Submit your Research Today
The Breast Journal is now open for submissionsRead our Author Guidelines
The Breast Journal is the first comprehensive, multidisciplinary source devoted exclusively to all facets of research, diagnosis, and treatment of breast disease.
The Breast Journal maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Impact of CDK4/6 Inhibitors on Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Musculoskeletal Syndrome (AIMSS) in the Adjuvant Setting
Background. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the mainstay of treatment in hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Even though it is considered to be a well-tolerated therapy, AI-induced musculoskeletal symptoms are common and may be accused for treatment discontinuation. Recently, selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors changed the therapeutic setting, and currently, ribociclib, palbociclib, and abemaciclib are all approved in combination with nonsteroidal AIs in patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer. This systematic review aims to identify the frequency of aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal syndrome (AIMSS) in the adjuvant setting in patients under AI monotherapy compared to patients under combination therapy with AIs and CDK4/6 inhibitors and demonstrate the underlying mechanism of action. Methods. This study was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The literature search and data extraction from all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were done by two independent investigators. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE and ClinicalTrial.gov database concerning the period 2000/01/01–2021/05/01. Results. Arthralgia was reported in 13.2 to 68.7% of patients receiving AIs for early-stage breast cancer, while arthralgia induced by CDK4/6 inhibitors occurred in a much lower rate [20.5–41.2%]. Bone pain (5–28.7% vs. 2.2–17.2%), back pain (2–13.4% vs. 8–11.2%), and arthritis (3.6–33.6% vs. 0.32%) were reported less frequently in patients receiving the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with ET. Conclusions. CDK4/6 inhibitors might have a protective effect against joint inflammation and arthralgia occurrence. Further studies are warranted to investigate arthralgia incidence in this population.
The Effect of Adjuvant Radiotherapy on One- and Two-Stage Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction and on Autologous Reconstruction: A Multicenter Italian Study among 18 Senonetwork Breast Centres
Purpose. In modern breast cancer treatment, a growing role has been observed for breast reconstruction together with an increase in clinical indications for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Choosing the optimum type of reconstructive technique is a clinical challenge. We therefore conducted a national multicenter study to analyze the impact of PMRT on breast reconstruction. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control multicenter study on women undergoing breast reconstruction. Data were collected from 18 Italian Breast Centres and stored in a cumulative database which included the following: autologous reconstruction, direct-to-implant (DTI), and tissue expander/immediate (TE/I). For all patients, we described complications and surgical endpoints to complications such as reconstruction failure, explant, change in type of reconstruction, and reintervention. Results. From 2001 to April 2020, 3116 patients were evaluated. The risk for any complication was significantly increased in patients receiving PMRT (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.33–2.24; ). PMRT was associated with a significant increase in the risk of capsular contracture in the DTI and TE/I groups (aOR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.57–3.20; ). Comparing type of procedures, the risk of failure (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.06–3.12, ), explant (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI, 3.85–7.83, ), and severe complications (aOR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.88–3.43, ) were significantly higher in the group undergoing DTI reconstruction as compared to TE/I reconstruction. Conclusion. Our study confirms that autologous reconstruction is the procedure least impacted by PMRT, while DTI appears to be the most impacted by PMRT, when compared with TE/I which shows a lower rate of explant and reconstruction failure. The trial is registered with NCT04783818, and the date of registration is 1 March, 2021, retrospectively registered.
Management of Lobular Neoplasia Diagnosed by Core Biopsy
Lobular neoplasia (LN) involves proliferative changes within the breast lobules. LN is divided into lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH). LCIS can be further subdivided into three subtypes: classic LCIS, pleomorphic LCIS, and LCIS with necrosis (florid type). Because classic LCIS is now considered as a benign etiology, current guidelines recommend close follow-up with imaging versus surgical excision. The goal of our study was to determine if the diagnosis of classic LN on core needle biopsy (CNB) merits surgical excision. This is a retrospective, observational study conducted at Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA, from May 17, 2017, through June 30, 2020. We reviewed the data of breast biopsies conducted at our hospital over this period and included patients who were diagnosed with classic LN (LCIS and/or ALH) and excluded patients having any other atypical lesions on CNB. All known cancer patients were excluded. Of the 2707 CNBs performed during the study period, we identified 68 women who were diagnosed with ALH or LCIS on CNB. CNB was performed for an abnormal mammogram in the majority of patients (60; 88%) while 7(10.3%) had an abnormal breast magnetic resonance imaging study (MRI), and 1 had an abnormal ultrasound (US). A total of 58 patients (85%) underwent excisional biopsy, of which 3 (5.2%) showed malignancy, including 2 cases of DCIS and 1 invasive carcinoma. In addition, there was 1 case (1.7%) with pleomorphic LCIS and 11 cases with ADH (15.5%). The management of LN found on core biopsy is evolving, with some advocating surgical excision and others recommending observation. Our data show a change in diagnosis with excisional biopsy in 13 (22.4%) of patients with 2 cases of DCIS, 1 invasive carcinoma, 1 pleomorphic LCIS, and 9 cases of ADH, diagnosed on excisional biopsy. While ALH and classic LCIS are considered benign, the choice of ongoing surveillance versus excisional biopsy should be made with shared decision making with the patient, with consideration of personal and family history, as well as patient preferences.
Predicting of Ki-67 Expression Level Using Diffusion-Weighted and Synthetic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer
Objectives. To investigate the association between quantitative parameters generated using synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (SyMRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and Ki-67 expression level in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC). Method. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with IDC who underwent SyMRI and DWI before treatment. Precontrast and postcontrast relaxation times (T1, longitudinal; T2, transverse), proton density (PