ Present research aims to assess the influence of nanocrystalline mica (NM) dispersion (10, 15, 20, and 25 vol.%) in hydroxyapatite (HA) matrix on its mechanical and tribological properties and bioactivity. Nanosized mica (NM) was prepared by mechanical milling of commercial mica powder. The composite was prepared by mechanically mixing the milled mica with HA and consolidated by microwave sintering at 1200°C for 10 min. Phase characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows dissociation of HA into β-TCP (tetra calcium phosphate) in sintered compact. Estimated densification is the highest (~98%) with 20% NM addition. HA-20%NM also shows an optimum combination of mechanical (hardness 2.80 GPa and indentation fracture toughness 1.51 MPa m1/2) and tribological properties (wear rate ~1.6 × 10−6 mm3/Nm). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of worn out surface elicits that wear mechanism is governed mainly by delamination and abrasive mode. Biocompatibility assessment in simulated body fluid (SBF) indicates that no elemental change occurs (confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS)) even after 60 days of emersion. It reveals that the optimized composition is satisfying fundamental requirements of an implant material. Anumeha Mishra, Nidhi Khobragade, Koushik Sikdar, Subhabrata Chakraborty, Sashi Bhusan Kumar, and Debdas Roy Copyright © 2017 Anumeha Mishra et al. All rights reserved. The Immunogenicity of HLA Class II Mismatches: The Predicted Presentation of Nonself Allo-HLA-Derived Peptide by the HLA-DR Phenotype of the Recipient Is Associated with the Formation of DSA Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:25:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/2748614/ The identification of permissible HLA class II mismatches can prevent DSA in mismatched transplantation. The HLA-DR phenotype of recipients contributes to DSA formation by presenting allo-HLA-derived peptides to T-helper cells, which induces the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Comparing the binding affinity of self and nonself allo-HLA-derived peptides for recipients’ HLA class II antigens may distinguish immunogenic HLA mismatches from nonimmunogenic ones. The binding affinities of allo-HLA-derived peptides to recipients’ HLA-DR and HLA-DQ antigens were predicted using the NetMHCIIpan 3.1 server. HLA class II mismatches were classified based on whether they induced DSA and whether self or nonself peptide was predicted to bind with highest affinity to recipients’ HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Other mismatch characteristics (eplet, hydrophobic, electrostatic, and amino acid mismatch scores and PIRCHE-II) were evaluated. A significant association occurred between DSA formation and the predicted HLA-DR presentation of nonself peptides (; accuracy = 80%; sensitivity = 88%; specificity = 63%). In contrast, mismatch characteristics did not differ significantly between mismatches that induced DSA and the ones that did not, except for PIRCHE-II (). This methodology predicts DSA formation based on HLA mismatches and recipients’ HLA-DR phenotype and may identify permissible HLA mismatches to help optimize HLA matching and guide donor selection. Vadim Jucaud Copyright © 2017 Vadim Jucaud. All rights reserved. Dental Age and Tooth Development in Orthodontic Patients with Agenesis of Permanent Teeth Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:24:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8683970/ Objective. To compare the development of permanent teeth in a group of children with the congenitally missing permanent teeth (CMPT) and corresponding nonaffected group. Methods. The formation stages of all developing permanent teeth were determined on 345 panoramic radiographs (OPTs) by the method of Haavikko (1970), and dental age was calculated. The paired samples -test was used to compare the differences between dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) in those with CMPT and those not affected. Spearman test was used to evaluate the correlation between DA-CA and the number of missing teeth. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the development of the teeth adjacent to the place of the agenesis with matched pair in corresponding nonaffected group. Results. Dental age was significantly delayed in CMPT children compared to the nonaffected group (). The mean differences were −0.57 ± 1.20 years and −0.61 ± 1.23 years in males and females, without difference between sexes (). The number of missing teeth affected the delay only in females (). Only mesial teeth in females were significantly delayed in development when compared to the nonaffected group (). Conclusion. Our findings show that the development of the permanent teeth is delayed when compared to the nonaffected group of the same sex and age. Jozo Badrov, Tomislav Lauc, Enita Nakaš, and Ivan Galić Copyright © 2017 Jozo Badrov et al. All rights reserved. Free Radical Scavenging Potency of Dihydroxybenzoic Acids Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:24:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/5936239/ In order to evaluate the free radical scavenging potency of dihydroxybenzoic acids (DHBAs) the Density Functional Theory (DFT) was used. The M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP-D2/6-311++G(d,p) theoretical models were applied. Three possible antioxidant mechanisms were examined: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single-electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT), and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms. All of these mechanisms have been studied in nonpolar (benzene and pentylethanoate) and polar solvents (water) using an implicit solvation model (SMD). The following thermodynamic quantities related to these mechanisms were calculated: bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), and proton affinity (PA). The obtained results indicated the HAT mechanism as the most favourable reaction pathway for antioxidative action of DHBAs in benzene. On the other hand, SPLET is indicated as predominant reaction mechanism in polar solvent. The SET-PT mechanism was not favourable reaction path for antioxidative action in any of the solvents under investigation. Dejan Milenković, Jelena Đorović, Svetlana Jeremić, Jasmina M. Dimitrić Marković, Edina H. Avdović, and Zoran Marković Copyright © 2017 Dejan Milenković et al. All rights reserved. Diabetes in HFE Hemochromatosis Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:18:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/9826930/ Diabetes in whites of European descent with hemochromatosis was first attributed to pancreatic siderosis. Later observations revealed that the pathogenesis of diabetes in HFE hemochromatosis is multifactorial and its clinical manifestations are heterogeneous. Increased type 2 diabetes risk in HFE hemochromatosis is associated with one or more factors, including abnormal iron homeostasis and iron overload, decreased insulin secretion, cirrhosis, diabetes in first-degree relatives, increased body mass index, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. In p.C282Y homozygotes, serum ferritin, usually elevated at hemochromatosis diagnosis, largely reflects body iron stores but not diabetes risk. In persons with diabetes type 2 without hemochromatosis diagnoses, serum ferritin levels are higher than those of persons without diabetes, but most values are within the reference range. Phlebotomy therapy to achieve iron depletion does not improve diabetes control in all persons with HFE hemochromatosis. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes diagnosed today in whites of European descent with and without HFE hemochromatosis is similar. Routine iron phenotyping or HFE genotyping of patients with type 2 diabetes is not recommended. Herein, we review diabetes in HFE hemochromatosis and the role of iron in diabetes pathogenesis in whites of European descent with and without HFE hemochromatosis. James C. Barton and Ronald T. Acton Copyright © 2017 James C. Barton and Ronald T. Acton. All rights reserved. Fatigue Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Laboratory Study Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:17:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/4397957/ The paper introduces and analyses the results of an experimental trial on the fatigue resistance of recycled hot mix asphalt for road pavements. Based on the gyratory compaction and the indirect tensile strength test, the mix design procedure has optimized nine different mixes, considering both conventional limestone and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), the latter used at different quantities, up to 40% by weight of the aggregate. A standard bitumen and two polymer modified binders were used for the production of the mixes. The fatigue study was carried out with four-point bending tests, each one performed at 20°C and 10 Hz. The empirical stiffness reduction method, along with the energy ratio approach, based on the dissipated energy concept, was adopted to elaborate the experimental data. Unaged and aged specimens were checked, to analyse the ageing effects on the fatigue performance. In comparison with the control mixes, produced only with limestone, improved fatigue performance was noticed for the mixtures prepared with RAP, especially when made with polymer modified binders, under both aged and unaged conditions. Both the approaches adopted for the experimental data analysis have outlined the same ranking of the mixes. Marco Pasetto and Nicola Baldo Copyright © 2017 Marco Pasetto and Nicola Baldo. All rights reserved. Microwave Impedance Spectroscopy and Temperature Effects on the Electrical Properties of Au/BN/C Interfaces Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:55:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apec/2017/4791347/ In the current study, an Au/BN/C microwave back-to-back Schottky device is designed and characterized. The device morphology and roughness were evaluated by means of scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. As verified by the Richardson–Schottky current conduction transport mechanism which is well fitted to the experimental data, the temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of the devices is dominated by the electric field assisted thermionic emission of charge carriers over a barrier height of ~0.87 eV and depletion region width of ~1.1 μm. Both the depletion width and barrier height followed an increasing trend with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the alternating current conductivity analysis which was carried out in the frequency range of 100–1400 MHz revealed the domination of the phonon assisted quantum mechanical tunneling (hopping) of charge carriers through correlated barriers (CBH). In addition, the impedance and power spectral studies carried out in the gigahertz-frequency domain revealed a resonance-antiresonance feature at frequency of  ~1.6 GHz. The microwave power spectra of this device revealed an ideal band stop filter of notch frequency of  ~1.6 GHz. The ac signal analysis of this device displays promising characteristics for using this device as wave traps. Hazem K. Khanfar, A. F. Qasrawi, and Yasmeen Kh. Ghannam Copyright © 2017 Hazem K. Khanfar et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang on Intestinal Mucosal Mast Cells in Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:54:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9086034/ Objective. To investigate the effects of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) on intestinal mucosal mast cells in rats with postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Design. PI-IBS rat models were established using a multistimulation paradigm. Then, rats were treated with TXYF intragastrically at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g·kg−1·d−1 for 14 days, respectively. Intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and fecal water content (FWC). Mast cell counts and the immunofluorescence of tryptase and c-Fos in intestinal mucosa were measured; and serum IL-1β, TNF-α, and histamine levels were determined. Results. AWR reactivity and FWC which were significantly increased could be observed in PI-IBS rats. Remarkably increased mast cell activation ratio in intestinal mucosa, together with increased serum TNF-α and histamine levels, could also be seen in PI-IBS rats; furthermore, PI-IBS-induced changes in mast cell activation and level of serum TNF-α and histamine could be reversed by TXYF treatment. Meanwhile, tryptase and c-Fos expression were also downregulated. Conclusion. TXYF improves PI-IBS symptoms by alleviating behavioral hyperalgesia and antidiarrhea, the underlying mechanism of which involves the inhibitory effects of TXYF on activating mucosal mast cells, downregulating tryptase and c-Fos expression, and reducing serum TNF-α and histamine levels. Xiangxue Ma, Xiaoge Wang, Nan Kang, Ting Chen, Haijie Ji, Lin Lv, Xiaolan Yin, Yaxin Tian, Rui Zheng, Yuanzhi Duan, Fengyun Wang, and Xudong Tang Copyright © 2017 Xiangxue Ma et al. All rights reserved. Valorization of Toxic Weed Lantana camara L. Biomass for Adsorptive Removal of Lead Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:51:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2017/5612594/ Valorization of Lantana camara L., which is a recognized invasive plant, as a potential source of activated carbon is proposed in this study. Its stem and leaf have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (ACL and ACS) by following acid-impregnation technique, followed by thermal treatment. The developed activated carbon samples were characterized for their structural and surface related properties by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherm, SEM techniques, and method. The samples show reasonable high surface area and pore volume; nonetheless, these properties are higher in case of ACL as compraed to ACS. Both of these samples developed negative charge on their surface due to acid treatment that resulted in an increase in adsorption at pH > 5. The batch adsorption studies on these samples shows the Pb(II) ion adsorption capacities of ACL and ACS were 36.01 and 32.24 mg·g−1, respectively, at 25°C. The kinetics of adsorption with both the sample systems follow the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the experimental equilibrium isotherm data of ACL and ACS were explained by Freundlich and Langmuir models, respectively. For these samples, the HCl shows maximum desorption with which the recycling test on these samples shows that ACS has better recycling potential over ACL samples. Vipin Kumar Saini, Surindra Suthar, Chaudhari Karmveer, and Kapil Kumar Copyright © 2017 Vipin Kumar Saini et al. All rights reserved. Feasibility and Safety of Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:48:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/6852749/ Background. Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) has been introduced as a novel repeatable treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis. The available evidence from the pioneer center suggests good tolerance and high response rates, but independent confirmation is needed. A single-center cohort was analyzed one year after implementation for feasibility and safety. Methods. PIPAC was started in January 2015, and every patient was entered into a prospective database. This retrospective analysis included all consecutive patients operated until April 2016 with emphasis on surgical feasibility and early postoperative outcomes. Results. Forty-two patients (M : F = 8 : 34, median age 66 (59–73) years) with 91 PIPAC procedures in total (4×: 1,  3×: 17,  2×: 12, and  1×: 12) were analyzed. Abdominal accessibility rate was 95% (42/44); laparoscopic access was not feasible in 2 patients with previous HIPEC. Median initial peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) was 10 (IQR 5–17). Median operation time was 94 min (89–108) with no learning curve observed. One PIPAC application was postponed due to intraoperative intestinal lesion. Overall morbidity was 9% with 7 minor complications (Clavien I-II) and one PIPAC-unrelated postoperative mortality. Median postoperative hospital stay was 3 days (2-3). Conclusion. Repetitive PIPAC is feasible in most patients with refractory carcinomatosis of various origins. Intraoperative complications and postoperative morbidity rates were low. This encourages prospective studies assessing oncological efficacy. Martin Hübner, Hugo Teixeira Farinha, Fabian Grass, Anita Wolfer, Patrice Mathevet, Dieter Hahnloser, and Nicolas Demartines Copyright © 2017 Martin Hübner et al. All rights reserved. Helicteric Acid, Oleanic Acid, and Betulinic Acid, Three Triterpenes from Helicteres angustifolia L., Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells via Suppressing NF-κB and STAT3 Signaling Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:43:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/5180707/ Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. The activation of both NF-κB and STAT3 signaling and the crosstalk between them play an important role in colorectal tumor. Helicteres angustifolia L. is a type of commonly used Chinese medicinal herb and possesses a wide variety of biological activities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of three triterpenes from H. angustifolia (HT) such as helicteric acid (HA), oleanic acid (OA), and betulinic acid (BA), on inhibiting CRC progression. Our results showed that HT extracts could decrease proliferation and induce apoptosis in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, HT extracts could suppress LPS-triggered phosphorylation of IKK, IκB, and NF-κB, attenuate IL-6-induced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and suppress the expression of c-Myc, cyclin-D1, and BCL-xL, the downstream gene targets of NF-κB and STAT3. Therefore, HT extracts showed potent therapeutic and antitumor effects on CRC via inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling. Dan Su, Yu-qiao Gao, Wei-bo Dai, Ying Hu, Yan-fen Wu, and Quan-xi Mei Copyright © 2017 Dan Su et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Surface Energy Effects on Elastic Fields of a Layered Elastic Medium under Surface Loading Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:38:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/7530936/ This paper presents the analysis of a layered elastic half space under the action of axisymmetric surface loading and the influence of the surface energy effects. The boundary value problems for the bulk and the surface are formulated based on classical linear elasticity and a complete Gurtin-Murdoch constitutive relation. An analytical technique using Love’s representation and the Hankel integral transform is employed to derive an integral-form solution for both displacement and stress fields. An efficient numerical quadrature is then applied to accurately evaluate all involved integrals. Selected numerical results are presented to portray the influence of various parameters on elastic fields. Numerical results indicate that the surface stress displays a significant influence on both displacement and stress fields. It is also found that the layered half space becomes stiffer with the presence of surface stresses. In addition, unlike the classical elasticity solution, size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is noted. The present analytical solutions provide fundamental understanding of the influence of surface energy on layered elastic materials. It can also be used as a benchmark solution for the development of numerical techniques such as FEM and BEM, for analysis of more complex problems involving a layered medium under the influence of surface energy effects. Supakorn Tirapat, Teerapong Senjuntichai, and Jaroon Rungamornrat Copyright © 2017 Supakorn Tirapat et al. All rights reserved. An Environment-Friendly Multipath Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:19:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2017/9527480/ Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN) is a promising technique by facilitating a wide range of aquatic applications. However, routing scheme in UASN is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the nodes mobility, interruption of link, and interference caused by other underwater acoustic systems such as marine mammals. In order to achieve reliable data delivery in UASN, in this work, we present a disjoint multipath disruption-tolerant routing protocol for UASN (ENMR), which incorporates the Hue, Saturation, and Value color space (HSV) model to establish routing paths to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. ENMR applies the mechanism to maintain the network topology. Simulation results show that, compared with the classic underwater routing protocols named PVBF, ENMR can improve packet delivery ratio and reduce network latency while avoiding introducing additional energy consumption. Yun Li, Zhigang Jin, Yishan Su, Ming Yang, and Shenyang Xiao Copyright © 2017 Yun Li et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Synaptic Molecules as Candidates in the Etiology of Neurological Disorders Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:14:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/8081758/ Synapses are complex structures that allow communication between neurons in the central nervous system. Studies conducted in vertebrate and invertebrate models have contributed to the knowledge of the function of synaptic proteins. The functional synapse requires numerous protein complexes with specialized functions that are regulated in space and time to allow synaptic plasticity. However, their interplay during neuronal development, learning, and memory is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence links synapse proteins to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we describe the way in which several proteins that participate in cell adhesion, scaffolding, exocytosis, and neurotransmitter reception from presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments, mainly from excitatory synapses, have been associated with several synaptopathies, and we relate their functions to the disease phenotype. Viviana I. Torres, Daniela Vallejo, and Nibaldo C. Inestrosa Copyright © 2017 Viviana I. Torres et al. All rights reserved. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:05:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2017/2969064/ Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA. Hironori Osamura, Tomoaki Shiba, Takashi Itokawa, Tadashi Matsumoto, and Yuichi Hori Copyright © 2017 Hironori Osamura et al. All rights reserved. Propylene Glycol Toxicity in Adolescent with Refractory Myoclonic Status Epilepticus Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:03:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2017/2979486/ Propylene glycol (PG) is a solvent commonly used in medications that, while benign at low doses, may cause toxicity in adults and children at high doses. We describe a case and the physiologic sequelae of propylene glycol toxicity manifested in a critically ill adolescent male with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus aggressively treated with multiple PG-containing medications (lorazepam, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital)—all within accepted dosing guidelines and a total daily PG exposure previously recognized to be safe. Hemodynamic measurements by bedside echocardiography during clinical toxicity are also reported. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for propylene glycol toxicity in patients treated with PG-containing medications even when the total PG exposure is lower than currently accepted limits. Kara A. Bjur, Bryan C. Cannon, Anthony L. Fine, Matthew J. Ritter, Kerry E. Schueler, and Michael E. Nemergut Copyright © 2017 Kara A. Bjur et al. All rights reserved. Highway Traffic Accident Influence Area Based on Vehicle Bypass Decision-Making Index Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:02:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jat/2017/5270951/ In order to reduce the impact of highway traffic accidents on surrounding road networks, accident influence area should be determined reasonably. According to the relationship between vehicle bypass decision-making index and threshold under accident condition, the vehicles’ route choice behavior at upstream of the accident spot can be divided into two types: bypass and nonbypass. Under nonbypass condition, the method of using traffic wave theory was put forward to determine the upstream influence area. Under bypass condition, the total number of bypass vehicles is determined based on bypass decision-making index being greater than bypass threshold. Assignment algorithms based on routes were proposed. Using improved Logit model to get the selection probability and the traffic flow of each route, then traffic flow of surrounding links could be obtained. At last, the road network influenced by the accident could be determined by comparing with the level of service of each link under normal condition. The paper takes Beijing-Kunming highway as an example, and the results show that the road network formed by the influenced links was highway traffic accident influence area. Comparing with the actual survey results, correctness of the calculation method is verified. Therefore, the analytical method based on bypass decision-making is applicable to determining highway accident influence area. Zhenjun Zhu, Yang Lu, Jun Zeng, and Hongsheng Chen Copyright © 2017 Zhenjun Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Global Dynamics of an SIRS Epidemic Model with Distributed Delay on Heterogeneous Network Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:00:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6376502/ A novel epidemic model with distributed delay on complex network is discussed in this paper. The formula of the basis reproductive number for the model is given, and it is proved that the disease dies out when and the disease is uniformly persistent when . In addition, a unique endemic equilibrium for the model exists when , and a set of sufficient conditions on the global attractiveness of the endemic equilibrium for the system is given. Qiming Liu, Baochen Li, and Meici Sun Copyright © 2017 Qiming Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Form of Brucella Bursitis with Negative Serology: A Case Report and Literature Review Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:55:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2017/9802532/ Brucellosis is still endemic in certain parts of the world including the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Latin America, and African regions. Osteoarticular manifestations are common presenting features. Brucellosis presenting as prepatellar bursitis has already been reported. We present a case of seronegative olecranon bursitis with positive blood and aspirate cultures. The patient improved remarkably by treatment with streptomycin and doxycycline with no evidence or relapse. F. M. Almajid Copyright © 2017 F. M. Almajid. All rights reserved. Smart Data: Where the Big Data Meets the Semantics Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:53:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/6925138/ Trong H. Duong, Hong Q. Nguyen, and Geun S. Jo Copyright © 2017 Trong H. Duong et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Unscented Kalman Filter for Discrete Nonlinear Systems with Random Parameters Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:52:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2017/7905690/ This paper investigates the nonlinear unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) problem for discrete nonlinear dynamic systems with random parameters. We develop an improved unscented transformation by incorporating the random parameters into the state vector to enlarge the number of sigma points. The theoretical analysis reveals that the approximated mean and covariance via the improved unscented transformation match the true values correctly up to the third order of Taylor series expansion. Based on the improved unscented transformation, an improved UKF method is proposed to expand the application of the UKF for nonlinear systems with random parameters. An application to the mobile source localization with time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements and sensor position uncertainties is provided where the simulation results illustrate that the improved UKF method leads to a superior performance in comparison with the normal UKF method. Yue Wang, Zhijian Qiu, and Xiaomei Qu Copyright © 2017 Yue Wang et al. All rights reserved. Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea: A Randomized Control Trial from a Developing Country Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:47:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2017/7942515/ Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years) with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12–47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr) for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea. Duration of diarrhea was the primary outcome measure. Results. The median duration (hrs) of diarrhea (54 versus 80; 95% CI: –26 [–13.2 to –38.8]) and hospitalization (68 versus 90; 95% CI: –22 [–12.98 to –31.02]) was significantly shorter in the nitazoxanide group. No significant difference was seen in the median duration (hrs) of fever or vomiting or the proportion of children requiring parenteral rehydration. There was no report of any adverse events. Conclusions. Oral nitazoxanide is effective and safe in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children (CTRI REF/2016/10/012507). Samarendra Mahapatro, Nijwm Mahilary, Amit Kumar Satapathy, and Rashmi Ranjan Das Copyright © 2017 Samarendra Mahapatro et al. All rights reserved. Effects of FMO3 Polymorphisms on Pharmacokinetics of Sulindac in Chinese Healthy Male Volunteers Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:46:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4189678/ Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which is clinically used for the ailments of various inflammations. This study investigated the allele frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G and evaluated the influences of these two genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and its metabolites in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Eight FMO3 wild-type (FMO3 HHDD) subjects and seven FMO3 homozygotes E158K and E308G mutant (FMO3 hhdd) subjects were recruited from 247 healthy male volunteers genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. The plasma concentrations of sulindac, sulindac sulfide, and sulindac sulfone were determined by UPLC, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two different FMO3 genotypes were compared with each other. The frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G were 20.3% and 20.1%, respectively, which were in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ( = 0.977, = 0.944). The mean values of , , and of sulindac were significantly higher in FMO3 hhdd group than those of FMO3 HHDD group (), while the pharmacokinetic parameters except of sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The two FMO3 mutants were in close linkage disequilibrium and might play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of sulindac in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Yong-Jun Tang, Kai Hu, Wei-Hua Huang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Zhi Liu, Yao Chen, Dong-Sheng Ouyang, Zhi-Rong Tan, Hong-Hao Zhou, and Chun-Su Yuan Copyright © 2017 Yong-Jun Tang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:43:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/8634540/ Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat’s tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N) and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C), irradiated + MSCs (S), irradiated + (PRP) (P), and combined group (PS). Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S), (P), and (PS) revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C), in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection. Basma Elsaadany, Samar El Kholy, Dalia El Rouby, Laila Rashed, and Tarek Shouman Copyright © 2017 Basma Elsaadany et al. All rights reserved. Revisiting Cementoblastoma with a Rare Case Presentation Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:37:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2017/8248691/ Cementoblastoma is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which is characterized by the proliferation of cellular cementum. Diagnosis of cementoblastoma is challenging because of its protracted clinical, radiographic features, and bland histological appearance; most often cementoblastoma is often confused with other cementum and bone originated lesions. The aim of this article is to overview/revisit, approach the diagnosis of cementoblastoma, and also present a unique radiographic appearance of a cementoblastoma lesion associated with an impacted tooth. Vijayanirmala Subramani, Malathi Narasimhan, Suganya Ramalingam, Soumya Anandan, and Subhashini Ranganathan Copyright © 2017 Vijayanirmala Subramani et al. All rights reserved. Developing and Sustaining Recovery-Orientation in Mental Health Practice: Experiences of Occupational Therapists Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:37:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/oti/2017/5190901/ Background/Aim. Internationally, mental health policy requires clinicians to shift from a medical to a recovery-oriented approach. However, there is a significant lag in the translation of policy into practice. Occupational therapists have been identified as ideally situated to be recovery-oriented yet limited research exploring how they do this exists. This study aimed to explore Australian occupational therapists’ experiences of developing and sustaining recovery-orientation in mental health practice. Methods. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve occupational therapists working across different mental health service types. Participants identified themselves as being recovery-oriented. Data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Results. Occupational therapists described recovery-oriented practice as an active, ongoing, and intentional process of seeking out knowledge, finding fit between understandings of recovery-oriented practice and their professional identity, holding hope, and developing confidence through clinical reasoning. Human and systemic aspects of therapists’ workplace environment influenced this process. Conclusions. Being a recovery-oriented occupational therapist requires more than merely accepting a specific framework. It requires commitment and ongoing work to develop and sustain recovery-orientation. Occupational therapists are called to extend current leadership activity beyond their workplace and to advocate for broader systemic change. Alexandra Nugent, Nicola Hancock, and Anne Honey Copyright © 2017 Alexandra Nugent et al. All rights reserved. Thrombosis, Neuroinflammation, and Poststroke Infection: The Multifaceted Role of Neutrophils in Stroke Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:21:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/5140679/ Immune cells can significantly predict and affect the clinical outcome of stroke. In particular, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was shown to predict hemorrhagic transformation and the clinical outcome of stroke; however, the immunological mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Neutrophils are the first cells to invade injured tissue following focal brain ischemia. In these conditions, their proinflammatory properties enhance tissue damage and may promote ischemic incidences by inducing thrombus formation. Therefore, they constitute a potential target for therapeutic approaches and prevention of stroke. Indeed, in animal models of focal brain ischemia, neutrophils have been targeted with successful results. However, even in brain lesions, neutrophils also exert beneficial effects, because they are involved in triggering immunological removal of cell debris. Furthermore, intact neutrophil function is essential for maintaining immunological defense against bacterial infections. Several studies have demonstrated that stroke-derived neutrophils displayed impaired bacterial defense capacity. Because infections are known to impair the clinical course of stroke, therapeutic interventions that target neutrophils should preserve or even restore their function outside the central nervous system (CNS). This complex situation requires well-tailored therapeutic approaches that can effectively tackle immune cell invasion in the brain but avoid increasing poststroke infections. Johanna Ruhnau, Juliane Schulze, Alexander Dressel, and Antje Vogelgesang Copyright © 2017 Johanna Ruhnau et al. All rights reserved. Facial Asymmetry in a Crying Newborn: A Comparison of Two Cases and Review of Literature Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:16:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2017/6368239/ Facial asymmetry in a crying newborn can be due to a variety of different causes. Neonatal asymmetric crying facies (NACF) is a specific phenotype, which is often underrecognized. It is defined as asymmetry of the mouth and lips with grimacing or smiling, but a symmetric appearance at rest. NACF needs to be differentiated from complete facial palsy in a newborn, which can occur due to traumatic or developmental etiologies. Developmental causes can be present in isolation or may be a part of a recognized syndrome. While asymmetric lower lip depression may be seen in both conditions, complete facial palsy is also associated with upper and mid face deformities. We present a case of NACF and compare it to a case of facial palsy due to perinatal trauma. The purpose of this case series is to clarify some of the confusing nomenclatures and highlight the differences in the physical exam findings, diagnosis, and eventual prognosis of these cases. Shreyas Arya, Sunil K. Jain, and Carol J. Richardson Copyright © 2017 Shreyas Arya et al. All rights reserved. Conversion of Low-Flow Priapism to High-Flow State Using T-Shunt with Tunneling Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:13:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2017/7394185/ Introduction. The three types of priapism are stuttering, arterial (high-flow, nonischemic), and venoocclusive (low-flow, ischemic). These are usually distinct entities and rarely occur in the same patient. T-shunts and other distal shunts are frequently combined with tunneling, but a seldom recognized potential complication is conversion to a high-flow state. Case Presentation. We describe 2 cases of men who presented with low-flow priapism episodes that were treated using T-shunts with tunneling that resulted with both men having recurrent erections shortly after surgery that were found to be consistent with high-flow states. Case was a 33-year-old male with sickle cell anemia and case was a 24-year-old male with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In both cases the men were observed over several weeks and both men returned to normal erectile function. Conclusions. Historically, proximal shunts were performed only in cases when distal shunts failed and carry a higher risk of serious complications. T-shunts and other distal shunts combined with tunneling are being used more frequently in place of proximal shunts. These cases illustrate how postoperative erections after T-shunts with tunneling can signify a conversion from low-flow to high-flow states and could potentially be misdiagnosed as an operative failure. Neil A. Mistry, Nicholas N. Tadros, and Jason C. Hedges Copyright © 2017 Neil A. Mistry et al. All rights reserved. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:10:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2729487/ Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL) reduction in total knee replacement (TKR). Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT) after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014). Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL), estimated total blood loss (ETBL), and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg). Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level and body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of postoperative BT ( and 0.003, resp.). Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (). Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance ( all). Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg ( and 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL. Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong, Siwadol Wongsak, Noratep Kulachote, Pongsthorn Chanplakorn, Patarawan Woratanarat, and Viroj Kawinwonggowit Copyright © 2017 Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Recent Advancement in Integrating Omics Data with Literature Mining towards Biomedical Discoveries Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:10:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2017/6213474/ In the past decade, the volume of “omics” data generated by the different high-throughput technologies has expanded exponentially. The managing, storing, and analyzing of this big data have been a great challenge for the researchers, especially when moving towards the goal of generating testable data-driven hypotheses, which has been the promise of the high-throughput experimental techniques. Different bioinformatics approaches have been developed to streamline the downstream analyzes by providing independent information to interpret and provide biological inference. Text mining (also known as literature mining) is one of the commonly used approaches for automated generation of biological knowledge from the huge number of published articles. In this review paper, we discuss the recent advancement in approaches that integrate results from omics data and information generated from text mining approaches to uncover novel biomedical information. Kalpana Raja, Matthew Patrick, Yilin Gao, Desmond Madu, Yuyang Yang, and Lam C. Tsoi Copyright © 2017 Kalpana Raja et al. All rights reserved. A Secure Localization Approach Using Mutual Authentication and Insider Node Validation in Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:08:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2017/3243570/ Localization is a concerning issue in the applications of wireless sensor networks. Along with the accuracy of the location estimation of the sensor nodes, the security of the estimation is another priority. Wireless sensor networks often face various attacks where the attackers try to manipulate the estimated location or try to provide false beacons. In this paper, we have proposed a methodology that will address this problem of security aspects in localization of the sensor nodes. Moreover, we have considered the network environment with random node deployment and mobility as these two conditions are less addressed in previous research works. Further, our proposed algorithm provides low overhead due to the usage of less control messages in a limited transmission range. In addition, we have also proposed an algorithm to detect the malicious anchor nodes inside the network. The simulated results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient in terms of time consumption, localization accuracy, and localization ratio in the presence of malicious nodes. Gulshan Kumar, Mritunjay Kumar Rai, Hye-jin Kim, and Rahul Saha Copyright © 2017 Gulshan Kumar et al. All rights reserved. LEA: An Algorithm to Estimate the Level of Location Exposure in Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:04:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2017/4525380/ Location privacy in wireless networks is nowadays a major concern. This is due to the fact that the mere fact of transmitting may allow a network to pinpoint a mobile node. We consider that a first step to protect a mobile node in this situation is to provide it with the means to quantify how accurately a network establishes its position. To achieve this end, we introduce the location-exposure algorithm (LEA), which runs on the mobile terminal only and whose operation consists of two steps. In the first step, LEA discovers the positions of nearby network nodes and uses this information to emulate how they estimate the position of the mobile node. In the second step, it quantifies the level of exposure by computing the distance between the position estimated in the first step and its true position. We refer to these steps as a location-exposure problem. We tested our proposal with simulations and testbed experiments. These results show the ability of LEA to reproduce the location of the mobile node, as seen by the network, and to quantify the level of exposure. This knowledge can help the mobile user decide which actions should be performed before transmitting. Francisco Garcia, Javier Gomez, Miguel Lopez-Guerrero, Victor Rangel, and Michael Pascoe-Chalke Copyright © 2017 Francisco Garcia et al. All rights reserved. Vascular Cognitive Impairment through the Looking Glass of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:57:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2017/1421326/ In the last years, there has been a significant growth in the literature exploiting transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with the aim at gaining further insights into the electrophysiological and neurochemical basis underlying vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Overall, TMS points at enhanced brain cortical excitability and synaptic plasticity in VCI, especially in patients with overt dementia, and neurophysiological changes seem to correlate with disease process and progress. These findings have been interpreted as part of a glutamate-mediated compensatory effect in response to vascular lesions. Although a single TMS parameter owns low specificity, a panel of measures can support the VCI diagnosis, predict progression, and possibly identify early markers of “brain at risk” for future dementia, thus making VCI a potentially preventable cause of both vascular and degenerative dementia in late life. Moreover, TMS can be also exploited to select and evaluate the responders to specific drugs, as well as to become an innovative rehabilitative tool in the attempt to restore impaired neural plasticity. The present review provides a perspective of the different TMS techniques by further understanding the cortical electrophysiology and the role of distinctive neurotransmission pathways and networks involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of VCI and its subtypes. Giuseppe Lanza, Placido Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Manuela Pennisi, Giovanni Pennisi, and Rita Bella Copyright © 2017 Giuseppe Lanza et al. All rights reserved. Lemierre’s Syndrome Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Profound Deafness Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:50:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2017/4261429/ Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre’s syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant. This is one of two reported cases of Lemierre’s syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation support and the only case associated with a cochlear implant. Lukas Birkner Copyright © 2017 Lukas Birkner. All rights reserved. Hemifacial Pain and Hemisensory Disturbance Referred from Occipital Neuralgia Caused by Pathological Vascular Contact of the Greater Occipital Nerve Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:48:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2017/3827369/ Here we report a unique case of chronic occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact of the left greater occipital nerve. After 12 months of left-sided, unremitting occipital neuralgia, a hypesthesia and facial pain developed in the left hemiface. The decompression of the left greater occipital nerve from pathological contacts with the occipital artery resulted in immediate relief for hemifacial sensory change and facial pain, as well as chronic occipital neuralgia. Although referral of pain from the stimulation of occipital and cervical structures innervated by upper cervical nerves to the frontal head of V1 trigeminal distribution has been reported, the development of hemifacial sensory change associated with referred trigeminal pain from chronic occipital neuralgia is extremely rare. Chronic continuous and strong afferent input of occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact with the greater occipital nerve seemed to be associated with sensitization and hypersensitivity of the second-order neurons in the trigeminocervical complex, a population of neurons in the C2 dorsal horn characterized by receiving convergent input from dural and cervical structures. Byung-chul Son and Jin-gyu Choi Copyright © 2017 Byung-chul Son and Jin-gyu Choi. All rights reserved. Renormalization of Chiral Nuclear Forces with Multiple Subtractions in Peripheral Channels Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:41:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2017/2316247/ We analyse the renormalization of the of two-nucleon interaction with multiple subtractions in peripheral waves considering two chiral forces at N3LO. Phase shifts at low energies are then computed with several subtraction points below  fm−1. We show that for most peripheral waves the phase shifts have nearly no dependence on the renormalization scale. In two cases the phase shifts converge slowly as the renormalization scale approaches  fm−1 and in one case the phase shifts presented oscillations with respect to the subtraction point . E. F. Batista, S. Szpigel, and V. S. Timóteo Copyright © 2017 E. F. Batista et al. All rights reserved. Caudal Epidural Block: An Updated Review of Anatomy and Techniques Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:38:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9217145/ Caudal epidural block is a commonly used technique for surgical anesthesia in children and chronic pain management in adults. It is performed by inserting a needle through the sacral hiatus to gain entrance into the sacral epidural space. Using conventional blind technique, the failure rate of caudal epidural block in adults is high even in experienced hands. This high failure rate could be attributed to anatomic variations that make locating sacral hiatus difficult. With the advent of fluoroscopy and ultrasound in guiding needle placement, the success rate of caudal epidural block has been markedly improved. Although fluoroscopy is still considered the gold standard when performing caudal epidural injection, ultrasonography has been demonstrated to be highly effective in accurately guiding the needle entering the caudal epidural space and produce comparative treatment outcome as fluoroscopy. Except intravascular and intrathecal injection, ultrasonography could be as effective as fluoroscopy in preventing complications during caudal epidural injection. The relevant anatomy and techniques in performing the caudal epidural block will be briefly reviewed in this article. Sheng-Chin Kao and Chia-Shiang Lin Copyright © 2017 Sheng-Chin Kao and Chia-Shiang Lin. All rights reserved. EM-Based High Speed Wireless Sensor Networks for Underwater Surveillance and Target Tracking Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:29:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2017/6731204/ Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are considered as tangible, low cost solution for underwater surveillance and exploration. Existing acoustic wave-based UWSN systems fail to meet the growing demand for fast data rates required in military operations, oil/gas exploration, and oceanographic data collection. Electromagnetic (EM) wave-based communication systems, on the other hand, have great potential for providing high speed data rates in such scenarios. This paper will discuss the challenges faced in the utilization of EM waves for the design of tactical underwater surveillance systems and evaluate several EM wave-based three-dimensional (3D) UWSN architectures differing in topologies and/or operation principles on the performance of localization and target tracking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first of its kind in the field of underwater communications where underwater surveillance techniques for EM wave-based high speed UWSNs have been investigated. Thus, this will be a major step towards achieving future high speed UWSNs. Kumudu Munasinghe, Mohammed Aseeri, Sultan Almorqi, Md. Farhad Hossain, Musbiha Binte Wali, and Abbas Jamalipour Copyright © 2017 Kumudu Munasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:29:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2017/6817196/ Egg whites (EW) are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (,  g) were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU) rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (, , and , resp.). The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (). These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating. Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yayoi Takahashi, Mamoru Kimura, Yasunobu Masuda, and Masaaki Kunou Copyright © 2017 Ryosuke Matsuoka et al. All rights reserved. Effective and Safe Use of Glucocorticosteroids for Rescue of Late ARDS Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:27:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2017/6740532/ We describe a case of severe refractory hypoxemia requiring prolonged extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in a case of postpartum acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The clinical course was marked by persistently poor lung compliance and several complications of ECMO, that is, significant hemolysis, hemothorax, and intracranial bleeding. We report marked improvement of lung mechanics and respiratory function, leading to accelerated separation from ECMO, following rescue administration of low dose methylprednisolone 24 days after the onset of ARDS. Corticosteroid treatment was safe and well tolerated. In contrast with the conclusions of the 2006 ARDS Network trial, our report establishes a case in support of the use of low dose methylprednisolone as a safe and effective rescue treatment option in selected subsets of patients with nonresolving ARDS. Paolo Diana, Dustin T. Money, Michael G. Gelvin, and Nadia Lunardi Copyright © 2017 Paolo Diana et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Outcomes of Primary Trabeculectomy in Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy with Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:26:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2017/7947854/ Purpose. To evaluate primary trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin-C (MMC) in diabetic patients without retinopathy with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Design. This is a retrospective case series comparison. Participants. This retrospective trial compared outcomes of 88 eyes that underwent trabeculectomy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) without retinopathy and in 97 patients without DM. Methods. In this study, the intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, visual field, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Qualified surgical success is defined as an IOP between 6 and 18 mmHg with or without topical antiglaucoma medication. Results. After a follow-up of 5 years, the IOP decreased from a mean basal IOP of  mmHg to  mmHg in the DM group and from  mmHg to  mmHg in the control group. The mean number of antiglaucoma medications was and preoperatively () whereas it was and at the 5-year follow-up (). The 5-year qualified surgical success rates were 42.9% and 65.4% for both groups (; log-rank test). Encysted blebs were seen in 21 (23.9%) patients in the DM group and in 12 (12.4%) patients in the control group (). Conclusion. PACG patients with DM without retinopathy undergoing primary trabeculectomy with MMC may have a lower long-term surgical survival rate compared with patients without DM. Jian Liu, Miaomiao Zhang, Bin Li, and Jianrong Wang Copyright © 2017 Jian Liu et al. All rights reserved. Magnetoresistance Effect in NiFe/BP/NiFe Vertical Spin Valve Devices Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:18:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2017/9042823/ Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging candidates for spintronic applications. Here, we report magnetoresistance (MR) properties of a black phosphorus (BP) spin valve devices consisting of thin BP flakes contacted by NiFe ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. The spin valve effect has been observed from room temperature to 4 K, with MR magnitudes of 0.57% at 4 K and 0.23% at 300 K. In addition, the spin valve resistance is found to decrease monotonically as temperature is decreased, indicating that the BP thin film works as a conductive interlayer between the NiFe electrodes. Leilei Xu, Jiafeng Feng, Kangkang Zhao, Weiming Lv, Xiufeng Han, Zhongyuan Liu, Xiaohong Xu, He Huang, and Zhongming Zeng Copyright © 2017 Leilei Xu et al. All rights reserved. Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:13:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2017/2578082/ Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health management. Biosafety Level 3 measures and ciprofloxacin treatment were instituted when B. anthracis was suspected from a patient with gangrenous foot. 16S rDNA sequencing was performed to accurately identify the suspected bacterium, due to the superiority of this method to accurately identify clinically isolated bacteria. B. megaterium was identified as the causative agent and the organism was subsequently treated as a Biosafety Level 2 pathogen. Shih Keng Loong, Boon Teong Teoh, Jefree Johari, Chee Sieng Khor, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Siti Sarah Nor’e, Nur Izyan Samsudin, Noor Syahida Azizan, Che Norainon Yaacob, Asma Anati CheMatSeri, Nur Hidayana Mahfodz, and Sazaly AbuBakar Copyright © 2017 Shih Keng Loong et al. All rights reserved. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Prostate Which Was Initially Misdiagnosed as Prostate Cancer Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2017/3594914/ Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the prostate is a very rare tumor. We report a case of 65-year-old man with SFT of the prostate which was initially misdiagnosed as prostate cancer. Finally, we performed total prostatectomy and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as SFT of the prostate. The patient’s clinical course has progressed favorably with no obvious recurrence 18 months postoperatively. Soma Osamu, Hiromi Murasawa, Atsushi Imai, Shingo Hatakeyama, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, and Chikara Ohyama Copyright © 2017 Soma Osamu et al. All rights reserved. Myocardial Infarction after Endoscopic Removal of Foreign Body Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2017/4541587/ The development of cardiac complications during or after endoscopic procedures is rare. However, mortality from myocardial ischemia, particularly in the elderly population, is elevated. We illustrate the rare case of a 79-year-old man with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who developed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) after endoscopic removal of a foreign body. This case report summarizes a rare complication of a low-risk procedure and highlights the importance of considering this potential adverse event, particularly in patients with significant cardiovascular risk factors, to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment. Carola Maraboto, Florentino Lupercio, and Ileana L. Piña Copyright © 2017 Carola Maraboto et al. All rights reserved. IFN-τ Displays Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Staphylococcus aureus Endometritis via Inhibiting the Activation of the NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Mice Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2350482/ The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of IFN-τ on endometritis using a mouse model of S. aureus-induced endometritis and to elucidate the mechanism of action underlying these effects. In the present study, the effect of IFN-τ on S. aureus growth was monitored by turbidimeter at 600 nm. IFN-τ did not affect S. aureus growth. The histopathological changes indicated that IFN-τ had a protective effect on uterus tissues with S. aureus infection. The ELISA and qPCR results showed the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was decreased with IFN-τ treatment. In contrast, the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. We further studied the signaling pathway associated with these observations, and the qPCR results showed that the expression of TLR2 was repressed by IFN-τ. Furthermore, the western blotting results showed the phosphorylation of IκB, NF-κB p65, and MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK) was inhibited by IFN-τ treatment. The results suggested that IFN-τ may be a potential drug for the treatment of uterine infection due to S. aureus or other infectious inflammatory diseases. Zhenbiao Zhang, Yingfang Guo, Yuzhu Liu, Chengye Li, Mengyao Guo, and Ganzhen Deng Copyright © 2017 Zhenbiao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Mode of Delivery in Drug-Dependent Pregnant Women: A Case Control Study Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2017/1630967/ Objective. To determine the contribution of drug use during pregnancy to the route of delivery. Methods. A case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal, between 2001 and 2014. Drug-dependent pregnant women () were compared with a control group of low risk women () in terms of maternal characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy complications, and labor details. Factors that influenced the mode of delivery were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v. 23.0 (IBM Corp.). p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Drug-dependent women presented a lower rate of cesarean delivery (18.2 versus 28.9%, ). After adjusting for the factors that were significantly related to the mode of delivery, drug dependency influenced the rate of cesarean section (; 95% CI = 0.328–0.980). Within the drug-dependent group, the mode of delivery was significantly related to previous cesarean or vaginal delivery ( and , resp.) and fetal presentation (), but not with the type of drug, route of administration, or substitution maintenance therapy. Conclusions. The drug-dependent group presented a significantly higher rate of vaginal delivery. However, this was not associated with the behavioral factors analyzed. We hypothesize that other social and psychological factors might explain this difference. Ana Raquel Neves, Fabiane Neves, Isabel Santos Silva, Maria do Céu Almeida, and Pitorra Monteiro Copyright © 2017 Ana Raquel Neves et al. All rights reserved. Influence of a Moving Mass on the Dynamic Behaviour of Viscoelastically Connected Prismatic Double-Rayleigh Beam System Having Arbitrary End Supports Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjm/2017/6058035/ This paper deals with the lateral vibration of a finite double-Rayleigh beam system having arbitrary classical end conditions and traversed by a concentrated moving mass. The system is made up of two identical parallel uniform Rayleigh beams which are continuously joined together by a viscoelastic Winkler type layer. Of particular interest, however, is the effect of the mass of the moving load on the dynamic response of the system. To this end, a solution technique based on the generalized finite integral transform, modified Struble’s method, and differential transform method (DTM) is developed. Numerical examples are given for the purpose of demonstrating the simplicity and efficiency of the technique. The dynamic responses of the system are presented graphically and found to be in good agreement with those previously obtained in the literature for the case of a moving force. The conditions under which the system reaches a state of resonance and the corresponding critical speeds were established. The effects of variations of the ratio of the mass of the moving load to the mass of the beam on the dynamic response are presented. The effects of other parameters on the dynamic response of the system are also examined. Jacob Abiodun Gbadeyan and Fatai Akangbe Hammed Copyright © 2017 Jacob Abiodun Gbadeyan and Fatai Akangbe Hammed. All rights reserved. Tumor Size Is a Critical Factor in Adjuvant Chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 Gastric Cancer Patients after D2 Gastrectomy Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/4928736/ Aim. To investigate whether tumor size is a reasonable indication for adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Method. We performed a retrospective study of 269 patients with a histological diagnosis of T3-4aN0M0 stage gastric cancer who underwent D2 radical surgery at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between January 2006 and December 2010. The follow-up lasted until June of 2015. Chi-square tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were employed to compare the clinicopathological variables and prognoses. Result. For this group of patients, univariate analyses revealed that tumor size (), pathological T stage (), and tumor location () were significant prognostic factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not exhibit prognostic benefits. For patients with tumors larger than 5 cm, univariate analysis revealed that tumor location (), Borrmann type (), postoperative chemotherapy (), and pathological T stage () were significant prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and pathological T stage were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Our results imply that tumor size should be a critical factor in the decision to utilize adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Additional randomized controlled trials are required before this conclusion can be considered definitive. Shi Chen, Li-Ying Ou-Yang, Run-Cong Nie, Yuan-Fang Li, Jun Xiang, Zhi-Wei Zhou, Ying-Bo Chen, and Jun-Sheng Peng Copyright © 2017 Shi Chen et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Stochastic Multiattribute Decision-Making That Considers Stochastic Variable Variance Characteristics under Time-Sequence Contingency Environments Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/7126856/ This paper presents a dynamic stochastic decision-making method that considers the characteristics of stochastic variable variances under time-sequence contingency environments for solving stochastic decision-making problems with information from different periods and of indeterminate attribute weights. First, time-sequence weights are obtained using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), corresponding with the idea of “stressing the present rather than the past.” After determining the time degree and fully considering the characteristics of normally distributed stochastic variable variances, the attribute weight is determined based on vertical projection distance. Decision-making information is then assembled from two dimensions of time-sequence and attributes, based on the two categories of weighted arithmetic averaging operators of normally distributed stochastic variables, resulting in comprehensive dynamic decision-making from single solution dimensions and a priority sequence of solutions per the order relation criteria of normally distributed stochastic variables. Finally, the validity and practicability of the methods proposed in this paper are verified using an example numerical analysis. Zao-li Yang and Lu-cheng Huang Copyright © 2017 Zao-li Yang and Lu-cheng Huang. All rights reserved. Emerging Perspectives in Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Oral Surgery Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/4585401/ Bone regeneration is currently one of the most important and challenging tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine. Bone regeneration is a promising approach in dentistry and is considered an ideal clinical strategy in treating diseases, injuries, and defects of the maxillofacial region. Advances in tissue engineering have resulted in the development of innovative scaffold designs, complemented by the progress made in cell-based therapies. In vitro bone regeneration can be achieved by the combination of stem cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. The biomimetic approach to create an ideal bone substitute provides strategies for developing combined scaffolds composed of adult stem cells with mesenchymal phenotype and different organic biomaterials (such as collagen and hyaluronic acid derivatives) or inorganic biomaterials such as manufactured polymers (polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), and polycaprolactone). This review focuses on different biomaterials currently used in dentistry as scaffolds for bone regeneration in treating bone defects or in surgical techniques, such as sinus lift, horizontal and vertical bone grafts, or socket preservation. Our review would be of particular interest to medical and surgical researchers at the interface of cell biology, materials science, and tissue engineering, as well as industry-related manufacturers and researchers in healthcare, prosthetics, and 3D printing, too. Gabriele Ceccarelli, Rossella Presta, Laura Benedetti, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Saturnino Marco Lupi, and Ruggero Rodriguez y Baena Copyright © 2017 Gabriele Ceccarelli et al. All rights reserved. Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Transonic Aerodynamics with Geometric Uncertainty Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2017/8107190/ Airfoil geometric uncertainty can generate aerodynamic characteristics fluctuations. Uncertainty quantification is applied to compute its impact on the aerodynamic characteristics. In addition, the contribution of each uncertainty variable to aerodynamic characteristics should be computed by the uncertainty sensitivity analysis. In the paper, Sobol’s analysis is used for uncertainty sensitivity analysis and a nonintrusive polynomial chaos method is used for uncertainty quantification and Sobol’s analysis. It is difficult to describe geometric uncertainty because it needs a lot of input parameters. In order to alleviate the contradiction between the variable dimension and computational cost, a principal component analysis is introduced to describe geometric uncertainty of airfoil. Through this technique, the number of input uncertainty variables can be reduced and typical global deformation modes can be obtained. By uncertainty quantification, we can learn that the flow characteristics of shock wave and boundary layer separation are sensitive to the geometric uncertainty in transonic region, which is the main reason that transonic drag is sensitive to the geometric uncertainty. The sensitivity analysis shows that the model can be simplified by eliminating unimportant geometric modes. Moreover, which are the most important geometric modes to transonic aerodynamics can be learnt. This is very helpful for airfoil design. Xiaojing Wu, Weiwei Zhang, and Shufang Song Copyright © 2017 Xiaojing Wu et al. All rights reserved. Melanomas and Dysplastic Nevi Differ in Epidermal CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Count Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6803756/ Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7.00/mm2 for invasive melanomas, 2.94 for in situ melanomas, and 13.35 for dysplastic nevi. The differences between dysplastic nevi and melanoma in situ as well as between dysplastic nevi and invasive melanoma were significant. There was no correlation in number of positively stained cells between epidermis and dermis. We did not observe any intraepidermal DC-LAMP+ cells neither in melanoma in situ nor in invasive melanoma as well as any intraepidermal DC-SIGN+ cells in dysplastic nevi. Conclusion. It was shown that the number of dendritic cells differs between dysplastic nevi, in situ melanomas, and invasive melanomas. This could eventually suggest their participation in the development of melanoma. Grzegorz Dyduch, Katarzyna Ewa Tyrak, Anna Glajcar, Joanna Szpor, Magdalena Ulatowska-Białas, and Krzysztof Okoń Copyright © 2017 Grzegorz Dyduch et al. All rights reserved. Validity of a New Kit Measuring Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Level for Screening Gingivitis Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/9547956/ Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of a new kit that can evaluate salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level in real time for screening gingivitis. Materials and Methods. The study included 70 systemic healthy volunteers [29 males and 41 females; mean age ± SD: years]. Resting saliva was collected from each participant and LD level was evaluated in real time using the kit (a color-changing sheet with an integer scale ranging from 1 to 10). A dentist measured probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and the proportion of sites with bleeding on probing (% BOP) at six sites on all teeth. Gingivitis was diagnosed when the BOP value was ≥20%. Results. Salivary LD level was positively correlated with mean % BOP (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.132–1.916, and ) in a logistic regression model. The sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 0.89 and 0.98, respectively, at a cut-off value of 8.0 for LD level. Conclusions. The new kit for measurement of salivary LD level may be a useful tool to screen for gingivitis in young adults, which contributes to early detection of future periodontitis. Daisuke Ekuni, Mayu Yamane-Takeuchi, Kota Kataoka, Aya Yokoi, Ayano Taniguchi-Tabata, Hirofumi Mizuno, Hisataka Miyai, Yoko Uchida, Daiki Fukuhara, Yoshio Sugiura, Takaaki Tomofuji, and Manabu Morita Copyright © 2017 Daisuke Ekuni et al. All rights reserved. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/7679219/ AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s). Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment. M. Kumar and N. G. Ross Copyright © 2017 M. Kumar and N. G. Ross. All rights reserved. A Case of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Hypothesis of a Transient Direct Communication between a Penetrating Antral Gastric Ulcer and Mesenteric Varices Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2017/8185132/ Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiological sign that usually signifies an acute intra-abdominal process, most commonly bowel ischemia and sepsis. Few reports described an association with underlying gastric pathologies. We report a 60-year-old patient who presented with melena and chills and was discovered to have a gastric ulcer that appeared to have penetrated into a mesenteric varix. This, in turn, likely caused development of HPVG associated with fungemia. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and bowel rest was sufficient to resolve symptoms and the HPVG. Hassan M. Ghoz, Shamlan M. Sheikh, Kanika Khandelwal, Joseph Fiore, Nicholas James, and Joel Weinstock Copyright © 2017 Hassan M. Ghoz et al. All rights reserved. A Rational Approach to Sinus Augmentation: The Low Window Sinus Lift Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2017/7610607/ Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift. To illustrate the use of this approach, a case is presented in which the 50-year-old patient had the left maxillary first molar extracted, followed two months later by sinus augmentation and placement of three implants. One year after delivery of the definitive prosthesis, all three implants were successful, and the prosthesis was fully functional. Controlled studies should be undertaken to assess whether this technique provides significant advantages compared to other sinus augmentation approaches. Terry Zaniol and Alex Zaniol Copyright © 2017 Terry Zaniol and Alex Zaniol. All rights reserved. Age-Friendliness and Life Satisfaction of Young-Old and Old-Old in Hong Kong Fri, 24 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cggr/2017/6215917/ Age-friendliness, promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO), aims to enable and support individuals in different aspects of life for fostering life satisfaction and personal well-being as they age. We identified specific aspect(s) of age-friendliness associated with life satisfaction and examined similarities and differences in age-friendliness and life satisfaction in young-old and old-old adults. Six hundred and eighty-two ageing adults were asked to complete a survey questionnaire consisting of the Age-friendly City Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and sociodemographic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of various domains of age-friendliness on life satisfaction among the young-old adults (aged 65 to 74, ) and the old-old adults (aged 75 to 97, ). Common domains associated with life satisfaction in both young-old and old-old groups were transportation and social participation. Community and health services were associated with life satisfaction for the young-old group only. On the other hand, civic participation and employment was significantly associated with the old-old group only. Social participation is important for the young-old and the old-old. Ageing older adults can be a resource to the society. Implications for promoting and implementing age-friendliness were discussed in the context of successful and productive ageing and the need for a more refined taxonomy of social activities. Alma M. L. Au, Stephen C. Y. Chan, H. M. Yip, Jackie Y. C. Kwok, K. Y. Lai, K. M. Leung, Anita L. F. Lee, Daniel W. L. Lai, Teresa Tsien, and Simon M. K. Lai Copyright © 2017 Alma M. L. Au et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Apolipoprotein E Isoforms in Diabetic Nephropathy of Chinese Type 2 Diabetic Patients Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:39:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/3560920/ Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major chronic complications of diabetes. Genetic polymorphism of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been proposed to participating in DN. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ApoE genetic polymorphism and the presence of DN in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. We studied 845 diabetic patients who were divided into DN group () and control group (). ApoE genotype was determined by ApoE genotyping chip and the plasmatic biochemical characterization was performed on all subjects. There were differences () in HbA1c, creatinine, and urinary albumin between the two groups. The ApoE ε2 allelic frequency was 7.69% in DN group versus 3.49% in control group (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.41–3.47, and ), as expected, ApoE E2/E2 and E2/E3 genotype frequency were higher in DN group (13.75% versus 6.49%, ). The ApoE ε4 allelic frequency was 7.93% in DN group versus 11.54% in control group (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.50–0.97, and ), and DN group presented a lower frequency of ApoE E3/E4 and E4/E4 genotype frequency (14.91% versus 19.96%, ). These results suggest ApoE ε2 allele may be a risk factor; however ApoE ε4 allele may play a protective role of DN in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. YongWei Jiang, Liang Ma, ChengWu Han, Qian Liu, Xiao Cong, YaPing Xu, TingTing Zhao, Ping Li, and YongTong Cao Copyright © 2017 YongWei Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:18:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/4645701/ Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1) from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration) was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin) and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin). Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic) did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria. A. A. Lebedeva, N. S. Zakharchenko, E. V. Trubnikova, O. A. Medvedeva, T. V. Kuznetsova, G. A. Masgutova, M. V. Zylkova, Y. I. Buryanov, and A. S. Belous Copyright © 2017 A. A. Lebedeva et al. All rights reserved. Controllable Growth of the ZnO Nanorod Arrays on the Al Substrate and Their Reversible Wettability Transition Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:10:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2017/5104841/ High-quality ZnO nanorod arrays are formed using the ZnO nanoflakes on the Al substrate as seed layer. A reversible wettability transition can be easily achieved via alternation of UV irradiation and dark storage. The physical adsorption of the water molecules on the surface of ZnO nanorod arrays is considered to be responsible for this transition, which is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hong Li, Hongyan Liu, Yushan Li, and Qinzhuang Liu Copyright © 2017 Hong Li et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Wound Healing Potentials of Medicinal Plants Historically Used in Ghana Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:09:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9480791/ The present study was carried out to investigate the wound healing potentials of 17 medicinal plants historically used in Ghana for wound healing. Warm and cold water extracts were prepared from the 17 dried plant species and tested in vitro in the scratch assay with NIH 3T3 fibroblasts from mice. The wound healing scratch assay was used to evaluate the effect of the plants on cell proliferation and/or migration in vitro, as a test for potential wound healing properties. After 21 hours of incubation increased proliferation and/or migration of fibroblasts in the scratch assay was obtained for 5 out of the 17 plant species. HPLC separation of the most active plant extract, which was a warm water extract of Philenoptera cyanescens, revealed the wound healing activity to be attributed to rutin and a triglycoside of quercetin. The present study suggests that Allophylus spicatus, Philenoptera cyanescens, Melanthera scandens, Ocimum gratissimum, and Jasminum dichotomum have wound healing activity in vitro. Sara H. Freiesleben, Jens Soelberg, Nils T. Nyberg, and Anna K. Jäger Copyright © 2017 Sara H. Freiesleben et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Surgical Management of Corneal Perforations, Measured over Six Years Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:04:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2017/1582532/ Purpose. To report the surgical approach, anatomical and functional results, and complications in the group of patients with corneal perforation. Materials and Methods. 247 eyes with corneal perforation were operated on between January 2010 and July 2016. The three surgical procedures, dependent on size and location of perforation, were performed: full-sized penetrating keratoplasty, corneoscleral patch graft, and anterior lamellar keratoplasty. The eyes underwent the minimum 6-month follow-up visit. Results. Between January 2010 and July 2016, 247 surgeries were performed: 116 penetrating keratoplasties, 117 corneoscleral patch grafts, and 14 anterior lamellar keratoplasties. More than one procedure was necessary in 32 eyes. Final improvement of the visual acuity, within a gain of 2 or more lines with the Snellen test, was achieved in 56 operated eyes. To achieve better final visual acuity, 75 eyes required successive surgical treatment. Complications of the surgery comprised persistent epithelial defect, glaucoma or ocular hypertension, corneal oedema, graft melting, loose corneal sutures, reinfection, anterior synechiae and fibrinoid membranes, and endophthalmitis. In 26 eyes, the treatment failure was reported. Conclusions. There is no one general-purpose surgical technique to treat corneal perforations. The complex nature of this pathology remains the individual, careful but also very distinct and multifactorial approach. Katarzyna Krysik, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Anita Lyssek-Boron, Judyta Jankowska-Szmul, and Edward A. Wylegala Copyright © 2017 Katarzyna Krysik et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices Thu, 23 Feb 2017 12:34:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2017/7495348/ We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. Ji Won Ha Copyright © 2017 Ji Won Ha. All rights reserved. An Electrochemical Study to Evaluate the Effect of Calcium Nitrite Inhibitor to Mitigate the Corrosion of Reinforcement in Sodium Chloride Contaminated Ca(OH)2 Solution Thu, 23 Feb 2017 12:31:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2017/6265184/ The effect of calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2) was assessed by electrochemical means such as open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic studies in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution contaminated with 0.99 and 7.91 g/L NaCl. The preliminary results of OCP showed that the potential is shifted towards positive (noble) side as content of inhibitor increased. The EIS results indicate that Ca(NO2)2 works effectively in reduction and initiation of corrosion of steel rebar in NaCl contaminated Ca(OH)2 solution. Potentiodynamic studies revealed the pitting tendency of steel rebar exposed in 0.99 g/L NaCl at [Cl−/] = 1.2 attributed to low conductivity of passive film which causes interference for Cl− ions attack during anodic polarization. The 85.75% efficiency is found in 0.99 g/L at [Cl−/] = 1.2. The Ca(NO2)2 inhibitor transformed the unstable iron oxides/hydroxides into stable and protective oxides/hydroxides due to its strong oxidizing nature. Therefore, this inhibitor is sufficiently and significantly reducing the corrosion of steel rebar at even its low concentration with 0.99 and 7.91 g/L NaCl solution. Hwa-Sung Ryu, Jitendra Kumar Singh, Han-Seung Lee, and Won-Jun Park Copyright © 2017 Hwa-Sung Ryu et al. All rights reserved. A Metaheuristic Algorithm Based on Chemotherapy Science: CSA Thu, 23 Feb 2017 12:27:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2017/3082024/ Among scientific fields of study, mathematical programming has high status and its importance has led researchers to develop accurate models and effective solving approaches to addressing optimization problems. In particular, metaheuristic algorithms are approximate methods for solving optimization problems whereby good (not necessarily optimum) solutions can be generated via their implementation. In this study, we propose a population-based metaheuristic algorithm according to chemotherapy method to cure cancers that mainly search the infeasible region. As in chemotherapy, Chemotherapy Science Algorithm (CSA) tries to kill inappropriate solutions (cancers and bad cells of the human body); however, this would inevitably risk incidentally destroying some acceptable solutions (healthy cells). In addition, as the cycle of cancer treatment repeats over and over, the algorithm is iterated. To align chemotherapy process with the proposed algorithm, different basic terms and definitions including Infeasibility Function (IF), objective function (OF), Cell Area (CA), and Random Cells (RCs) are presented in this study. In the terminology of algorithms and optimization, IF and OF are mainly applicable as criteria to compare every pair of generated solutions. Finally, we test CSA and its structure using the benchmark Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Mohammad Hassan Salmani and Kourosh Eshghi Copyright © 2017 Mohammad Hassan Salmani and Kourosh Eshghi. All rights reserved. Micromorphological Studies of the Loranthaceae, Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle Thu, 23 Feb 2017 12:26:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jb/2017/5603140/ Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle is a mistletoe of the Loranthaceae family that has been explored for its therapeutic properties in folklore for ages. However, there had been an alarming increase in misidentification of species in this family. This may be due in part to the lack of species taxonomic information. Hence, this study wishes to highlight the range of micromorphological features which could complement the information database of this species. Scanning electron, light, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microscopies were used for this study. The result revealed a paracytic type of stomata with mean abaxial and adaxial density of  mm2 and  mm2, respectively, and mean guard cell length of  μm. Oval-shaped lenticels with a mean length of  μm were observed. They were arranged in parallel on the epidermal cells of the abaxial midrib. Densely packed stellate trichomes were revealed on the abaxial epidermis with a density of  mm2. Tracheary elements, which are tightly packed with granules believed to be proteins, were observed in the cross sections of the twig. Deposits chiefly composed of silicon, aluminium, potassium, and iron were recorded in the EDX analysis. This study revealed detailed descriptive micromorphological structures which could serve as a source of information and reference for the taxonomic description of P. capitata. Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, and Anthony Jide Afolayan Copyright © 2017 Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats Thu, 23 Feb 2017 12:07:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9732854/ Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg). Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nou-Ying Tang, Yi-Wen Lin, Tin-Yun Ho, Chin-Yi Cheng, Chao-Hsiang Chen, and Ching-Liang Hsieh Copyright © 2017 Nou-Ying Tang et al. All rights reserved. Early-Onset Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2017/2832180/ Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. While a decline has been observed in the older population, the occurrence of CRC in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population has increased over the past two decades. The histopathologic characteristics and clinical behavior of CRC in AYA patients have been shown to be distinct from those of CRC in older adults. The rarer subtypes of CRC such as mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma are associated with a poorer prognosis compared to the more common subtypes. Here we report a case of a 20-year-old man who was diagnosed with stage IVB (T4 N2 M1, with peritoneal carcinomatosis) signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the colon. The scarcity of information on these rarer subtypes merits further study and investigation. Maliha Khan, Krittiya Korphaisarn, Aneeqa Saif, Wai C. Foo, and Scott Kopetz Copyright © 2017 Maliha Khan et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Value of CK-18, FGF-21, and Related Biomarker Panel in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:39:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9729107/ Liver biopsy still remains the gold standard for diagnosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but with limitations. There is an urgent need to develop noninvasive tests that accurately distinguish NASH from simple steatosis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum biomarkers including cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), and combined biomarker panel (CBP) in the diagnosis of NAFLD, especially NASH. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity and specificity values for chosen serum markers for diagnosing NASH are as follows: CK-18 (M30), 0.75 and 0.77; CK-18 (M65), 0.71 and 0.77; FGF-21, 0.62 and 0.78; and CBP, 0.92 and 0.85. CBP demonstrated better accuracy with higher sensitivity and specificity than those tested individually. Furthermore, the AUROC of CBP was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.92–0.96), compared to CK-18 or FGF-21 assay, which showed the most significant ability to distinguish NASH from simple steatosis. The results suggest that increased circulating CK-18 and FGF-21 are associated with NASH and may be used for initial assessment, but not enough. Importantly, CBP is potentially used as accurate diagnostic tools for NASH. Further prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Lei He, Linfeng Deng, Quan Zhang, Jianli Guo, Jinan Zhou, Wenjian Song, and Fahu Yuan Copyright © 2017 Lei He et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of a Permeability Field within the Two-Phase Porous Media Flow Using Nonlinear Multigrid Method Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:35:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2945712/ Estimation of spatially varying permeability within the two-phase porous media flow plays an important role in reservoir simulation. Usually, one needs to estimate a large number of permeability values from a limited number of observations, so the computational cost is very high even for a single field-model. This paper applies a nonlinear multigrid method to estimate the permeability field within the two-phase porous media flow. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed estimation method. In comparison with other existing methods, the most outstanding advantage of this method is the computational efficiency, computational accuracy, and antinoise ability. The proposed method has a potential applicability to a variety of parameter estimation problems. Tao Liu and Jie Song Copyright © 2017 Tao Liu and Jie Song. All rights reserved. Could Perinatal Asphyxia Induce a Synaptopathy? New Highlights from an Experimental Model Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:20:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/3436943/ Birth asphyxia also termed perinatal asphyxia is an obstetric complication that strongly affects brain structure and function. Central nervous system is highly susceptible to oxidative damage caused by perinatal asphyxia while activation and maturity of the proper pathways are relevant to avoiding abnormal neural development. Perinatal asphyxia is associated with high morbimortality in term and preterm neonates. Although several studies have demonstrated a variety of biochemical and molecular pathways involved in perinatal asphyxia physiopathology, little is known about the synaptic alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia. Nearly 25% of the newborns who survive perinatal asphyxia develop neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy and certain neurodevelopmental and learning disabilities where synaptic connectivity disturbances may be involved. Accordingly, here we review and discuss the association of possible synaptic dysfunction with perinatal asphyxia on the basis of updated evidence from an experimental model. María Inés Herrera, Matilde Otero-Losada, Lucas Daniel Udovin, Carlos Kusnier, Rodolfo Kölliker-Frers, Wanderley de Souza, and Francisco Capani Copyright © 2017 María Inés Herrera et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Long-Term Chaetomellic Acid A Administration on Renal Function and Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Renal Mass Reduction Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:16:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5125980/ Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with chaetomellic acid A (CAA) on oxidative stress and renal function in a model of renal mass reduction. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (RMR) or sham-operated (SO). One week after surgery, rats have been divided into four experimental groups: RMR: RMR rats without treatment ; RMR + CAA: RMR rats treated with CAA ; SO: SO rats without treatment ; and SO + CAA: SO rats treated with CAA . CAA was intraperitoneally administered in a dose of 0.23 µg/Kg three times a week for six months. Results. RMR was accompanied by a significant reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio. CAA administration significantly increased catalase and GR activity and increased GSH/GSSG ratio, but no significant difference between the treated and nontreated groups was found in this ratio. No significant differences were found between the RMR groups in any of the parameters of renal function. However, CAA administration slightly improves some parameters of renal function. Conclusions. These data suggest that CAA could attenuate 5/6 RMR-induced oxidative stress. António Nogueira, Francisco Peixoto, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Carlos André Pires, Bruno Colaço, Paula Alexandra Oliveira, and Maria João Pires Copyright © 2017 António Nogueira et al. All rights reserved. Algebraic Cryptanalysis Scheme of AES-256 Using Gröbner Basis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:14:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2017/9828967/ The zero-dimensional Gröbner basis construction is a crucial step in Gröbner basis cryptanalysis on AES-256. In this paper, after performing an in-depth study on the linear transformation and the system of multivariate polynomial equations of AES-256, the zero-dimensional Gröbner basis construction method is proposed by choosing suitable term order and variable order. After giving a detailed construction process of the zero-dimensional Gröbner basis, the necessary theoretical proof is presented. Based on this, an algebraic cryptanalysis scheme of AES-256 using Gröbner basis is proposed. Analysis shows that the complexity of our scheme is lower than that of the exhaustive attack. Kaixin Zhao, Jie Cui, and Zhiqiang Xie Copyright © 2017 Kaixin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Prolonged Consciousness Disorder Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:13:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/9358092/ We investigated the clinical predictors of the degree of recovery in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDC) caused by traumatic brain injury. Fourteen patients with PDC underwent two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies; the first and second scans were performed at and days after the injury, respectively. In addition to the temporal changes in each of these diffusion parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity were assessed over a 1-year period. Relationship of clinical and DTI parameters with recovery from PDC (RPDC) was evaluated using Spearman’s rank-correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The mean FA and number of voxels with FA values > 0.4 (VsFA0.4) were significantly decreased at the second scan. A significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of RPDC and mean FA () and VsFA0.4 () as well as between the difference in VsFA0.4 () and AD () between the first and second scans. On multiple linear regression analysis, initial severity of PDC and the difference in AD remained significantly associated with the degree of RPDC. The microstructural white matter changes observed in this study indicate their potential relation with the degree of RPDC over the longer term. Hiroaki Abe, Keigo Shimoji, Yoshihide Nagamine, Satoru Fujiwara, and Shin-Ichi Izumi Copyright © 2017 Hiroaki Abe et al. All rights reserved. A Fabrication Process for Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices Based on Oxide Tunnel Junctions Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:11:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/8613571/ We present a versatile nanodamascene process for the realization of low-power nanoelectronic devices with different oxide junctions. With this process we have fabricated metal/insulator/metal junctions, metallic single electron transistors, silicon tunnel field effect transistors, and planar resistive memories. These devices do exploit one or two nanometric-scale tunnel oxide junctions based on TiO2, SiO2, HfO2, Al2O3, or a combination of those. Because the nanodamascene technology involves processing temperatures lower than 300°C, this technology is fully compatible with CMOS back-end-of-line and is used for monolithic 3D integration. Dominique Drouin, Gabriel Droulers, Marina Labalette, Bruno Lee Sang, Patrick Harvey-Collard, Abdelkader Souifi, Simon Jeannot, Stephane Monfray, Michel Pioro-Ladriere, and Serge Ecoffey Copyright © 2017 Dominique Drouin et al. All rights reserved. Neisseria meningitidis Infecting a Prosthetic Knee Joint: A New Case of an Unusual Disease Thu, 23 Feb 2017 10:15:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2017/4545721/ Primary meningococcal meningitis is an infrequent but known disease. However, the infection of a prosthetic joint with Neisseria meningitidis is rare. We hereby describe the second case of an arthroplasty infected with Neisseria meningitidis that responded favourably to prosthesis retention with surgical debridement, in combination with antibiotics treatment. Berta Becerril Carral, Elvira Alarcón Manoja, Salvador López Cárdenas, and Jesús Canueto Quintero Copyright © 2017 Berta Becerril Carral et al. All rights reserved. Hyperkalemia Induced Brugada Phenocopy: A Rare ECG Manifestation Thu, 23 Feb 2017 10:02:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2017/9464728/ Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited disorder of cardiac ion channels characterized by peculiar ECG findings predisposing individuals to ventricular arrhythmias, syncope, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Various electrolyte disturbances and ion channels blocking drugs could also provoke BrS ECG findings without genetic BrS. Clinical differentiation and recognition are essential for guiding the legitimate action. Hyperkalemia is well known to cause a wide variety of ECG manifestations. Severe hyperkalemia can even cause life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Most common ECG findings include peaked tall T waves with short PR interval and wide QRS complex. Since it is very commonly encountered disorder, physicians need to be aware of even its rare ECG manifestations, which include ST segment elevation and Brugada pattern ECG (BrP). We are adding a case to the limited literature about hyperkalemia induced reversible Brugada pattern ECG changes. Muhammad Ameen, Ghulam Akbar, Naeem Abbas, and Ghazi Mirrani Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Ameen et al. All rights reserved. Time-Free Solution to SAT Problem by Tissue P Systems Thu, 23 Feb 2017 10:01:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/1567378/ Tissue P systems are a class of computing models inspired by intercellular communication, where the rules are used in the nondeterministic maximally parallel manner. As we know, the execution time of each rule is the same in the system. However, the execution time of biochemical reactions is hard to control from a biochemical point of view. In this work, we construct a uniform and efficient solution to the problem with tissue P systems in a time-free way for the first time. With the P systems constructed from the sizes of instances, the execution time of the rules has no influence on the computation results. As a result, we prove that such system is shown to be highly effective for NP-complete problem even in a time-free manner with communication rules of length at most 3. Yueguo Luo, Zhongyang Xiong, and Guanghua Zhang Copyright © 2017 Yueguo Luo et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNAs Involvement in Radioresistance of Head and Neck Cancer Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:58:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/8245345/ Resistance to the ionizing radiation is a current problem in the treatment and clinical management of various cancers including head and neck cancer. There are several biological and molecular mechanisms described to be responsible for resistance of the tumors to radiotherapy. Among them, the main mechanisms include alterations in intracellular pathways involved in DNA damage and repair, apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. It has been found that regulation of these complex processes is often controlled by microRNAs. MicroRNAs are short endogenous RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally modulate gene expression and their deregulated expression has been observed in many tumors including head and neck cancer. Specific expression patterns of microRNAs have also been shown to predict prognosis and therapeutic response in head and neck cancer. Therefore, microRNAs present promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets that might overcome resistance to radiation and improve prognosis of head and neck cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the functional role of microRNAs in radioresistance of cancer with special focus on head and neck cancer. Parwez Ahmad, Jiri Sana, Marek Slavik, Pavel Slampa, Pavel Smilek, and Ondrej Slaby Copyright © 2017 Parwez Ahmad et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterisation of Highly Stable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:56:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/7859289/ Magnetic nanoparticles produced using aqueous coprecipitation usually exhibit wide particle size distribution. Synthesis of small and uniform magnetic nanoparticles has been the subject of extensive research over recent years. Sufficiently small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles easily permeate tissues and may enhance the contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, their unique small size also allows them to migrate into cells and other body compartments. To better control their synthesis, a chemical coprecipitation protocol was carefully optimised regarding the influence of the injection rate of base and incubation times. The citrate-stabilised particles were produced with a narrow average size range below 2 nm and excellent stability. The stability of nanoparticles was monitored by long-term measurement of zeta potentials and relaxivity. Biocompatibility was tested on the Caki-2 cells with good tolerance. The application of nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then evaluated. The relaxivities and ratio calculated from MR images of prepared phantoms indicate the nanoparticles as a promising -contrast probe. David Kovář, Aneta Malá, Jitka Mlčochová, Michal Kalina, Zdenka Fohlerová, Antonín Hlaváček, Zdeněk Farka, Petr Skládal, Zenon Starčuk Jr., Radovan Jiřík, Ondřej Slabý, and Jaromír Hubálek Copyright © 2017 David Kovář et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Activities of Stauntonia hexaphylla Leaf Constituents on Rat Lens Aldose Reductase and Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products and Antioxidant Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:54:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4273257/ Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb.) Decne. (Lardizabalaceae) leaves (SHL) have been used traditionally as analgesics, sedatives, diuretics, and so on, in China. To date, no data have been reported on the inhibitory effect of SHL and its constituents on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Therefore, the inhibitory effect of compounds isolated from SHL extract on RLAR and AGEs was investigated to evaluate potential treatments of diabetic complications. The ethyl acetate (EtOAC) fraction of SHL extract showed strong inhibitory activity on RLAR and AGEs; therefore, EtOAc fraction (3.0 g) was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, for further fractionation, with 100% MeOH solvent system to investigate its effect on RLAR and AGEs. Phytochemical investigation of SHL led to the isolation of seven compounds. Among the isolated compounds, chlorogenic acid, calceolarioside B, luteolin-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited significant inhibitory activity against RLAR with IC50 in the range of 7.34–23.99 μM. In addition, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and luteolin-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against formation of AGEs, with an IC50 value of 115.07–184.06 μM, compared to the positive control aminoguanidine (820.44 μM). Based on these findings, SHL dietary supplements could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes complication. Seung Hwan Hwang, Shin Hwa Kwon, Set Byeol Kim, and Soon Sung Lim Copyright © 2017 Seung Hwan Hwang et al. All rights reserved. Heat Shock Protein HSP27 Secretion by Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Linked to Intracellular Expression Levels, Occurs Independently of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathway and HSP27’s Phosphorylation Status, and Is Mediated by Exosome Liberation Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:20:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/1575374/ The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC) patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock. Intra- and extracellular HSP27 amounts were assessed by Western blotting and ELISA. Protein secretion was blocked by brefeldin A and the impact of the HSP27 phosphorylation status was analyzed overexpressing HSP27 phosphomutants. The present study demonstrated that HSP27 secretion by OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells depends on intracellular HSP27 concentrations. Moreover, HSP27 secretion is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum secretory pathway and HSP27 phosphorylation. Notably, analysis of OC cell-born exosomes not only confirmed the concentration-dependent correlation of HSP27 expression and secretion but also demonstrated a concentration-dependent incorporation of HSP27 protein into exosomes. Thus, secreted HSP27 may become more important as an extracellular factor which controls the tumor microenvironment and might be a noninvasive biomarker. Matthias B. Stope, Gerd Klinkmann, Karoline Diesing, Dominique Koensgen, Martin Burchardt, and Alexander Mustea Copyright © 2017 Matthias B. Stope et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Adrenal Mass in a 3-Month-Old: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:15:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2017/4542321/ A three-month-old female infant presented with abdominal distention for 2 months. A large palpable mass in right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large heterogeneous mass with multiple cystic components. Mass was surgically excised and pathology was consistent with mature adrenal teratoma. Teratoma is a germ cell tumor mainly found in gonadal tissues. Occurrence of adrenal gland teratoma in children is very rare with less than 10 pediatric case reports in English literature. We present a rare case of primary adrenal tumor in an infant and a review of the literature. Ashish Garg, Elza Pollak-Christian, and Navneetha Unnikrishnan Copyright © 2017 Ashish Garg et al. All rights reserved. Cooccurrences of Putative Endogenous Retrovirus-Associated Diseases Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:14:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7973165/ At least 8% of the human genome is composed of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences. ERVs play a role in placental morphogenesis and can sometimes protect the host against exogenous viruses. On the other hand, ERV reactivation has been found to be associated with different diseases, for example, multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Little is known about the cooccurrence of these diseases. If all these diseases are caused by ERV, antiretroviral therapy should perhaps also show some effects in the other diseases. Here, we summarize literature demonstrating that some ERV-associated diseases seem to appear together more often than expected, for example, MS and ALS, MS and T1D, MS and schizophrenia, or ALS and T1D. In contrast, some ERV-associated diseases seem to appear together less frequently than expected, for example, schizophrenia and T1D. Besides, some reports demonstrate amelioration of MS, ALS, or schizophrenia under antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. If such results could be confirmed in larger studies, alternative therapy strategies for ERV-associated diseases like MS and schizophrenia might be possible. Christine Brütting, Alexander Emmer, Malte E. Kornhuber, and Martin S. Staege Copyright © 2017 Christine Brütting et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasound-Guided versus Fluoroscopy-Guided Deep Cervical Plexus Block for the Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:12:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4654803/ Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of ultrasound-guided deep cervical plexus block with fluoroscopy-guided deep cervical plexus block for patients with cervicogenic headache (CeH). Methods. A total of 56 patients with CeH were recruited and randomly assigned to either the ultrasound-guided (US) or the fluoroscopy-guided (FL) injection group. A mixture of 2–4 mL 1% lidocaine and 7 mg betamethasone was injected along C2 and/or C3 transverse process. The measurement of pain was evaluated by patients’ ratings of a 10-point numerical pain scale (NPS) before and 2 wks, 12 wks, and 24 wks after treatments. Results. The blocking procedures were well tolerated. The pain intensity, as measured by NPS, significantly decreased at 2 wks after injection treatment in both US and FL groups, respectively, compared with that of baseline (P < 0.05). The blocking procedures had continued, and comparable pain relieving effects appeared at 12 wks and 24 wks after treatment in both US and FL groups. There were no significant differences observed in the NPS before and 2 wks, 12 wks, and 24 wks after treatment between US and FL groups. Conclusions. The US-guided approach showed similar satisfactory effect as the FL-guided block. Ultrasonography can be an alternative method for its convenience and efficacy in deep cervical plexus block for CeH patients without radiation exposure. Qing Wan, Haiyun Yang, Xiao Li, Caina Lin, Songjian Ke, Shaoling Wu, and Chao Ma Copyright © 2017 Qing Wan et al. All rights reserved. Protein and Metalloprotein Distribution in Different Varieties of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Effects of Cooking Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:08:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfs/2017/5957178/ Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are among the main sources of protein and minerals. The cooking of the grains is imperative, due to reduction of the effect of some toxic and antinutritional substances, as well as increase of protein digestibility. In this study, the effects of cooking on albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins concentration and determination of Fe associated with proteins for different beans varieties and on phaseolin concentration in common and black beans were evaluated. Different extractant solutions (water, NaCl, ethanol, and NaOH) were used for extracting albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins, respectively. For the phaseolin separation NaOH, HCl, and NaCl were used. The total concentration of proteins was determined by Bradford method; Cu and Fe associated with phaseolin and other proteins were obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Cooking promoted a negative effect on (1) the proteins concentrations (17 (glutelin) to 95 (albumin) %) of common beans and (2) phaseolin concentration (90%) for common and black beans. Fe associated with albumin, prolamin, and glutelin was not altered. In Fe and Cu associated with phaseolin there was an increase of 20 and 37% for the common and black varieties, respectively. Aline P. Oliveira, Geyssa Ferreira Andrade, Bianca S. O. Mateó, and Juliana Naozuka Copyright © 2017 Aline P. Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Hepatitis with Liver Granulomas in a Patient with Granuloma Annulare: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:07:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2017/8768529/ Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign granulomatous skin disorder of unknown etiology. GA is rarely associated with liver diseases. We report a unique case of chronic hepatitis with liver granulomas in a patient with GA. Despite an extensive workup, no clear etiology for the hepatitis was found. Based on the possible immune pathophysiology of GA and the presence of liver granulomas, the patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine which resulted in complete normalization of the liver enzymes and concurrent improvement of GA. The association between liver diseases and GA is reviewed. Majid Alsahafi, Mohammed I. AlJasser, Sunil Kalia, H. M. Yang, and Alnoor Ramji Copyright © 2017 Majid Alsahafi et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Classical and Pulsating Jets in Crossflow at Various Strouhal Numbers Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:01:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/5279790/ Investigation of the classical and pulsating jet in crossflow (JICF) at a low Reynolds number (Re = 100) has been performed by the LES method based on varied velocity ratios (  1~4). Time-averaged particle trajectories are compared in the classical and pulsating JICF. The formation mechanism and the corresponding flow characteristics for the counter-rotating vortex pair (CRVP) have been analyzed. An unexpected “vortex tail” has been found in the JICF at higher velocity ratio due to the enhanced interactions indicated by the increased jet momentum among the CRVP, upright vortices, and shear layers. The analysis of time-averaged longitudinal vorticity including a coupling mechanism between vortices has been performed. The returning streamlines appear in the pulsating JICF, and two extra converging points emerge near the nozzle of the jet at different Strouhal numbers. The temperature profiles based on the iso-surface for the classical and pulsating JICF have been obtained computationally and analyzed in detail. Jianlong Chang, Xudong Shao, Jiangman Li, and Xiao Hu Copyright © 2017 Jianlong Chang et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Life in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:49:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/7058082/ Background and Objective. Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) could significantly increase the likelihood of health problems concerning both potential risks for the mother, fetus, and child’s development and negative effects on maternal mental health above all in terms of a diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The current systematic review study is aimed at further contributing to an advancement of knowledge about the clinical link between GDM and QoL. Methods. According to PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies aimed at evaluating and/or improving levels of QoL in women diagnosed with GDM. Results. Fifteen research studies were identified and qualitatively analyzed by summarizing results according to the following two topics: GDM and QoL and interventions on QoL in patients with GDM. Studies showed that, in women with GDM, QoL is significantly worse in both the short term and long term. However, improvements on QoL can be achieved through different intervention programs by enhancing positive diabetes-related self-management behaviors. Conclusion. Future studies are strongly recommended to further examine the impact of integrative programs, including telemedicine and educational interventions, on QoL of GDM patients by promoting their illness acceptance and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Daniela Marchetti, Danilo Carrozzino, Federica Fraticelli, Mario Fulcheri, and Ester Vitacolonna Copyright © 2017 Daniela Marchetti et al. All rights reserved. Adverse Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts and the Major Components in the Stems of Impatiens balsamina L. on Caenorhabditis elegans Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:41:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4245830/ Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55%) extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS) in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively. The lifespan of C. elegans was also greatly reduced after HAEIBS exposure compared to the controls. The active compounds in HAEIBS were separated using high speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC) and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two compounds, lawsone and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ), and their adverse effects were then more thoroughly detailed in this study. It was found that lawsone is the major toxin in HAEIBS with a higher toxicity than MNQ in terms of negative impact on C. elegans mortality, locomotion, reproduction, and lifespan. Our data also suggests that the C. elegans model may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity of other Chinese medicines, plant extracts, and/or compounds. Hong-Fang Jiang, Zi-Heng Zhuang, Bei-Wei Hou, Bao-Jun Shi, Cheng-Jie Shu, Lei Chen, Guo-Xin Shi, and Wei-Ming Zhang Copyright © 2017 Hong-Fang Jiang et al. All rights reserved. The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates among Rural Population in Henan Province, China Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:31:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/9092759/ The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness () and treatment () in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM. Xiaotian Liu, Ling Wang, Panpan Wang, Ruihua Liu, Kaili Yang, Xinling Qian, Jingjing Fan, Songcheng Yu, Yuqian Li, and Chongjian Wang Copyright © 2017 Xiaotian Liu et al. All rights reserved. iACT-CEL: A Feasibility Trial of a Face-to-Face and Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Intervention for Chronic Pain in Singapore Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:27:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2017/6916915/ Psychological interventions are increasingly utilising online or mobile phone based platforms to deliver treatment, including that for people with chronic pain. The aims of this study were to develop an adapted form of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic pain in Singapore and to test the feasibility of elements of this treatment delivered via the internet and email. Methods. Thirty-three participants recruited from a tertiary pain management clinic and via the clinic website participated in this program over a period of five weeks with a 3-month follow-up. Treatment outcomes were assessed at three assessment time points. Results. 90.9% of participants completed the program, with 81.8% reporting high treatment satisfaction. Significant changes in depression, , (baseline to posttreatment), , (baseline to follow-up), and pain intensity, , (baseline to follow-up) were found. Mainly small effect sizes with a moderate effect size () for depression were found at posttreatment. Clinically meaningful improvement in at least one outcome was demonstrated in 75.8% of participants. Conclusions. An adaptation of ACT for people with chronic pain in Singapore appears promising. Optimal treatment design and more effective ways to target outcomes and processes measured here are required. Su-Yin Yang, Rona Moss-Morris, and Lance M. McCracken Copyright © 2017 Su-Yin Yang et al. All rights reserved. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:24:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2017/5470731/ Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0) with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64) years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population. Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Fred Stephen Sarfo, Eunice Oparebea Ansah, and Ishmael Kyei Copyright © 2017 Osei Sarfo-Kantanka et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Analysis of Two Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus Variants-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Mice and Dogs: The First Report in China, 2015 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:23:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6707868/ Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) causes acute viral infection in chickens worldwide. It can infect chickens of all ages, but the disease is seen only in young chickens and is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions in the muscles, atrophic changes in the lymphoid organs, aplastic bone marrow, and immunosuppression causing increased mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that CIAV can be isolated from blood specimens of humans and fecal samples of stray cats. In the present study, two variants of CIAV were isolated from fecal samples of mice (CIAV-Mouse) and stray dogs (CIAV-Dog), respectively. The genome of the two CIAV variants was sequenced and the results of the recombination detection program suggested that the CIAV-Dog strain could be a recombinant viral strain generated from parental CIAV strains, AB119448 and GD-1-12, with high confidence. Particularly, these findings were obtained from the comparison of genetic diversity and the relationship of CIAV between different hosts. This is the first report indicating that there is a significant difference in the number of transcription factor binding sites in CIAV noncoding regions from different hosts. Further studies are required to investigate the large geographic distribution of CIAV and monitor the variants, host range, and associated diseases. Lichun Fang, Yang Li, Yixin Wang, Jiayuan Fu, Shuai Cui, Xiaohan Li, Shuang Chang, and Peng Zhao Copyright © 2017 Lichun Fang et al. All rights reserved. Dasatinib and Prednisolone Induction Therapy for a Case of Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Accompanied by Life-Threatening Ventricular Tachycardia Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:22:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/4027908/ A 56-year-old man being treated for dilated cardiomyopathy presented with epigastralgia. He was diagnosed with ventricular tachycardia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. After treating incessant ventricular tachycardia, we commenced induction therapy for leukemia with dasatinib and prednisolone to minimize toxicity towards cardiomyocytes and the cardiac conduction system. Although dasatinib was temporarily withheld because of a recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, we rechallenged dasatinib while using bisoprolol and amiodarone and achieved a complete hematological response three weeks later. Although drug interactions between dasatinib and amiodarone were of concern, the blood concentration of each drug remained within the safe range after concomitant use, and there were no adverse cardiac effects such as QT prolongation after rechallenging dasatinib. Induction therapy with dasatinib and prednisolone may be an acceptable therapeutic option for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia with severe cardiac complications. Mitsutaka Nishimoto, Hirohisa Nakamae, Kana Matsumoto, Kunihiko Morita, Yuki Koga, Dai Momose, and Masayuki Hino Copyright © 2017 Mitsutaka Nishimoto et al. All rights reserved. Case Study of Somaclonal Variation in Resistance Genes Mlo and Pme3 in Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Induced by Nanoparticles Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:20:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2017/1676874/ Nanoparticles influence on genome is investigated worldwide. The appearance of somaclonal variation is a cause of great concern for any micropropagation system. Somaclonal variation describes the tissue-culture-induced phenotypic and genotypic variations. This paper shows the results of somaclonal variation in two resistance genes pectin methylesterase and Mlo-like protein in all tissue culture development stages, as donor plant, calluses, and regenerants of Linum usitatissimum induced by gold and silver nanoparticles. In this paper, it was essential to obtain DNA material from all tissue culture development stages from one donor plant to record changes in each nucleotide sequence. Gene region specific primers were developed for resistance genes such as Mlo and Pme3 to define the genetic variability in tissue culture of L. usitatissimum. In recent years, utilization of gold and silver nanoparticles in tissue culture is increased and the mechanisms of changes in genome induced by nanoparticles still remain unclear. Obtained data show the somaclonal variation increase in calluses obtained from one donor plant and grown on medium supplemented by gold nanoparticles (Mlo ; Pme3 ) or silver nanoparticles (Mlo ; Pme3 ) and decrease in regenerants. Morphological parameters of calluses showed a number of differences between each investigated culture group. Inese Kokina, Ilona Mickeviča, Marija Jermaļonoka, Linda Bankovska, Vjačeslavs Gerbreders, Andrejs Ogurcovs, and Inese Jahundoviča Copyright © 2017 Inese Kokina et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Prepubertal Patients with Suspected Neurosecretory Dysfunction of Growth Hormone Secretion: Diagnostic Steps and Treatment Response Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:19:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aen/2017/9256043/ Background and Aims. Existence and diagnostic procedures of neurosecretory dysfunction of growth hormone (NSD) are still a matter of debate. The aim of our study was (a) to find out if prediagnostic auxological and laboratory data could serve as an indicator for pathologic and normal spontaneous GH-secretion and (b) to evaluate the response to GH-therapy in NSD-patients. Methods. Of 90 children (unicentric study) with normal response to GH-stimulation tests, in whom 12-hour night profiles for GH-secretion were performed, 49 were diagnosed with NSD (NSD group). Their auxologic data, IGF-I/IGFBP3-levels as well as the night profiles, were analysed and compared to those of the non-NSD group. Additionally, follow-up auxological data of the GH-treated NSD-patients were collected. Results. Prediagnostic auxologic and laboratory data did not differ between the two groups. Instead, for all analysed criteria of spontaneous GH-secretion (number of peaks, maximal and mean secretion) a significant difference was found. Children with NSD showed a good response to GH-treatment after 1 (H-SDS +0,77 ± 0,48) as well as 4 years (+1,51 ± 0,75). Conclusion. According to our results, analysing spontaneous GH-secretion remains the only method to identify NSD. Yet, as response to GH-treatment is comparable to results in idiopathic GHD, it is worth to consider this diagnosis. Carmen Sydlik, Claudia Weißenbacher, Julia Roeb, Susanne Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, and Heinrich Schmidt Copyright © 2017 Carmen Sydlik et al. All rights reserved. Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Treatment for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:18:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2017/9437452/ The mortality rate for respiratory failure resulting from obesity hypoventilation syndrome is high if it requires ventilator management. We describe a case of severe acute respiratory failure resulting from obesity hypoventilation syndrome (BMI, 60.2 kg/m2) successfully treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). During ECMO management, a mucus plug was removed by bronchoscopy daily and 18 L of water was removed using diuretics, resulting in weight loss of 24 kg. The patient was weaned from ECMO on day 5, extubated on day 16, and discharged on day 21. The fundamental treatment for obesity hypoventilation syndrome in morbidly obese patients is weight loss. VV-ECMO can be used for respiratory support until weight loss has been achieved. Nao Umei and Shingo Ichiba Copyright © 2017 Nao Umei and Shingo Ichiba. All rights reserved. Efficient and Effective Learning of HMMs Based on Identification of Hidden States Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:16:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/7318940/ The predominant learning algorithm for Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) is local search heuristics, of which the Baum-Welch (BW) algorithm is mostly used. It is an iterative learning procedure starting with a predefined size of state spaces and randomly chosen initial parameters. However, wrongly chosen initial parameters may cause the risk of falling into a local optimum and a low convergence speed. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose to use a more suitable model initialization approach, a Segmentation-Clustering and Transient analysis (SCT) framework, to estimate the number of states and model parameters directly from the input data. Based on an analysis of the information flow through HMMs, we demystify the structure of models and show that high-impact states are directly identifiable from the properties of observation sequences. States having a high impact on the log-likelihood make HMMs highly specific. Experimental results show that even though the identification accuracy drops to 87.9% when random models are considered, the SCT method is around 50 to 260 times faster than the BW algorithm with 100% correct identification for highly specific models whose specificity is greater than 0.06. Tingting Liu and Jan Lemeire Copyright © 2017 Tingting Liu and Jan Lemeire. All rights reserved. An Approach to Macroscopic Central Lymph Nodes Detected during Surgery in Patients with Thyroid Micropapillary Carcinoma: Should We Resort to Dissection? Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:13:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2017/5814610/ Background. High-resolution ultrasonography and the ability to perform fine-needle aspiration biopsy even for nodules smaller than three millimeters have considerably increased the detection rate of thyroid micropapillary carcinoma (TMPC). Despite favorable prognosis, the prevalence of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with TMPC is approximately 30%. Aim. In this study, we aimed to determine the central lymph node metastasis rate and its relation to the characteristics of the tumor. Methods. One hundred nine patients who underwent surgery due to TMPC between December 2009 and January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they underwent lymph node dissection and the two groups were then compared with respect to tumor size and multicentricity, age, and presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of patients in terms of tumor size, tumor multicentricity, age, and presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. When the patient group that received lymph node dissection was further analyzed, it was found that patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis had a significantly lower number of metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion. Central lymph node dissection in TMPC patients with macroscopic lymph node detected intraoperatively would ensure accurate staging without an increase in morbidity. Osman Kurukahvecioglu, Kursat Dikmen, Hasan Bostanci, Murat Akin, and Ferit Taneri Copyright © 2017 Osman Kurukahvecioglu et al. All rights reserved. Cross Spectral Analysis of CODAR-SeaSonde Echoes from Sea Surface and Ionosphere at Taiwan Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:08:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2017/1756761/ It is well known that the primary targets responsible for first-order sea echoes observed by a High-Frequency (HF) radar are the advancing and receding ocean waves with the wavelengths at Bragg scales. However, in light of the fact that the ionospheric sporadic E (Es) and F layers may be present in the viewing range of the HF radar for ocean wave detection, the radar returns reflected from the F and Es layers may significantly contaminate the ocean wave power spectrum. The characteristics of the first-order sea echoes and ionospheric interferences measured by the CODAR-SeaSonde in Taiwan area are analyzed and presented in this article. The coherences and phases of the normalized cross spectra of the sea and ionospheric echoes between different pairs of the receiving channels are calculated, respectively. One of the striking features presented in this report is that the ionospheric echo heights scaled from the ionogram observed by the Chung-Li ionosonde are about 30 km lower than those observed by the DATAN CODAR-SeaSonde. It is also found that the coherences of the sea echoes are generally smaller than those of the ionospheric echoes by about 15% on average, and the phase fluctuations (standard deviations) of the sea echoes are substantially larger than those of the ionospheric layer reflection echoes. In addition, statistics show that the sum of the mean phases of the ionospheric echoes between the three receiving channel pairs is approximately zero, while it is not for the sea echoes. These results seem to suggest that the use of the discrepancies in the characteristics of the coherences and phases between the sea and ionospheric echoes may provide a potential means to be helpful to distinguish the sea and ionospheric echoes in the CODAR-SeaSonde observed cross power spectrum. Chien-Ya Wang, Ching-Lun Su, Kang-Hung Wu, and Yen-Hsyang Chu Copyright © 2017 Chien-Ya Wang et al. All rights reserved. Implementation of an Agent-Based Parallel Tissue Modelling Framework for the Intel MIC Architecture Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:03:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2017/8721612/ Timothy is a novel large scale modelling framework that allows simulating of biological processes involving different cellular colonies growing and interacting with variable environment. Timothy was designed for execution on massively parallel High Performance Computing (HPC) systems. The high parallel scalability of the implementation allows for simulations of up to 109 individual cells (i.e., simulations at tissue spatial scales of up to 1 cm3 in size). With the recent advancements of the Timothy model, it has become critical to ensure appropriate performance level on emerging HPC architectures. For instance, the introduction of blood vessels supplying nutrients to the tissue is a very important step towards realistic simulations of complex biological processes, but it greatly increased the computational complexity of the model. In this paper, we describe the process of modernization of the application in order to achieve high computational performance on HPC hybrid systems based on modern Intel® MIC architecture. Experimental results on the Intel Xeon Phi™ coprocessor x100 and the Intel Xeon Phi processor x200 are presented. Maciej Cytowski, Zuzanna Szymańska, Piotr Umiński, Grzegorz Andrejczuk, and Krzysztof Raszkowski Copyright © 2017 Maciej Cytowski et al. All rights reserved. Time Reversal Aided Bidirectional OFDM Underwater Cooperative Communication Algorithm with the Same Frequency Transmission Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:02:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2017/8242369/ In underwater acoustic channel, signal transmission may experience significant latency and attenuation that would degrade the performance of underwater communication. The cooperative communication technique can solve it but the spectrum efficiency is lower than traditional underwater communication. So we proposed a time reversal aided bidirectional OFDM underwater cooperative communication algorithm. The algorithm allows all underwater sensor nodes to share the same uplink and downlink frequency simultaneously to improve the spectrum efficiency. Since the same frequency transmission would produce larger intersymbol interference, we adopted the time reversal method to degrade the multipath interference at first; then we utilized the self-information cancelation module to remove the self-signal of OFDM block because it is known for sensor nodes. In the simulation part, we compare our proposed algorithm with the existing underwater cooperative transmission algorithms in respect of bit error ratio, transmission rate, and computation. The results show that our proposed algorithm has double spectrum efficiency under the same bit error ratio and has the higher transmission rate than the other underwater communication methods. Lingling Zhang, Jianguo Huang, Chengkai Tang, and Houbing Song Copyright © 2017 Lingling Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Anaesthesiologist and Palliative Care in a Newborn with the Adam “Sequence” Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:55:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cria/2017/6230923/ Reports focusing on biomedical principlism and the role of anaesthesiologists in palliative care are rare. We present the case of a newborn with multiple craniofacial anomalies and a diagnosis of ADAM “sequence,” in which surgical removal of placental adhesions to the dura mater and the correction of meningocele was not indicated due to the very short life expectancy. After 48 hours, the odor from the placenta indicted a necrotic process, which prevented the parents from being close to the child and increased his isolation. Urgent surgery was performed, after which the newborn was transported to the ICU and intubated under controlled mechanical ventilation. The patient died a week later. The principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and respect for autonomy are simultaneously an inspiratory and regulatory framework for clinical practice. Although only necessary procedures are defended, which suggests a position contrary to invasive interventions at the end of life, sometimes they are the best palliative measures that can be taken in cases like the one described here. Alberto Vieira Pantoja, Maria Emília Gonçalves Estevez, Bruno Lima Pessoa, Fernando de Paiva Araújo, Bruno Mendonça Barcellos, Ciro Augusto Floriani, and Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende Copyright © 2017 Alberto Vieira Pantoja et al. All rights reserved. A Damaged Constitutive Model for Rock under Dynamic and High Stress State Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:54:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/8329545/ The main research work of this paper focuses on the theoretical prediction of the constitutive relationship for rock, concrete, and other quasi-brittle materials under dynamic and complex stress state and the influence of dynamic mechanical behavior of rock on practical engineering problems was studied. A damaged elastoplastic model (DEPM) is established for the investigation and prediction of static or dynamic mechanical behavior of rock material. The mechanical behavior (brittleness or plasticity) and dynamic response (due to underground impact pressure and high-velocity impact of projectile) of rock under high in situ stress were investigated via the DEPM combined with the explicit finite element method. This paper suggests the influence of the brittle or plastic mechanical behavior of rock material on deep underground rock engineering. Yan-Long Li and Zong-Yuan Ma Copyright © 2017 Yan-Long Li and Zong-Yuan Ma. All rights reserved. Perinatal Mortality Associated with Positive Postmortem Cultures for Common Oral Flora Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:52:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2017/9027918/ Introduction. To investigate whether maternal oral flora might be involved in intrauterine infection and subsequent stillbirth or neonatal death and could therefore be detected in fetal and neonatal postmortem bacterial cultures. Methods. This retrospective study of postmortem examinations from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010 was searched for bacterial cultures positive for common oral flora from heart blood or lung tissue. Maternal age, gestational age, age at neonatal death, and placental and fetal/neonatal histopathological findings were collected. Results. During the study period 1197 postmortem examinations (861 stillbirths and 336 neonatal deaths) were performed in our hospital with gestational ages ranging from 13 to 40+ weeks. Cultures positive for oral flora were identified in 24 autopsies including 20 pure and 8 mixed growths (26/227, 11.5%), found in 16 stillbirths and 8 neonates. Microscopic examinations of these 16 stillbirths revealed 8 with features of infection and inflammation in fetus and placenta. The 7 neonatal deaths within 72 hours after birth grew 6 pure isolates and 1 mixed, and 6 correlated with fetal and placental inflammation. Conclusions. Pure isolates of oral flora with histological evidence of inflammation/infection in the placenta and fetus or infant suggest a strong association between maternal periodontal conditions and perinatal death. Mai He, Alison R. Migliori, Patricia Lauro, C. James Sung, and Halit Pinar Copyright © 2017 Mai He et al. All rights reserved. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:47:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/2453254/ Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG). Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg), bacterial culture (BC), and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb) were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb), rapid urease test (RUT), and urea breath test (UBT). Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER) of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%. Fumio Omata, Takuro Shimbo, Sachiko Ohde, Gautam A. Deshpande, and Tsuguya Fukui Copyright © 2017 Fumio Omata et al. All rights reserved. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:42:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2017/3514796/ In this case, we present a patient with the diagnosis of bilateral olecranon tophaceous gout. After the surgical treatment, there was no limitation of range of motion or wound problem at 6th month control. Güzelali Özdemir, Alper Deveci, Kemal Andıç, and Niyazi Erdem Yaşar Copyright © 2017 Güzelali Özdemir et al. All rights reserved. Cesarean Scar Endometriosis: An Uncommon Surgical Complication on the Rise? Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:30:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2017/8062924/ Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of ectopic functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Scar endometriosis has been described following obstetrical and gynecological surgery. It is a rare condition, though probably on the rise, due to the considerable increase of cesarean sections performed worldwide. Its physiopathology is complex; its symptomatology is rich and diverse but thorough clinical examination along with ultrasound imaging and potentially pretherapeutic cytologic evaluation are usually efficient in diagnosing the condition. Treatment is mostly surgical. We report the case of a cesarean section scar endometriosis, managed at a tertiary level center and emphasize the diagnosis and treatment options. Imane Khachani, Abdelhai Filali Adib, and Rachid Bezad Copyright © 2017 Imane Khachani et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Conjunctival Amyloidosis with Repeated Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:27:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2017/5423027/ Conjunctival amyloidosis is a very rare disease, and its presence may be a sign of systemic amyloidosis. We present our ocular and systemic findings in a patient with conjunctival amyloidosis. A 43-year-old man had repeated subconjunctival hemorrhages (SCHs) for two years and was referred to the Chiba University Hospital. He had comprehensive ophthalmological and systemic examinations to determine the cause of the SCHs. His visual acuities were 1.2 OU, and the intraocular pressures were 13-14 mmHg OU. Magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Initially, the SCH was the only abnormality. After 3 months, the SCH had partially cleared, and a pink mass was detected in the superior area of the subconjunctiva. Partial biopsy and histopathological examinations showed a greenish birefringence and dichroism under polarized light illumination. The birefringence was located in amyloid fibers. Immunofixation electrophoresis detected λ-light chain abnormality in the ocular biopsy specimen but systemic examinations did not find any lesions. Multiple myeloma was ruled out, and the patient is being followed closely to detect any early signs of systemic amyloidosis. Because repeated SCHs might be initial signs of systemic amyloidosis, patients with conjunctival amyloidosis should be comprehensively examined for systemic amyloidosis because of its poor life prognosis. Takaaki Ando, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Mamiko Saito, Ayako Tawada, Takayuki Baba, Jiro Yotsukura, and Shuichi Yamamoto Copyright © 2017 Takaaki Ando et al. All rights reserved. Disaggregation of Annual to Monthly Streamflow: A Case Study of Kızılırmak Basin (Turkey) Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:23:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2017/3582826/ This study utilizes a recent nonparametric disaggregation -nearest neighbor (NN) model, to resample monthly flows depending on annual flows at different sites. Both temporal and spatial approaches will be followed in this model while preserving the distributional statistics of the observed data. This model assumes that a set of aggregated annual streamflows at a key station is available and desired for disaggregation to a corresponding series of streamflow at key station (temporal disaggregation) as well as at tributary stations (spatial disaggregation). The model is applied to the annual streamflow data of particular stations in the Kızılırmak Basin, which is exposed to drought periods during the years (1970–1974 and 1994-1995). The aim of this study is to find the possibilities of using the nonparametric approaches as generators of monthly flows, with emphasis on the ability to reproduce the statistics related to drought and storage analysis for the selected stations in Turkey. The results show that the spatial disaggregation approach has the ability to reproduce the historical data better than the temporal approach for the tested sites and provides a variety of generated monthly sequence flows that can then be utilized to analyze the performance of the water resources planning system. Shatha H. D. Al-Zakar, N. Şarlak, and Omar M. A. Mahmood Agha Copyright © 2017 Shatha H. D. Al-Zakar et al. All rights reserved. Course of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms during Flares of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:19:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2017/2890436/ We present the case of a seventeen-year-old girl who presents with an interesting course of neuropsychiatric symptoms during several flares of SLE. The patient was diagnosed at the age of thirteen and has had four flares in total. The latter two flares included cutaneous and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The most recent flare occurred when she was aged seventeen. She had cutaneous symptoms which coincided with an episode of hypomania. Her mental state further deteriorated following steroid treatment. She exhibited affective and psychotic symptoms. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and olanzapine was associated with an improvement in both cutaneous and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Previously aged sixteen the patient had presented with cutaneous symptoms and a moderate depressive episode which was also exacerbated by steroid treatment. The patient’s mood improved when the dose of oral steroids was reduced to a daily dose of 15–20 mg prednisolone. Gareth Garrett, Nicola Ambrose, Zaib Davids, and Dorothea Bindman Copyright © 2017 Gareth Garrett et al. All rights reserved. Classical and Impulse Stochastic Control on the Optimization of Dividends with Residual Capital at Bankruptcy Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:15:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2017/2693568/ In this paper, we consider the optimization problem of dividends for the terminal bankruptcy model, in which some money would be returned to shareholders at the state of terminal bankruptcy, while accounting for the tax rate and transaction cost for dividend payout. Maximization of both expected total discounted dividends before bankruptcy and expected discounted returned money at the state of terminal bankruptcy becomes a mixed classical-impulse stochastic control problem. In order to solve this problem, we reduce it to quasi-variational inequalities with a nonzero boundary condition. We explicitly construct and verify solutions of these inequalities and present the value function together with the optimal policy. Peimin Chen and Bo Li Copyright © 2017 Peimin Chen and Bo Li. All rights reserved. Duodenal Atresia: Open versus MIS Repair—Analysis of Our Experience over the Last 12 Years Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:14:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4585360/ Objective. Duodenal atresia (DA) routinely has been corrected by laparotomy and duodenoduodenostomy with excellent long-term results. We revisited the patients with DA treated in the last 12 years (2004–2016) comparing the open and the minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach. Methods. We divided our cohort of patients into two groups. Group 1 included 10 patients with CDO (2004–09) treated with open procedure: 5, DA; 3, duodenal web; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Three presented with Down’s syndrome while 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Group 2 included 8 patients (2009–16): 1, web; 5, DA; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Seven were treated by MIS; 1 was treated by Endoscopy. Three presented with Down’s syndrome; 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Results. Average operating time was 120 minutes in Group 1 and 190 minutes in Group 2. In MIS Group the visualization was excellent. We recorded no intraoperative complications, conversions, or anastomotic leakage. Feedings started on 3–7 postoperative days. Follow-up showed no evidence of stricture or obstruction. In Group 1 feedings started within 10–22 days and we have 1 postoperative obstruction. Conclusions. Laparoscopic repair of DA is one of the most challenging procedures among pediatric laparoscopic procedures. These patients had a shorter length of hospitalization and more rapid advancement to full feeding compared to patients undergoing the open approach. Laparoscopic repair of DA could be the preferred technique, safe, and efficacious, in the hands of experienced surgeons. Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza, Valeria Bucci, Maria Luisa Conighi, Elisa Zolpi, Lorenzo Costa, Lorella Fasoli, and Cosimo Bleve Copyright © 2017 Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza et al. All rights reserved. Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Management and Outcome: A Single Center Retrospective Analysis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:13:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2017/2029583/ There is a paucity of information on outpatient management and risk factors for hospitalization and complications in childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS). We described the management, patient adherence, and inpatient and outpatient usage of 87 pediatric NS patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area. Multivariable analyses were performed to examine the associations between patient characteristics and disease outcome. We found that 51% of the patients were treated with two or more immunosuppressants. Approximately half of the patients were noted to be nonadherent to medications and urine protein monitoring. The majority (71%) of patients were hospitalized at least once, with a median rate of 0.5 hospitalizations per patient year. Mean hospital length of stay was 4.0 (3.8) days. Fourteen percent of patients experienced at least one serious disease complication. Black race, frequently relapsing/steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant disease, and the first year following diagnosis were associated with higher hospitalization rates. The presence of comorbidities was associated with longer hospital length of stay and increased risk of serious disease complications. Our results highlight the high morbidity and burden of NS and point to particular patient subgroups that may be at increased risk for poor outcome. Chia-shi Wang, Jia Yan, Robert Palmer, James Bost, Mattie Feasel Wolf, and Larry A. Greenbaum Copyright © 2017 Chia-shi Wang et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the Oral Cavity Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:12:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2017/4395049/ Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that usually affects the pleura. This rarity becomes more relevant in the oral cavity since the clinical features are nonspecific. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a 3-month history of a swelling in the floor of the mouth, measuring 2 cm in greatest diameter, and pain symptomatology. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs showed no bone involvement. Ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid salivary glands revealed normal morphology, dimensions, and echogenicity. During this exam, a nodular image of low echogenicity measuring about 2.7 × 1.8 cm was detected. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological analysis revealed a well-defined tumor-like lesion with alternation between hypercellular areas without a defined pattern and hypocellular areas. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD34 and CD99 and negative for α-SMA, S-100, and bcl-2. Combining the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor. The patient is under periodical clinical follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgical excision of the tumor. The combination of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical features is necessary for the diagnosis. Everton Freitas de Morais, Deborah Gondim Lambert Moreira, Viviane Alves De Oliveira, Rodrigo Rodrigues Rodrigues, Adriano Rocha Germano, and Roseana de Almeida Freitas Copyright © 2017 Everton Freitas de Morais et al. All rights reserved. A Potential of sFasL in Preventing Gland Injury in Sjogren’s Syndrome Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:07:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5981432/ Fas and its ligand FasL, members of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, have been implicated in the process of cell apoptosis. FasL consists of two forms, membrane FasL (mFasL) and soluble FasL (sFasL). sFasL can be produced by mFasL cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and also reveals a role for binding to Fas which is expressed on cell surface. Although Fas/FasL axis has been implicated in a variety of diseases, its role in Sjogren’s syndrome still remains ill defined. In this study, we investigated the potential of sFasL in the pathogenesis of Sjogren’s syndrome (SS). We found that the serum levels of sFasL in SS patients were significantly lower than healthy subjects. Moreover, serum levels of sFasL in patients with mild disease activity were higher than patients with severe disease activity. There is a positive correlation of the serum level of sFasL with uptake index of parotid gland in our expectation. In addition, liver injury involvement in SS patients showed decreased level of sFasL. Furthermore, we here also observed that the protective cytokine IL-10 expression was positively correlated with sFasL expression. Thus, our results here suggest a potential of sFasL in maintaining gland organ homeostasis. Jiao Luo, Ying Wang, Bing Yu, Hongyan Qian, Yan He, and Guixiu Shi Copyright © 2017 Jiao Luo et al. All rights reserved. BK Virus Encephalitis in HIV-Infected Patients: Case Report and Review Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:58:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2017/4307468/ Encephalitis and meningitis due to BKPyV are unusual and emerging condition. Only a few cases of BKPyV encephalitis have been reported in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, with the majority of cases presenting with concurrent hemorrhagic cystitis and HIV-infected patients. The authors report two HIV-infected patients with the diagnosis of BKPyV encephalitis and discuss the main clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this infection in patients with AIDS. Physicians should be aware to recognize the main clinical features and diagnose BKPyV central nervous infection in the setting of AIDS. Luciana Antoniolli, Rafael Borges, and Luciano Z. Goldani Copyright © 2017 Luciana Antoniolli et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Spontaneous Transdiaphragmatic Intercostal Hernia with Contralateral Injury, and Review of the Literature Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:58:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2017/7416092/ This case report discusses the diagnosis and management of a 67-year-old male presenting with a spontaneous transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia with contralateral intercostal hernia. The patient had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations requiring multiple prolonged courses of steroids. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) and underwent surgical repair via thoracotomy with primary repair of the diaphragmatic defect. The patient’s postoperative course was uncomplicated. A review of the literature since the first similar case in 1977 recognizes the propensity of this injury to be found in patients with COPD and chronic steroid usage, as well as its diagnosis and management. The case reviewed is the second documented case of a concurrent abdominal wall herniation and the first one with a contralateral injury. It is important for clinicians to be aware of this pathology when evaluating patients with COPD and chronic steroid usage. Alexander A. Chapman and Steven B. Duff Copyright © 2017 Alexander A. Chapman and Steven B. Duff. All rights reserved. Immunohistochemical Markers as Predictors of Histopathologic Response and Prognosis in Rectal Cancer Treated with Preoperative Adjuvant Therapy: State of the Art Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:56:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/2808235/ We explain the state of the art of the immunohistochemical markers of response in rectal cancers treated with neoadjuvant medical therapies and its implication with prognosis. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely used to improve the outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, and the evaluation of the effects of medical therapy is to date based on histomorphological examination by applying four grading systems of response to therapy (tumor regression grade (TRG)). The need to identify immunohistochemical markers that could ensure a better assessment of response and possibly provide additional prognostic information has emerged. We identified p53, p27kip1, Ki67, matrix metalloprotease-9, survivin, Ki67 proliferative index, CD133, COX2, CD44v6, thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase as the most common markers studied in literature to date, and we explained their prognostic potential and their implications in the evaluation of the response to preoperative therapies in rectal cancers. Alessandro Del Gobbo and Stefano Ferrero Copyright © 2017 Alessandro Del Gobbo and Stefano Ferrero. All rights reserved. RAID-6Plus: A Comprised Methodology for Extending RAID-6 Codes Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:50:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2017/1360413/ Existing RAID-6 code extensions assume that failures are independent and instantaneous, overlooking the underlying mechanism of multifailure occurrences. Also, the effect of reconstruction window is ignored. Additionally, these coding extensions have not been adapted to occurrence patterns of failure in real-world applications. As a result, the third parity drive is set to handle the triple-failure scenario; however, the lower level failure situations have been left unattended. Therefore, a new methodology of extending RAID-6 codes named RAID-6Plus with better compromise has been studied in this paper. RAID-6Plus (Deng et al., 2015) employs short combinations which can greatly reuse overlapped elements during reconstruction to remake the third parity drive. A sample extension code called RDP+ is given based on RDP. Moreover, we extended the study to present another extension example called X-code+ which has better update penalty and load balance. The analysis shows that RAID-6Plus is a balanced tradeoff of reliability, performance, and practicality. For instance, RDP+ could achieve speedups as high as 33.4% in comparison to the RTP with conventional rebuild, 11.9% in comparison to RTP with the optimal rebuild, 47.7% in comparison to STAR with conventional rebuild, and 26.2% for a single failure rebuild. Ming-Zhu Deng, Nong Xiao, Song-Ping Yu, Fang Liu, Lingyu Zhu, and Zhi-Guang Chen Copyright © 2017 Ming-Zhu Deng et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Security and Privacy for Wireless Sensor Networks 2016 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:30:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2017/3057534/ Fei Yu, Chin-Chen Chang, Jian Shu, Iftikhar Ahmad, Jun Zhang, and Jose Maria de Fuentes Copyright © 2017 Fei Yu et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Assessment of Stem Cells for Treating Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Approaches and Future Prospects Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:26:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/9751583/ In recent years, stem cell-related therapies have been widely applied for treating neurodegenerative disease. Despite their potential, stem cell tracking and imaging techniques for the evaluation of in vivo proof-of-concept (PoC) therapies have not been sufficiently represented in the research area. This review summarizes the recent approaches that have been used for tracking and imaging engrafted stem cells in vivo. Furthermore, we introduce tissue clearing technology that can be applied to develop three-dimensional in vivo experiments. Monitoring stem cell survival and migration and graft-host relationships is a useful strategy to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of regenerative medicine approaches in neurodegenerative disease. Byeong-Wook Song Copyright © 2017 Byeong-Wook Song. All rights reserved. Correlation of Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio with Severity and Complications of Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis in Chinese Patients Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2017/6757805/ Hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP) is characterized by critical condition and high recurrence rate compared with non-HLAP. We conducted this study to investigate the value of body mass index and waist-hip ratio in predicting severity and local complications in HLAP. 96 patients with HLAP were categorized by body mass index and waist-hip ratio, respectively. According to the body mass index, they were divided into 3 groups, including normal weight, overweight, and obesity. According to the waist-hip ratio, they were divided into central obesity group and no central obesity group. The body mass index and waist-hip ratio were compared in severity, local complications, and systematic complications of HLAP, using chi-square test and Monte Carlo simulations. The body mass index and waist-hip ratio were correlated with the severity of acute pancreatitis (MAP, MSAP, and SAP), respiratory failure, and circulatory failure in HLAP (), but not correlated with the local complications (walled-off necrosis, pancreatic abscess, and pancreatic pseudocyst), renal failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding.The body mass index and waist-hip ratio are valuable in predicting severity and complication in HLAP. We demonstrated that obese patients had an increased risk of developing more serious condition and more complications in HLAP. Lixin Yang, Jing Liu, Yun Xing, Lichuan Du, Jing Chen, Xin Liu, and Jianyu Hao Copyright © 2017 Lixin Yang et al. All rights reserved. Faculty Perceptions of Online Teaching Effectiveness and Indicators of Quality Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:19:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2017/9374189/ Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role. Christine Frazer, Debra Henline Sullivan, Deborah Weatherspoon, and Leslie Hussey Copyright © 2017 Christine Frazer et al. All rights reserved. Osteoradionecrosis of the Temporal Bone Leading to Cerebellar Abscess Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:01:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/7054943/ Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone is a rare and destructive malignancy and represents both diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The complex regional anatomy of the temporal bone requires equally intricate surgical techniques to adequately resect the tumour mass during surgical excision. Adjuvant radiotherapy is offered to patients with advanced disease and has been showed to confer a survival benefit in carefully selected patients. One feared complication of radiotherapy is osteoradionecrosis and is a major obstacle faced in the treatment of head and neck cancers. The case presented here is a rare example of a patient who was successfully treated for SCC of the temporal with both surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy who subsequently developed two major complications: first, osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone that leads to penetrating osteomyelitis; second, the formation of a large cerebellar abscess that required surgical drainage. This case is a rare example of the complications that are possible following radiotherapy to the head and the close follow-up that is required in patients. Thomas B. Layton Copyright © 2017 Thomas B. Layton. All rights reserved. Characterization of PCL and Chitosan Nanoparticles as Carriers of Enoxaparin and Its Antithrombotic Effect in Animal Models of Venous Thrombosis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2017/4925495/ This study was based on the preparation, characterization, and animal in vivo experiments performed to evaluate nanoparticles of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and chitosan as carriers of enoxaparin. The nanoparticles were characterized and presented satisfactory results in terms of size, polydispersity, and encapsulation efficiency. Anticoagulant activity of the nanoparticles was maintained for 14 hours when the administration was subcutaneous; however no activity was observed after oral administration. There was a significant reduction in thrombus size, in vivo, for both free and encapsulated enoxaparin in comparison with the control group after subcutaneous administration. Oral administration results however were indifferent. In conclusion, the double emulsion method w/o/w was efficient for enoxaparin encapsulation, producing spherical nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. For in vivo studies, the encapsulated enoxaparin showed a sustained anticoagulant activity for a higher period of time compared to free enoxaparin, with an antithrombotic effect when administered subcutaneously. Lucas Bessa Prado, Stephany Cares Huber, Aline Barnabé, Fernanda Dutra Santiago Bassora, Devanira Souza Paixão, Nelson Duran, and Joyce Maria Annichino-Bizzacchi Copyright © 2017 Lucas Bessa Prado et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Incorporated with Manuka Honey of Varying UMF Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4843065/ Purpose. Manuka honey (MH) is an antibacterial agent specific to the islands of New Zealand containing both hydrogen peroxide and a Unique Manuka Factor (UMF). Although the antibacterial properties of MH have been studied, the effect of varying UMF of MH incorporated into tissue engineered scaffolds have not. Therefore, this study was designed to compare silk fibroin cryogels and electrospun scaffolds incorporated with a 5% MH concentration of various UMF. Methods. Characteristics such as porosity, bacterial clearance and adhesion, and cytotoxicity were compared. Results. Pore diameters for all cryogels were between 51 and 60 µm, while electrospun scaffolds were 10 µm. Cryogels of varying UMF displayed clearance of approximately 0.16 cm for E. coli and S. aureus. In comparison, the electrospun scaffolds clearance ranged between 0.5 and 1 cm. A glucose release of 0.5 mg/mL was observed for the first 24 hours by all scaffolds, regardless of UMF. With respect to cytotoxicity, neither scaffold caused the cell number to drop below 20,000. Conclusions. Overall, when comparing the effects of the various UMF within the two scaffolds, no significant differences were observed. This suggests that the fabricated scaffolds in this study displayed similar bacterial effects regardless of the UMF value. Katherine R. Hixon, Tracy Lu, Sarah H. McBride-Gagyi, Blythe E. Janowiak, and Scott A. Sell Copyright © 2017 Katherine R. Hixon et al. All rights reserved. Ameliorating Effect of Gemigliptin on Renal Injury in Murine Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7275109/ Background. Previous studies have shown the antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of DPP-IV inhibitor in experimental models of renal injury. We tested whether DPP-IV inhibitor (gemigliptin) ameliorates renal injury by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice with adriamycin nephropathy. Methods. Mice were treated with normal saline (control), gemigliptin (GM), adriamycin (ADR), or adriamycin combined with gemigliptin (ADR+GM). Apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress were analyzed via western blotting, real-time PCR, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Results. In the ADR+GM group, urine albumin creatinine ratio decreased significantly compared with that in the ADR group on day 15. Glomerulosclerosis index and tubulointerstitial injury index in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy decreased after gemigliptin treatment. ADR group showed higher levels of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress-related molecules compared with the control group. The upregulation of these molecules was significantly reduced by gemigliptin. In the ADR group, the staining intensities of WT-1 and nephrin reduced, but these changes were ameliorated in the ADR+GM group. Conclusion. We demonstrated that gemigliptin ameliorates nephropathy by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice administered adriamycin. Our data demonstrate that gemigliptin has renoprotective effects on adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Da Rae Kim, Shin Yeong Lee, Jin Sug Kim, Yang Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Sang Ho Lee, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyoo Ihm, and Kyung Hwan Jeong Copyright © 2017 Da Rae Kim et al. All rights reserved. Paracrine Effects of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Survival and Cytokine Expression after 90% Partial Hepatectomy Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/5270527/ Acute liver failure is a complex and fatal disease. Cell-based therapies are a promising alternative therapeutic approach for liver failure due to relatively simple technique and lower cost. The use of semipermeable microcapsules has become an interesting tool for evaluating paracrine effects in vivo. In this study, we aimed to assess the paracrine effects of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) encapsulated in sodium alginate to treat acute liver failure in an animal model of 90% partial hepatectomy (90% PH). Encapsulated BMMC were able to increase 10-day survival without enhancing liver regeneration markers. Gene expression of Il-6 and Il-10 in the remnant liver was markedly reduced at 6 h after 90% PH in animals receiving encapsulated BMMC compared to controls. This difference, however, was neither reflected by changes in the number of CD68+ cells nor by serum levels of IL6. On the other hand, treated animals presented increased caspase activity and gene expression in the liver. Taken together, these results suggest that BMMC regulate immune response and promote apoptosis in the liver after 90% PH by paracrine factors. These changes ultimately may be related to the higher survival observed in treated animals, suggesting that BMMC may be a promising alternative to treat acute liver failure. Carlos Oscar Kieling, Carolina Uribe-Cruz, Mónica Luján López, Alessandro Bersch Osvaldt, Themis Reverbel da Silveira, and Ursula Matte Copyright © 2017 Carlos Oscar Kieling et al. All rights reserved. Impacted Maxillary Canine Prevalence and Its Association with Other Dental Anomalies in a Mexican Population Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2017/7326061/ Objective. We quantified the prevalence of impacted maxillary canines (IMC) and their association with other dental anomalies (DAs). Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was done with 860 patients 12 to 39 years of age. The prevalence of IMC was calculated and compared by sex. The sample was divided into a control group and an impaction group, and the prevalence was calculated in both for a series of anomalies: agenesis, supernumerary teeth, shape anomalies of the upper laterals (microdontia, peg and barrel shape, and talon cusp), fusion, gemination, other impacted teeth, transposition, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The prevalence values for both groups were compared (Pearson’s test, ). Results. IMC were present in 6.04% of the sample with no difference by sex (). Other DAs occurred in 51.92% of the IMC group and in 20.17% of the controls (). Significant associations () were identified between IMC and four other DAs: microdontia, barrel shape, other impacted teeth, and transposition. The prevalence of all anomalies was lower in the control group. Conclusion. IMC were seen in 6.04% of patients. Patients with this condition also had a higher prevalence of other DAs. These other anomalies should be used as risk indicators for early diagnosis. José Rubén Herrera-Atoche, María del Rosario Agüayo-de-Pau, Mauricio Escoffié-Ramírez, Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala, Bertha Arelly Carrillo-Ávila, and Marina Eduviges Rejón-Peraza Copyright © 2017 José Rubén Herrera-Atoche et al. All rights reserved. System Identification Based Proxy Model of a Reservoir under Water Injection Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2017/7645470/ Simulation of numerical reservoir models with thousands and millions of grid blocks may consume a significant amount of time and effort, even when high performance processors are used. In cases where the simulation runs are required for sensitivity analysis, dynamic control, and optimization, the act needs to be repeated several times by continuously changing parameters. This makes it even more time-consuming. Currently, proxy models that are based on response surface are being used to lessen the time required for running simulations during sensitivity analysis and optimization. Proxy models are lighter mathematical models that run faster and perform in place of heavier models that require large computations. Nevertheless, to acquire data for modeling and validation and develop the proxy model itself, hundreds of simulation runs are required. In this paper, a system identification based proxy model that requires only a single simulation run and a properly designed excitation signal was proposed and evaluated using a benchmark case study. The results show that, with proper design of excitation signal and proper selection of model structure, system identification based proxy models are found to be practical and efficient alternatives for mimicking the performance of numerical reservoir models. The resulting proxy models have potential applications for dynamic well control and optimization. Berihun M. Negash, Lemma D. Tufa, M. Ramasamy, and Mariyamni Bt. Awang Copyright © 2017 Berihun M. Negash et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Dynamic Uptake of Free Drug and Nanostructures for Drug Delivery Based on Bioluminescence Measurements Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/8542806/ The past two decades have witnessed the great growth of the development of novel drug carriers. However, the releasing dynamics of drug from drug carriers in vivo and the interactions between cells and drug carriers remain unclear. In this paper, liposomes were prepared to encapsulate D-luciferin, which was the substrate of luciferase and served as a model drug. Based on the theoretical calculation of active loading, methods of preparation for liposomes were optimized. Only when D-luciferin was released from liposomes or taken in by the cells could bioluminescence be produced under the catalysis of luciferase. Models of multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) were built with 4T1-luc cells that expressed luciferase stably. The kinetic processes of uptake and distribution of free drugs and liposomal drugs were determined with models of cell suspension, monolayer cells, MCTS, and tumor-bearing nude mice. The technology platform has been demonstrated to be effective for the study of the distribution and kinetic profiles of various liposomes as drug delivery systems. Zhongjian Fang, Houchao Xu, Xiangjun Ji, Congbiao Liu, Kai Wang, Xiaoqing Qian, and Wencong Zhou Copyright © 2017 Zhongjian Fang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of a Supraseasonal Drought on the Ecological Attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Pisces, Sciaenidae) in a Brazilian Reservoir Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2017/5930516/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supraseasonal drought on the ecological attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus. The fish were caught quarterly from February 2010 to November 2014 using gill nets in the reservoir of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The abundance of the species was evaluated with the catch per unit effort (CPUE) metric and then correlated with the accumulated rainfall and water volume of the reservoir. The diet of the fish was evaluated using the feeding index (IAi). The proportional similarity index (PSi) was used to evaluate the variation in the niches of the fish. The body condition was inferred through the relative condition factor, and its variation was assessed with ANOVA. A reduction in the abundance of the species that were positively correlated with the reservoir water volume was observed. The diet of the fish comprised shrimp, gastropods, fish, insects, shrimp larvae, and vegetable matter, with shrimp being the major component. PSi showed the occurrence of individual specialization during November 2013 and November 2014. The relative condition factor was not correlated with a reduction in the water volume of the reservoir. The supraseasonal drought did not affect the relative condition factor, diet, and the trophic niche, but it did affect the species abundance. Antonia E. F. Souza, Jônnata F. Oliveira, Danielle Peretti, Rodrigo Fernandes, Rodrigo S. Costa, and José Luis Costa Novaes Copyright © 2017 Antonia E. F. Souza et al. All rights reserved. A Subpixel Matching Method for Stereovision of Narrow Baseline Remotely Sensed Imagery Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/7901692/ In this paper, an accurate and efficient image matching method based on phase correlation is proposed to estimate disparity with subpixel precision, which is used for the stereovision of narrow baseline remotely sensed images. The multistep strategy is adopted in our technical frame; thus the disparity estimation is divided into two steps: integer-pixel prematching and subpixel matching. Firstly, integer-pixel disparity is estimated by employing a cross-based local matching method. Then the relationship of corresponding points is established under the guidance of integer-pixel disparity. The subimages are extracted through selecting the corresponding points as the center. Finally, the subpixel disparity is obtained by matching the subimages utilizing a novel variant of phase correlation approach. The experiment results show that the proposed method can match different kinds of large-sized narrow baseline remotely sensed images and estimate disparity with subpixel precision automatically. Ning Ma, Peng-fei Sun, Yu-bo Men, Chao-guang Men, and Xiang Li Copyright © 2017 Ning Ma et al. All rights reserved. Shigella sonnei Bacteremia Presenting with Profound Hepatic Dysfunction Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2017/7293281/ Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration. He reports similar diarrhea illness in two close contacts in preceding days. On examination, he was fully oriented but dehydrated, icteric, and febrile. Laboratory data revealed WBC of 2200/μL, elevated AST and ALT (201 IU/L, 73 IU/L resp.), normal alkaline phosphatase, elevated total and direct bilirubin of 8.2 mg/dL and 4.4 mg/dL, albumin of 3.2 g/dL, INR of 2.9, prothrombin time of 31.7, and platelet of 96,000/μL. Workup for infectious, autoimmune and medication-induced hepatitis, Wilson’s disease, and hemochromatosis was negative. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatic steatosis and right-sided colitis. Stool and blood cultures were positive for Shigella sonnei. He was treated with ciprofloxacin with improvement in liver function. Follow-up blood test 4 months later was within normal limits. Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, and Anthony Donato Copyright © 2017 Oluwaseun Shogbesan et al. All rights reserved. Genomewide Expression and Functional Interactions of Genes under Drought Stress in Maize Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2017/2568706/ A genomewide transcriptome assay of two subtropical genotypes of maize was used to observe the expression of genes at seedling stage of drought stress. The number of genes expressed differentially was greater in HKI1532 (a drought tolerant genotype) than in PC3 (a drought sensitive genotype), indicating primary differences at the transcriptional level in stress tolerance. The global coexpression networks of the two genotypes differed significantly with respect to the number of modules and the coexpression pattern within the modules. A total of 174 drought-responsive genes were selected from HKI1532, and their coexpression network revealed key correlations between different adaptive pathways, each cluster of the network representing a specific biological function. Transcription factors related to ABA-dependent stomatal closure, signalling, and phosphoprotein cascades work in concert to compensate for reduced photosynthesis. Under stress, water balance was maintained by coexpression of the genes involved in osmotic adjustments and transporter proteins. Metabolism was maintained by the coexpression of genes involved in cell wall modification and protein and lipid metabolism. The interaction of genes involved in crucial biological functions during stress was identified and the results will be useful in targeting important gene interactions to understand drought tolerance in greater detail. Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Rinku Sharma, Nidhi Singh, Kaliyugam Shiriga, Sweta Mohan, Swati Mittal, Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Firoz Hossain, and Hari Shanker Gupta Copyright © 2017 Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu et al. All rights reserved. Performance Evaluation of MDO Architectures within a Variable Complexity Problem Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2759762/ Though quite a number of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) architectures have been proposed for the optimal design of large-scale multidisciplinary systems, how their performance changes with the complexity of MDO problem varied is not well studied. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a variable complexity problem which allows people to obtain a MDO problem with arbitrary complexity by specifying its changeable parameters, such as the number of disciplines and the numbers of design variables. Then four investigations are performed to evaluate how the performance of different MDO architectures changes with the number of disciplines, global variables, local variables, and coupling variables varied, respectively. Finally, the results supply guidance for the selection of MDO architectures in solving practical engineering problems with different complexity. Daiyu Zhang, Baowei Song, Peng Wang, and Yanru He Copyright © 2017 Daiyu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Anterior Teeth with Copy-Milled Restorations: A Report of Two Cases Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2017/2841398/ Digitalization has become part and parcel of contemporary prosthodontics with the probability of most of the procedures being based on the digital techniques in the near future. This digital revolution started in the latter half of the 20th century by converting analog objects/signals into digital bits and bytes. Recent developments in all-ceramic materials and systems of computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), copy milling, and so forth offer excellent esthetics and superb biocompatibility. Copy milling system for ceramics enables milling of the zirconia cores of all-ceramic restorations precisely and also if this system is properly used the procedure for fabricating all-ceramic restorations can be substantially simplified. This case report presents fabrication of all-ceramic Maryland Bridge and post-core with a copy milling system for esthetics and preservation of integrity of tooth. For both of the patients, the use of biologic, all-ceramic, copy-milled restorations resulted in clinical success and recovered function and esthetics. Sapna Rani, Jyoti Devi, Chandan Jain, Parul Mutneja, and Mahesh Verma Copyright © 2017 Sapna Rani et al. All rights reserved. Associations of Diabetes and Obesity with Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2017/3521649/ Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians’ Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years’ follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06–1.59] for BMI 25–<30 kg/m2 and 1.69 [1.24–2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57–1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years’ follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up. Lu Wang, Luc Djousse, Yiqing Song, Akintunde O. Akinkuolie, Chisa Matsumoto, JoAnn E. Manson, J. Michael Gaziano, and Howard D. Sesso Copyright © 2017 Lu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Could Early Surgery Get Beneficial in Adult Patients with Active Native Infective Endocarditis? A Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3459468/ After a thorough search through the database as PubMed database and Embase database, the clinical experimental articles have been selected out on the effects of early surgery on the treatment of active native infective endocarditis. The quality of the trials included in this study was assessed by researcher according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, version 5.1.0. A meta-analysis was carried out in terms of clinical efficacy criteria by RevMan 5.3 software. Based on the results, we cautiously conclude that early surgery used for active native infective endocarditis could reduce in-hospital mortality, follow-up mortality, and IE-related mortality. Liqun Jia, Zanxin Wang, Qiang Fu, Huaien Bu, and Minxin Wei Copyright © 2017 Liqun Jia et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Location of Subungual Warty Dyskeratoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2017/3613109/ Warty dyskeratoma is an uncommon entity characterized by a solitary keratotic papule or nodule usually located in the head and neck of young adults. The histopathology shows a pattern of acantholytic dyskeratosis. We report a 32-year-old man who presented pain, serous exudation, a distal onycholysis with subungual hyperkeratosis, and roundish erythronychia in the nail plate of his left first toe 2 years ago. A histopathologic diagnosis of subungual warty dyskeratoma was made. When dealing with focal acantholytic dyskeratosis several differential diagnoses should be considered including Darier’s disease, transient focal acantholytic dyskeratosis or Grover disease, and Hailey-Hailey disease. We present an unusual location of warty dyskeratoma in the nail bed using a clinicohistopathological correlation for the diagnosis. Elena Vargas-Laguna, Adrián Imbernón-Moya, Antonio Aguilar-Martínez, and Fernando Burgos Copyright © 2017 Elena Vargas-Laguna et al. All rights reserved. Open and Arthroscopic with Mini-Open Surgical Hip Approaches for Treatment of Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis and Concomitant Hip Pathology Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2017/3716360/ Background. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign tumor affecting large joints and prompts excision to prevent local destruction of the joint. The purpose of this case report is to describe two differing surgical approaches for management of PVNS of the hip in patients requiring concomitant treatment for additional hip pathology. Methods. This report discusses the presentation, clinical and radiographic findings, and operative management of two contrasting cases of PVNS of the hip. Case describes a 31-year-old female with localized PVNS in addition to a labral tear treated with arthroscopic labral repair followed by tumor excision via a mini-open incision. Case describes a 29-year-old male with more diffuse PVNS in addition to a cam deformity managed with open surgical dislocation of the hip, tumor excision, and restoration of the femoral head/neck junction. Results. This report demonstrates two cases of successful excision of PVNS of the hip in addition to addressing concomitant hip pathology in both cases. Conclusions. Open surgical dislocation of the hip or arthroscopic surgery with a mini-open incision may be used in appropriately selected patients to successfully excise PVNS lesions in addition to addressing concomitant hip pathology. Bridget Ellsworth and Atul F. Kamath Copyright © 2017 Bridget Ellsworth and Atul F. Kamath. All rights reserved. A Method of Energy-Optimal Trajectory Planning for Palletizing Robot Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/5862457/ In this work, the energy-optimal trajectory planning and initial pick point searching problem for palletizing robot with high load capacity and high speed are studied, in which the pick point and place point of the robot are fixed to a desired location for each single task. These optimization problems have been transformed to ternary functional extremum problem and parameters optimal selection problem in which the performance index of the problems the rigid-flexible coupling dynamics model of the robot, and the constraint and boundary conditions of the robot are given. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, multiple shooting method, and traversing method are used to solve these specific mathematical problems. The effectiveness of the trajectory planning method is validated by the experimental and simulating results; thus the research work done here provides important support for subsequent palletizing robot research. Yanjie Liu, Le Liang, Haijun Han, and Shijie Zhang Copyright © 2017 Yanjie Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Fatal Sepsis Caused by Hyaluronate Knee Injection: How Much the Medical History and the Informed Consent Might Be Important? Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2017/1518401/ The incidence of Osteoarthritis (OA) is gradually increasing worldwide due to two main reasons: longer life expectation and increased functional demand. Several treatment options have been proposed for this disease. Conservative treatment has the goal to improve the quality of life, reduce pain, and prevent the progression of the disease. Hyaluronate viscosupplementation is one of the most used infiltrative treatments for OA, but, despite its common use, clinical efficacy is still under question. Though adverse reactions for this medical option are actually rare, septic arthritis is a very scaring complication. We present a case report of a 59-year-old man who has been submitted to only one knee hyaluronate injection and consequently reported a severe septic arthritis and systemic sepsis, which lead to the death of the patient. We recommend producing correct guidelines for a clean aseptic procedure of injection to obtain proper consensus from the patient and to pay attention to his clinical history and comorbidities before acting any kind of invasive treatment, including joint injection. F. Manfreda, G. Rinonapoli, A. Nardi, P. Antinolfi, and A. Caraffa Copyright © 2017 F. Manfreda et al. All rights reserved. YCl3 Promotes Neuronal Cell Death by Inducing Apoptotic Pathways in Rats Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2183658/ The pollutants rare earth elements (REEs) have posed great threats to human health. To investigate the cytotoxicity of yttrium (Y), a model that rats have free access to water containing YCl3 for 6 months is utilized. The results showed that YCl3 treatment promoted neuronal cell apoptosis by upregulating the proapoptotic factors Bax, caspase-3, Cyto c, and DAPK and by downregulating the antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and XIAP at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusively, YCl3 exhibited cytotoxicity and promoted neuronal cell death by the induction of apoptotic pathways. Yechun Ding, Yuantong Tian, Zhaoyi Zeng, Ping Shuai, Haiying Lan, Xianshen Zhu, Yi Zhong, Longhuo Wu, and Xiaona Fan Copyright © 2017 Yechun Ding et al. All rights reserved. Approximate Controllability of Semilinear Control System Using Tikhonov Regularization Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijde/2017/1684637/ For an approximately controllable semilinear system, the problem of computing control for a given target state is converted into an equivalent problem of solving operator equation which is ill-posed. We exhibit a sequence of regularized controls which steers the semilinear control system from an arbitrary initial state to an neighbourhood of the target state at time under the assumption that the nonlinear function is Lipschitz continuous. The convergence of the sequences of regularized controls and the corresponding mild solutions are shown under some assumptions on the system operators. It is also proved that the target state corresponding to the regularized control is close to the actual state to be attained. Ravinder Katta and N. Sukavanam Copyright © 2017 Ravinder Katta and N. Sukavanam. All rights reserved. mHealth and Health Information Technology Tools for Diverse Patients with Diabetes Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/1704917/ Courtney R. Lyles, Neda Ratanawongsa, Shari D. Bolen, and Lipika Samal Copyright © 2017 Courtney R. Lyles et al. All rights reserved. Extensive Renal Arteriovenous Malformations Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2017/2376034/ An 84-year-old woman was referred to our department due to gross hematuria. Enhanced computed tomography revealed early enhancement of the right renal vein and multiple tortuous vessels around the right renal hilus, part of which had invaded into the renal parenchyma and renal calix. We diagnosed her with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and performed transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Angiography showed extensive and complex AVMs located in the central and peripheral areas of her kidney. After TAE, the hematuria resolved and she became hemodynamically stable. Tadashi Tabei, Hironao Tajirika, Jun Yoshigi, and Kazuki Kobayashi Copyright © 2017 Tadashi Tabei et al. All rights reserved. An Extremely Rare Case of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Floating Benign Mesenchymal Mass in Abdomen Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2017/9854343/ A 48-year-old man admitted to the urology outpatient clinic with major symptoms of right-side pain and intermittent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) such as low urine flow rate, dysuria, and frequency. Uroflowmetry showed low urine flow, and laboratory tests revealed no pathology. Ultrasound (US) showed a 7 cm calcific mass above the bladder and a kidney cyst with a diameter of 5.3 cm in the upper pole of the right kidney. Enhanced computed tomography confirmed the US findings. Laparoscopic transperitoneal renal cyst decortication was performed. There was no sign of additional tumors. An independent mass in the abdomen was diagnosed, and the mass was removed. Based on the pathology, the diagnosis was a benign mesenchymal calcific mass. This is the first report of LUTSs due to a free benign mesenchymal mass in the published literature. Bulent Kati, Yigit Akin, Eyyup Sabri Pelit, and Mehmet Ogur Yilmaz Copyright © 2017 Bulent Kati et al. All rights reserved. A Child as a Donor for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Bioethical Justification—A Case Study on Sickle Cell Disease Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/8394732/ Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important treatment option for children with severe and refractory sickle cell disease (SCD) with debilitating clinical complications. HSCT with cells from the bone marrow of a HLA-identical sibling used in SCD has a low mortality risk, high cure rate, and high event-free survival rate after a median follow-up of 5-6 years. However, matched donors are found in only about 20% of the patients. A boy aged 8 years with SCD had a sister, <2 years old, a fully compatible donor. The boy met all eligibility criteria to undergo HSCT, and he was suffering from cognitive and neurologic impairment due to ischemic events. A Bioethical Committee jointly discussed the ethical issues on this case after a pediatric evaluation released the very young sister for donation. The justification was that the sister would benefit from the donation too because of the greater likelihood of survival and cure and less suffering of her brother. The parents were informed about the risks and benefits for both children, and the family was psychologically evaluated. After their consent, HSCT was performed and the patient is cured from SCD. The complication for the donor was the need for blood transfusion. Andrea Z. Pereira, Ricardo Hellman, Nelson Hamerschlak, Andrea Kondo, Polianna Mara Rodrigues de Souza, Wilson Leite Pedreira Jr., Luiz Fernando Alves Lima Mantovani, Eduardo Juan Troster, Henrique Grunspun, and Marco Aurélio Scarpinella Bueno Copyright © 2017 Andrea Z. Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Nurses and Physicians Attitudes toward Nurse-Physician Collaboration: A Survey from Gaza Strip, Palestine Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2017/7406278/ Interprofessional collaboration and teamwork between nurses and physicians is essential for improving patient outcomes and quality of health services. This study examined the attitudes of nurses and physicians toward nurse-physician collaboration. A cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses and physicians () in two main referral public hospitals in the Gaza Strip using the Arabic Jefferson Scale of Attitude toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration. Descriptive statistics and difference of means, proportions, and correlations were examined using Student’s -test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation and was considered as statistical significant. Response rate was 42.8% (75.6% for nurses and 24.4% for physicians). Nurses expressed more positives attitudes toward collaboration than physicians (M ± SD on four-point scale: and , resp.) and experience duration was not proved to have an interesting influence. Teamwork approach in the professional practice should be recognized taking into consideration that the relationship between physicians and nurses is complementary and nurses are partners in patient care. Aymen Elsous, Mahmoud Radwan, and Samah Mohsen Copyright © 2017 Aymen Elsous et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Preoperative Administration of Paracetamol-Codeine on Pain following Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Split-Mouth, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2017/9246352/ Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preoperative administration of single-dose of paracetamol-codeine, in the relieving of acute postoperative pain after the surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consisted of 32 Caucasian outpatients, giving a total of 64 bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibles. Patients were randomized in two experimental groups to receive a preoperative oral dose of paracetamol-codeine (analgesic group) or a placebo (placebo group) at the first and second surgeries. Study participants were asked to record pain intensity scores during the operation and the next 2 days, the time of the first request for rescue analgesic, and the total number of postoperative-supplement paracetamol-codeine tablets. Results. The pain intensity score on the first day was significantly lower in the analgesic group than in the placebo group . The time to using rescue therapy was significantly longer in the analgesic group than in the placebo group . The number of paracetamol-codeine tablets used postoperatively did not differ between the analgesic and placebo groups . Conclusions. Preoperative paracetamol-codeine is effective in providing immediate postoperative pain control after third molar surgery and in delaying the initial onset of pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (Registration Number): NCT03049878. Maria Paola Cristalli, Gerardo La Monaca, Chiara De Angelis, Nicola Pranno, and Susanna Annibali Copyright © 2017 Maria Paola Cristalli et al. All rights reserved. Utilizing Fullerenols as Surfactant for Carbon Nanotubes Dispersions Preparation Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2017/4387391/ Dispersions of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are crucial for nanodevices and polymer/CNTs nanocomposites. In this paper, stable and homogenous dispersions of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized. The factors influencing the dispersibility mechanism, including the surfactant concentration and the pH value, have been investigated. SEM images display the impurities sticking on MWCNTs which have been removed. The oxygen-containing groups on the surface of MWCNTs sample have been detected through FT-IR and Raman spectra. All experimental results illustrate that using fullerenols as surfactant can greatly improve the dispersibility of MWCNTs. Moreover, the prepared dispersions exhibit good stability that the sediment percentage of fullerenols-MWCNTs is only 5.2% after 5 days. Jianlong Ji, Chang Qiao, Yali Liu, Wendong Zhang, Shengbo Sang, Xing Yang, Aoqun Jian, Qianqian Duan, Qiang Zhang, and Ying Liu Copyright © 2017 Jianlong Ji et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress Induced by Polymyxin E Is Involved in Rapid Killing of Paenibacillus polymyxa Wed, 22 Feb 2017 14:12:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5437139/ Historically, the colistin has been thought to kill bacteria through membrane lysis. Here, we present an alternative mechanism that colistin induces rapid Paenibacillus polymyxa death through reactive oxygen species production. This significantly augments our understanding of the mechanism of colistin action, which is critical knowledge toward the yield development of colistin in the future. Zhiliang Yu, Yuyi Zhu, Wangrong Qin, Jianhua Yin, and Juanping Qiu Copyright © 2017 Zhiliang Yu et al. All rights reserved. Blind Separation of Cyclostationary Sources Sharing Common Cyclic Frequencies Using Joint Diagonalization Algorithm Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:58:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/2546838/ We propose a new method for blind source separation of cyclostationary sources, whose cyclic frequencies are unknown and may share one or more common cyclic frequencies. The suggested method exploits the cyclic correlation function of observation signals to compose a set of matrices which has a particular algebraic structure. The aforesaid matrices are automatically selected by proposing two new criteria. Then, they are jointly diagonalized so as to estimate the mixing matrix and retrieve the source signals as a consequence. The nonunitary joint diagonalization (NU-JD) is ensured by Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method which is the most commonly used update strategy for implementing a quasi-Newton technique. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by numerical simulations in digital communications context, which show good performances comparing to other state-of-the-art methods. Amine Brahmi, Hicham Ghennioui, Christophe Corbier, François Guillet, and M’hammed Lahbabi Copyright © 2017 Amine Brahmi et al. All rights reserved. Autophagy Is a Protective Response to the Oxidative Damage to Endplate Chondrocytes in Intervertebral Disc: Implications for the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Disc Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:50:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/4041768/ Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability in the elderly. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) was considered as the main cause for LBP. Degeneration of cartilaginous endplate was a crucial harmful factor during the initiation and development of IDD. Oxidative stress was implicated in IDD. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the degeneration of cartilaginous endplate remains elusive. Herein, we found that oxidative stress could induce apoptosis and autophagy in endplate chondrocytes evidenced by western blot analysis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, GFP-LC3B transfection, and MDC staining. In addition, we also found that the apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes was significantly increased after the inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 shown by flow cytometry. Furthermore, mTOR pathway upstream autophagy was greatly suppressed suggested by western blot assay. In conclusion, our study strongly revealed that oxidative stress could increase autophagy and apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes in intervertebral disc. The increase of autophagy activity could prevent endplate chondrocytes from apoptosis. The autophagy in endplate chondrocytes induced by oxidative stress was mTOR dependent. These findings might shed some new lights on the mechanism for IDD and provide new strategies for the treatments of IDD. Ke Chen, Xiaohua Lv, Wei Li, Fei Yu, Jianjing Lin, Junxuan Ma, and Deming Xiao Copyright © 2017 Ke Chen et al. All rights reserved. An SDN-Based Fingerprint Hopping Method to Prevent Fingerprinting Attacks Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:44:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2017/1560594/ Fingerprinting attacks are one of the most severe threats to the security of networks. Fingerprinting attack aims to obtain the operating system information of target hosts to make preparations for future attacks. In this paper, a fingerprint hopping method (FPH) is proposed based on software-defined networks to defend against fingerprinting attacks. FPH introduces the idea of moving target defense to show a hopping fingerprint toward the fingerprinting attackers. The interaction of the fingerprinting attack and its defense is modeled as a signal game, and the equilibriums of the game are analyzed to develop an optimal defense strategy. Experiments show that FPH can resist fingerprinting attacks effectively. Zheng Zhao, Fenlin Liu, and Daofu Gong Copyright © 2017 Zheng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Bernoulli Collocation Method for Solving Linear Multidimensional Diffusion and Wave Equations with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:37:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2017/5691452/ A numerical approach is proposed for solving multidimensional parabolic diffusion and hyperbolic wave equations subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The considered numerical solutions of the these equations are considered as linear combinations of the shifted Bernoulli polynomials with unknown coefficients. By collocating the main equations together with the initial and boundary conditions at some special points (i.e., CGL collocation points), equations will be transformed into the associated systems of linear algebraic equations which can be solved by robust Krylov subspace iterative methods such as GMRES. Operational matrices of differentiation are implemented for speeding up the operations. In both of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional diffusion and wave equations, the geometrical distributions of the collocation points are depicted for clarity of presentation. Several numerical examples are provided to show the efficiency and spectral (exponential) accuracy of the proposed method. Bashar Zogheib, Emran Tohidi, and Stanford Shateyi Copyright © 2017 Bashar Zogheib et al. All rights reserved. Investigations on Binding Pattern of Kinase Inhibitors with PPARγ: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamic Simulations, and Free Energy Calculation Studies Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:35:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2017/6397836/ Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a potential target for the treatment of several disorders. In view of several FDA approved kinase inhibitors, in the current study, we have investigated the interaction of selected kinase inhibitors with PPARγ using computational modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS). The docked conformations and MDS studies suggest that the selected KIs interact with PPARγ in the ligand binding domain (LBD) with high positive predictive values. Hence, we have for the first time shown the plausible binding of KIs in the PPARγ ligand binding site. The results obtained from these in silico investigations warrant further evaluation of kinase inhibitors as PPARγ ligands in vitro and in vivo. Mohit Mazumder, Prija Ponnan, Umashankar Das, Samudrala Gourinath, Haseeb Ahmad Khan, Jian Yang, and Meena Kishore Sakharkar Copyright © 2017 Mohit Mazumder et al. All rights reserved. Fatigue and Muscle Strength Involving Walking Speed in Parkinson’s Disease: Insights for Developing Rehabilitation Strategy for PD Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:20:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2017/1941980/ Background. Problems with gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are a challenge in neurorehabilitation, partly because the mechanisms causing the walking disability are unclear. Weakness and fatigue, which may significantly influence gait, are commonly reported by patients with PD. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between weakness and fatigue and walking ability in patients with PD. Methods. We recruited 25 patients with idiopathic PD and 25 age-matched healthy adults. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), twitch force, and voluntary activation levels were measured before and after a knee fatigue exercise. General fatigue, central fatigue, and peripheral fatigue were quantified by exercise-induced changes in MVC, twitch force, and activation level. In addition, subjective fatigue was measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Results. The patients with PD had lower activation levels, more central fatigue, and more subjective fatigue than the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in twitch force or peripheral fatigue index between the two groups. The reduction in walking speed was related to the loss of peripheral strength and PD itself. Conclusion. Fatigue and weakness of central origin were related to PD, while peripheral strength was important for walking ability. The results suggest that rehabilitation programs for PD should focus on improving both central and peripheral components of force. Ying-Zu Huang, Fang-Yu Chang, Wei-Chia Liu, Yu-Fen Chuang, Li-Ling Chuang, and Ya-Ju Chang Copyright © 2017 Ying-Zu Huang et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing Greenhouse Lighting for Advanced Agriculture Based on Real Time Electricity Market Price Wed, 22 Feb 2017 13:07:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2017/6862038/ The world’s growing demand for food can be met by agricultural technology. Use of artificial light to supplement natural sunlight in greenhouse cultivation is one of the most common techniques to increase greenhouse production of food crops. However, artificial light requires significant electrical energy, which increases the cost of greenhouse production and can reduce profit. This paper models the increments to greenhouse productivity as well as the increases in cost from supplemental electric lighting, in a situation where the greenhouse is one of the elements of a smart grid, a system where the electric energy market is dynamic and prices vary over time. We used our models to calculate the optimum values for supplemental light and the required electrical energy for HPS lamps in the greenhouse environment, using cherry tomato cultivation as a case study crop. We considered two optimization techniques: iterative search (IS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The two approaches produced similar results, although the GA method was much faster. Both approaches verify the advantages of using optimal supplemental light in terms of increasing production and hence profit. Mehdi Mahdavian and Naruemon Wattanapongsakorn Copyright © 2017 Mehdi Mahdavian and Naruemon Wattanapongsakorn. All rights reserved. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI Wed, 22 Feb 2017 12:45:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8392952/ The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice () was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters. Zhi Zuo, Anne Subgang, Alireza Abaei, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Detlef Stiller, Genshan Ma, and Volker Rasche Copyright © 2017 Zhi Zuo et al. All rights reserved. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack Wed, 22 Feb 2017 12:03:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/8045347/ An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%. Yijiang Ma and Guoping Chen Copyright © 2017 Yijiang Ma and Guoping Chen. All rights reserved. A Novel Low-Cost Real-Time Power Measurement Platform for LoWPAN IoT Devices Wed, 22 Feb 2017 12:02:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2017/8713873/ With the rapid development of technology and application for Internet of Things (IoT), Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (LoWPAN) devices are more popularly applied. Evaluation of power efficiency is important to LoWPAN applications. Conventional method to evaluate the power efficiency of different LoWPAN devices is as follows: first measure the current of the devices under working/idle/sleep state and then make an average and estimation of the lifetime of batteries, which deeply relied on the accuracy of testing equipment and is not that accurate and with high cost. In this work, a low-cost, real-time power measurement platform called PTone is proposed, which can be used to detect the real-time power of LoWPAN devices (above 99.63%) and be able to determine the state of each module of DUT system. Based on the PTone, a novel abnormal status diagnosis mechanism is proposed. The mechanism can not only judge abnormal status but also find accurate abnormal status locating and classify abnormal status accurately. According to the method, each state of Device Under Test (DUT) during wireless transmission is estimated, different abnormal status can be classified, and thus specific location of abnormal module can be found, which will significantly shorten the development process for LoWPAN devices and thus reduce costs. Yang Liu, Yubing Wang, Weiwei Gao, Wuxiong Zhang, Hua Qian, and Yang Yang Copyright © 2017 Yang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:46:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1914732/ The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum) were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w) were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1%) served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw) and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw). Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48–72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95–100%) in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase () in epithelialization and collagenation in treated groups. The ASHE and ASDE were found to be relatively noncytotoxic and safe to Vero cell line (383.4 μg mL−1; 390.6 μg mL−1), suggesting the extracts as safe topical antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries. Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Jayakayatri Jeevajothi Nathan, Yusuf Abba, Alex van Belkum, and Vasanthakumari Neela Copyright © 2017 Arunkumar Karunanidhi et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio, and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:43:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3047802/ The peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to correlate with the prognosis of many malignancies. This study evaluated the prognostic value of pretreatment NLR, LMR, and PLR in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A retrospective analysis of clinical and pathological data of 140 NPC patients without distant metastasis during initial treatment was conducted to identify correlations between NLR, LMR, and PLR and clinicopathological features, overall survival, and progression-free survival. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to reveal the independent factors affecting the prognosis of NPC patients. NLR was associated with T staging, N staging, and overall clinical stage grouping of the NPC patients (). NLR ≥ 2.28, LMR < 2.26, and PLR ≥ 174 were significantly associated with a relatively short overall survival (). In addition, NLR ≥ 2.28 was significantly associated with a relatively short progression-free survival (). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that NLR was an independent prognostic factor in NPC. Pretreatment NLR, LMR, and PLR might be a useful complement to TNM staging in the prognostic assessment of NPC patients. Aiying Lu, Haifeng Li, Yuming Zheng, Minzhong Tang, Jun Li, Huihui Wu, Weiming Zhong, Jianquan Gao, Ningjiang Ou, and Yonglin Cai Copyright © 2017 Aiying Lu et al. All rights reserved. Novel Sequential Screening and Enhanced Production of Fibrinolytic Enzyme by Bacillus sp. IND12 Using Response Surface Methodology in Solid-State Fermentation Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:39:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3909657/ Fibrinolytic enzymes have wide applications in clinical and waste treatment. Bacterial isolates were screened for fibrinolytic enzyme producing ability by skimmed milk agar plate using bromocresol green dye, fibrin plate method, zymography analysis, and goat blood clot lysis. After these sequential screenings, Bacillus sp. IND12 was selected for fibrinolytic enzyme production. Bacillus sp. IND12 effectively used cow dung for its growth and enzyme production ( U/g substrate). Further, the optimum bioprocess parameters were found out for maximum fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung as a low cost substrate under solid-state fermentation. Two-level full-factorial experiments revealed that moisture, pH, sucrose, peptone, and MgSO4 were the vital parameters with statistical significance (). Three factors (moisture, sucrose, and MgSO4) were further studied through experiments of central composite rotational design and response surface methodology. Enzyme production of optimized medium showed  U/g material, which was more than fourfold the initial enzyme production ( U/g). The analysis of variance showed that the developed response surface model was highly significant (). The fibrinolytic enzyme digested goat blood clot (100%), chicken skin (%), egg white (100%), and bovine serum albumin (%). Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan, P. Rajendran, Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent, Arumugaperumal Arun, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Oh Young Kwon, and Young Ock Kim Copyright © 2017 Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan et al. All rights reserved. Interleukin 35 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Decreased Risk of Premature Coronary Artery Disease, Metabolic Parameters, and IL-35 Levels: The Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Study Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:14:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/6012795/ Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a heterodimeric cytokine involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to establish if the polymorphisms of IL-12A and EBI3 genes that encode the IL-35 subunits are associated with the development of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in Mexican individuals. The IL-12A and EBI3 polymorphisms were determined in 1162 patients with premature CAD and 873 controls. Under different models, the EBI3 rs428253 (OR = 0.831, = 0.036; OR = 0.614, = 0.033; OR = 0.591, = 0.027) and IL-12A rs2243115 (OR = 0.674, = 0.010; OR = 0.676, = 0.014; OR = 0.698, = 0.027; OR = 0.694, = 0.024) polymorphisms were associated with decreased risk of developing premature CAD. Some polymorphisms were associated with clinical and metabolic parameters. Significant different levels of IL-35 were observed in EBI3 rs4740 and rs4905 genotypes only in the group of healthy controls. In summary, our study suggests that the EBI3 and IL-12A polymorphisms play an important role in decreasing the risk of developing premature CAD; it also demonstrates the relationship of the EBI3 rs4740 and rs4905 genotypes with IL-35 levels in healthy individuals. Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández, Javier Angeles-Martínez, Fabiola López-Bautista, Teresa Villarreal-Molina, José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel Fragoso, Carlos Posadas-Romero, and Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón Copyright © 2017 Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Poststroke Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:13:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2017/2124743/ Background and Purpose. Anxiety affects 25% of stroke survivors. There are no effective treatments. Poststroke depression, prestroke anxiety and depression, locus of control, coping, confidence, fatigue, and sleep are factors that may be associated with poststroke anxiety and can potentially be targeted by therapy. We systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to identify associations with these factors. Methods. We searched electronic databases from January 2014 to July 2015 to complement a literature search performed from inception to May 2014. Study quality was assessed using an internationally endorsed checklist. We used odds ratios (ORs) to estimate the strength of associations and random-effects modelling to calculate summary effect sizes. Results. There were 24 studies recruiting 15448 patients. Quality of reporting was satisfactory. 13 studies with 2408 patients reported associations between poststroke anxiety and poststroke depression (, 95% confidence interval: 2.23, 9.74). One study reported association with prestroke anxiety, three with prestroke depression, one with fatigue, and two with sleep. No studies reported on locus of control, coping, or confidence. Conclusion. Poststroke anxiety was associated with depression but there are limited data on other modifiable associations. Further research is needed to identify potential targets for treatment. Francesca Wright, Simiao Wu, Ho-Yan Yvonne Chun, and Gillian Mead Copyright © 2017 Francesca Wright et al. All rights reserved. Different Densities of Na-Ca Exchange Current in T-Tubular and Surface Membranes and Their Impact on Cellular Activity in a Model of Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Wed, 22 Feb 2017 10:22:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6343821/ The ratio of densities of Na-Ca exchanger current () in the t-tubular and surface membranes (-ratio) computed from the values of and membrane capacitances () measured in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes before and after detubulation ranges between 1.7 and 25 (potentially even 40). Variations of action potential waveform and of calcium turnover within this span of the -ratio were simulated employing previously developed model of rat ventricular cell incorporating separate description of ion transport systems in the t-tubular and surface membranes. The increase of -ratio from 1.7 to 25 caused a prolongation of APD (duration of action potential at 90% repolarisation) by 12, 9, and 6% and an increase of peak intracellular Ca2+ transient by 45, 19, and 6% at 0.1, 1, and 5 Hz, respectively. The prolonged APD resulted from the increase of due to the exposure of a larger fraction of Na-Ca exchangers to higher Ca2+ transients under the t-tubular membrane. The accompanying rise of Ca2+ transient was a consequence of a higher Ca2+ load in sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by the increased Ca2+ cycling between the surface and t-tubular membranes. However, the reason for large differences in the -ratio assessed from measurements in adult rat cardiomyocytes remains to be explained. M. Pásek, J. Šimurda, and G. Christé Copyright © 2017 M. Pásek et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress, Epigenetics, Environment, and Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathy Wed, 22 Feb 2017 10:09:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/6419357/ Goran Petrovski, Kai Kaarniranta, and Daniel Petrovič Copyright © 2017 Goran Petrovski et al. All rights reserved. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP Initiate the Coronary Artery Calcification in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Wed, 22 Feb 2017 10:02:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2520510/ Background. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) contributes to high risk of cardiocerebrovascular diseases in dialysis patients. However, the risk factors for CAC initiation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are not known clearly. Methods. Adult patients with baseline CaCS = 0 and who were followed up for at least 3 years or until the conversion from absent to any measurable CAC detected were included in this observational cohort study. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. Results. 70 patients recruited to our study were split into a noninitiation group () and an initiation group () according to the conversion of any measurable CAC during their follow-up or not. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphorus, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, serum creatinine, and triglycerides were positively associated with the initiation of CAC, while the high density lipoprotein and nPCR did the opposite function. Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation after adjustments. Conclusions. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. These results suggested potential clinical strategies to prevent the initiation of CAC in PD patients. Da Shang, Qionghong Xie, Bin Shang, Min Zhang, Li You, Chuan-Ming Hao, and Tongying Zhu Copyright © 2017 Da Shang et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Filtering Microstrip Duplex Antenna Array with High Isolation Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:55:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2017/4127943/ This paper presents a 2 × 1 integrated filtering microstrip duplex antenna array with high isolation and same polarization. The antenna consists of two radiating patches fed by two T-shaped probes and a power distributing duplex network (PDDN). The PDDN is composed of two bandstop filters and a 180-degree phase shift power divider. And the PDDN is designed to achieve the functions of power division, frequency selectivity, and port isolation. A Transmission Line (TL) model is adopted to design the PDDN, and the detailed synthesis procedure is presented. For demonstration, the proposed antenna is designed and fabricated. The implemented antenna achieves an average gain of 10 dBi, a cross-polarization ratio of 20 dB, and an isolation of 35 dB within the operation band. Xian-Jing Lin, Ze-Ming Xie, and Pei-Sheng Zhang Copyright © 2017 Xian-Jing Lin et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Role of the MicroRNA-200 Family in Various Carcinomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:54:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1928021/ Background/Aims. The miRNA-200 (miR-200) family may act as key inhibitors of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the potential prognostic value of miR-200s in various human malignancies remains controversial. This meta-analysis analyzed the associations between miR-200 levels and survival outcomes in a variety of tumors. Methods. Eligible published studies were identified by searching the Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar databases. Patient clinical data were pooled, and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to calculate the strength of this association. Results. The pooled HRs suggested that high tissue expression of miR-200 family members was associated with better survival (overall survival [OS]: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91; progression-free survival [PFS]: HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.52–0.76) in thirty-four eligible articles. In contrast, higher expression of circulating miR-200 members was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome (OS, HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.15–2.46; PFS, HR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.68–4.07). Conclusion. The results from this meta-analysis suggest that miR-200 family members are potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with various carcinomas. To apply these findings in the clinic, large prospective studies are needed to validate the prognostic values of miR-200s in individual cancer types. Jung Soo Lee, Young-Ho Ahn, Hye Sung Won, Der Sheng Sun, Yeo Hyung Kim, and Yoon Ho Ko Copyright © 2017 Jung Soo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Knee Dislocation: A Case Report, Diagnostic Vascular Work-Up, and Literature Review Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:53:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2017/9745025/ Knee dislocation is an uncommon, potentially limb-threatening, knee injury. Most often caused by high-velocity trauma, it can also result from low- or even ultra-low-velocity trauma. Rapid identification of the injury, reduction, and definitive management are necessary to minimize neurovascular damage. We present a case of rotatory anterolateral knee dislocation sustained during a twisting sports-related event. Special emphasis is placed on diagnosing vascular injuries associated with knee dislocations. Matthijs R. Douma, Michael D. Burg, and Björn L. Dijkstra Copyright © 2017 Matthijs R. Douma et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Three Devices for the Isolation of the Stromal Vascular Fraction from Adipose Tissue and for ASC Culture: A Comparative Study Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:51:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/9289213/ Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue (AT) and can be easily isolated. However, extraction of the SVF from lipoaspirate is a critical step in generating ASC, and semiautomated devices have been developed to enhance the efficacy and reproducibility of the outcomes and to decrease manipulation and contamination. In this study, we compared the reference method used in our lab for SVF isolation from lipoaspirate, with three medical devices: GID SVF-1™, Puregraft™, and Stem.pras®. Cell yield and their viability were evaluated as well as their phenotype with flow cytometry. Further on, we determined their proliferative potential using population doublings (PD), PD time (PDT), and clonogenicity assay (CFU-F). Finally, we checked their genetic stability using RT-qPCR for TERT mRNA assay and karyotyping as well as their multilineage potential including adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that all the devices allow the production of SVF cells with consistent yield and viability, in less time than the reference method. Expanded cells from the four methods showed no significant differences in terms of phenotype, proliferation capabilities, differentiation abilities, and genetic stability. Jonathan Rodriguez, Anne-Sophie Pratta, Nacira Abbassi, Hugo Fabre, Fanny Rodriguez, Cyrille Debard, Jacqueline Adobati, Fabien Boucher, Frédéric Mallein-Gerin, Céline Auxenfans, Odile Damour, and Ali Mojallal Copyright © 2017 Jonathan Rodriguez et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Softening Characteristics of Sandstone and Mudstone in Relation to Moisture Content Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:46:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2017/4010376/ The kinetics of fluid-solid coupling during immersion is an important topic of investigation in rock engineering. Two rock types, sandstone and mudstone, are selected in this work to study the correlation between the softening characteristics of the rocks and moisture content. This is achieved through detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy, shear tests, and evaluation of rock index properties during exposure to different moisture contents. An underground roadway excavation is simulated by dynamic finite element modeling to analyze the effect of moisture content on the stability of the roadway. The results show that moisture content has a significant effect on shear properties reduction of both sandstone and mudstone, which must thus be considered in mining or excavation processes. Specifically, it is found that the number, area, and diameter of micropores, as well as surface porosity, increase with increasing moisture content. Additionally, stress concentration is negatively correlated with moisture content, while the influenced area and vertical displacement are positively correlated with moisture content. These findings may provide useful input for the design of underground roadways. Gui-chen Li, Chong-chong Qi, Yuan-tian Sun, Xiao-lin Tang, and Bao-quan Hou Copyright © 2017 Gui-chen Li et al. All rights reserved. Complexity in Linear Systems: A Chaotic Linear Operator on the Space of Odd -Periodic Functions Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:39:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/complexity/2017/6020213/ Not just nonlinear systems but infinite-dimensional linear systems can exhibit complex behavior. It has long been known that twice the backward shift on the space of square-summable sequences displays chaotic dynamics. Here we construct the corresponding operator on the space of -periodic odd functions and provide its representation involving a Principal Value Integral. We explicitly calculate the eigenfunction of this operator, as well as its periodic points. We also provide examples of chaotic and unbounded trajectories of . Tamás Kalmár-Nagy and Márton Kiss Copyright © 2017 Tamás Kalmár-Nagy and Márton Kiss. All rights reserved. Optical Nonlinear Properties of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Laser Ablation in Polymer Solution Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:08:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2017/4803843/ In the present study, gold nanoparticles were synthesized in various polymer solutions by means of employing laser ablation technique at the same ablation time. Specifically, gold nanoparticles were synthesized in polyethylene glycol and chitosan solutions, in order to compare the effects of the liquid media which served as stabilizers for particle size and volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, this experiment was repeated in distilled water for reference purposes. As the findings indicated, the particle size which was obtained in polyethylene glycol was about 7.49 nm, that is, smaller than those of chitosan solution and distilled water, respectively. In contrast, it was observed that the volume fraction of gold nanoparticles increased in polyethylene glycol in comparison with the other media which indicated an effect on the formation of NPs. On the other hand, Z-scan technique was employed to measure the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of nanofluids containing gold nanoparticles. Consequently, the nonlinear properties of nanofluids pointed to a significant contribution with the number of nanoparticles observed in fluids and both optical nonlinear parameters were observed to increase by means of a prior increase in the volume fraction of Au-NPs in polyethylene glycol solution. M. Tajdidzadeh, A. B. Zakaria, Z. Abidin Talib, A. S. Gene, and S. Shirzadi Copyright © 2017 M. Tajdidzadeh et al. All rights reserved. On the Frequency Distribution of Neutral Particles from Low-Energy Strong Interactions Wed, 22 Feb 2017 08:39:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2017/8018470/ The rejection of the contamination, or background, from low-energy strong interactions at hadron collider experiments is a topic that has received significant attention in the field of particle physics. This article builds on a particle-level view of collision events, in line with recently proposed subtraction methods. While conventional techniques in the field usually concentrate on probability distributions, our study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt at estimating the frequency distribution of background particles across the kinematic space inside individual collision events. In fact, while the probability distribution can generally be estimated given a model of low-energy strong interactions, the corresponding frequency distribution inside a single event typically deviates from the average and cannot be predicted a priori. We present preliminary results in this direction and establish a connection between our technique and the particle weighting methods that have been the subject of recent investigation at the Large Hadron Collider. Federico Colecchia and Akram Khan Copyright © 2017 Federico Colecchia and Akram Khan. All rights reserved. Understanding Visitors’ Responses to Intelligent Transportation System in a Tourist City with a Mixed Ranked Logit Model Wed, 22 Feb 2017 08:38:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jat/2017/8652053/ One important function of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applied in tourist cities is to improve visitors’ mobility by releasing real-time transportation information and then shifting tourists from individual vehicles to intelligent public transit. The objective of this research is to quantify visitors’ psychological and behavioral responses to tourism-related ITS. Designed with a Mixed Ranked Logit Model (MRLM) with random coefficients that was capable of evaluating potential effects from information uncertainty and other relevant factors on tourists’ transport choices, an on-site and a subsequent web-based stated preference survey were conducted in a representative tourist city (Chengde, China). Simulated maximum-likelihood procedure was used to estimate random coefficients. Results indicate that tourists generally perceive longer travel time and longer wait time if real-time information is not available. ITS information is able to reduce tourists’ perceived uncertainty and stimulating transport modal shifts. This novel MRLM contributes a new derivation model to logit model family and for the first time proposes an applicable methodology to assess useful features of ITS for tourists. Yang Liu, Jing Shi, and Meiying Jian Copyright © 2017 Yang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Performance of Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia of Patients with Ischemic Stroke Wed, 22 Feb 2017 08:35:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/2017/9513690/ Objective. To investigate the effect of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), endotracheal aspiration (ETA), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples as early biomarkers for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two patients with clinically suspected VAP were enrolled in this study. Bronchoscopy was performed on the day of clinically suspected VAP. sTREM-1 levels in serum, BALF, ETA, and EBC were measured. VAP was diagnosed by quantitative cultures of BALF (≥104 cfu/mL). Results. VAP was confirmed in 76 (57.58%) cases. Patients with VAP showed significantly higher sTREM-1 in BALF [32.35 (IQR, 30.08–41.72) versus 18.92 (11.89–31.72)] pg/mL and in EBC [1.57 (IQR, 1.02–2.61) versus 0.41 (0.19–1.61)] pg/mL than patients without VAP. The area under the curve was 0.813 (). The optimum cut-off value for sTREM-1 in BALF was 23.61 pg/mL, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 73.1%. sTREM-1 in BALF had excellent correlation with that in EBC ( = 0.78, ). Conclusions. sTREM-1 in EBC and BALF had good diagnostic performance in differentiating patients with and without VAP. Yuetian Yu, Cheng Zhu, Chunyan Liu, Yuan Gao, Rong Yin, and Jianguo Cao Copyright © 2017 Yuetian Yu et al. All rights reserved. Technologies for Proteome-Wide Discovery of Extracellular Host-Pathogen Interactions Wed, 22 Feb 2017 08:34:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/2197615/ Pathogens have evolved unique mechanisms to breach the cell surface barrier and manipulate the host immune response to establish a productive infection. Proteins exposed to the extracellular environment, both cell surface-expressed receptors and secreted proteins, are essential targets for initial invasion and play key roles in pathogen recognition and subsequent immunoregulatory processes. The identification of the host and pathogen extracellular molecules and their interaction networks is fundamental to understanding tissue tropism and pathogenesis and to inform the development of therapeutic strategies. Nevertheless, the characterization of the proteins that function in the host-pathogen interface has been challenging, largely due to the technical challenges associated with detection of extracellular protein interactions. This review discusses available technologies for the high throughput study of extracellular protein interactions between pathogens and their hosts, with a focus on mammalian viruses and bacteria. Emerging work illustrates a rich landscape for extracellular host-pathogen interaction and points towards the evolution of multifunctional pathogen-encoded proteins. Further development and application of technologies for genome-wide identification of extracellular protein interactions will be important in deciphering functional host-pathogen interaction networks, laying the foundation for development of novel therapeutics. Nadia Martinez-Martin Copyright © 2017 Nadia Martinez-Martin. All rights reserved. Association of Chronic Pancreatitis and Malignant Main Duct IPMN: A Rare but Difficult Clinical Problem Wed, 22 Feb 2017 08:19:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2017/8705195/ We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who consulted for recurrent short episodes of mild-to-moderate abdominal pain. Dilated main pancreatic duct was seen on CAT scan and magnetic resonance, with multiple calcifications and intraductal stones, typical in CP. However, for a more pronounced cystic dilatation in the pancreatic head, we could not exclude the coexistence of a main duct IPMN. ERCP was performed, with pancreatic sphincterotomy and extraction of pancreatic stones, but, at the same time, mucin extrusion was seen from the dilated duct through the papilla. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. Surgery and histology confirmed malignant IPMN with the typical image of chronic pancreatitis and intraductal stones in the vicinity. The patient is doing well 4 years after the surgery, without recurrence of the malignant disease, with changes of chronic pancreatitis in the pancreatic remnant. This paper discusses the possible relationships between the two entities and emphasizes the need of differential diagnosis. Zoltán Berger, Hernán De La Fuente, Manuel Meneses, Fernanda Matamala, Makarena Sepúlveda, and Claudia Rojas Copyright © 2017 Zoltán Berger et al. All rights reserved. Patch Based Multiple Instance Learning Algorithm for Object Tracking Wed, 22 Feb 2017 07:49:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2017/2426475/ To deal with the problems of illumination changes or pose variations and serious partial occlusion, patch based multiple instance learning (P-MIL) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm divides an object into many blocks. Then, the online MIL algorithm is applied on each block for obtaining strong classifier. The algorithm takes account of both the average classification score and classification scores of all the blocks for detecting the object. In particular, compared with the whole object based MIL algorithm, the P-MIL algorithm detects the object according to the unoccluded patches when partial occlusion occurs. After detecting the object, the learning rates for updating weak classifiers’ parameters are adaptively tuned. The classifier updating strategy avoids overupdating and underupdating the parameters. Finally, the proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms on several classical videos. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed method performs well especially in case of illumination changes or pose variations and partial occlusion. Moreover, the algorithm realizes real-time object tracking. Zhenjie Wang, Lijia Wang, and Hua Zhang Copyright © 2017 Zhenjie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing Haemagglutinin from a Polish Avian H5N1 Isolate and Its Immunological Effect in Preliminary Animal Trials Wed, 22 Feb 2017 07:31:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6747482/ Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive, nonpathogenic microorganisms that are gaining much interest as antigen producers for development of live vaccine vectors. Heterologous proteins of different origin have been successfully expressed in various LAB species, including Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant L. lactis strains have been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune responses against various antigens. Our study aimed at constructing a L. lactis strain expressing haemagglutinin of a Polish avian H5H1 influenza isolate and examining its effect on animals. Expression of the cloned H5 gene was achieved using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. Detection of the intracellular H5 antigen produced in L. lactis was performed by Western blot analysis and confirmed using mass spectrometry. The potential of L. lactis recombinant cells to induce an immune response was examined by setting up preliminary immunization trials on chickens and mice. Obtained sera were tested for specific antibodies by ELISA assays. The results of these studies are a promising step toward developing a vaccine against the bird flu using Lactococcus lactis cells as bioreactors for efficient antigen production and delivery to the mucosal surface. Agnieszka K. Szczepankowska, Katarzyna Szatraj, Przemysław Sałański, Agnieszka Rózga, Roman K. Górecki, and Jacek K. Bardowski Copyright © 2017 Agnieszka K. Szczepankowska et al. All rights reserved. An ECC-Based Blind Signcryption Scheme for Multiple Digital Documents Wed, 22 Feb 2017 07:29:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2017/8981606/ The popularity of the Internet has comprehensively altered the traditional way of communication and interaction patterns, such as e-contract negotiations, e-payment services, or digital credential processes. In the field of e-form systems, a number of studies investigate the ability of the blind signature to fulfill the basic properties of blindness and untraceability. However, most literatures exploring the blind signature mechanisms only address research and technology pertaining to single blind signature issues. Further, most of the topics only deal with signing rather than encryption. Thus, we propose a new blind signature scheme for multiple digital documents based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). Our scheme incorporates the design of signcryption paradigm into the blind signature scheme to strengthen high levels of security. This innovative method also enhances computational efficiency during processing multiple electronic documents since the ECC provides a shorter key length and higher processing speed than other public-key cryptosystems on equivalent secrecy. The analysis results show that the present scheme achieves better performance at low communication overheads as well as with higher level of security. By helping the design of the intrinsic properties, the proposed cryptosystem can be applied to many areas to protect sensitive data in ubiquitous computing environments. Chien-Hua Tsai and Pin-Chang Su Copyright © 2017 Chien-Hua Tsai and Pin-Chang Su. All rights reserved.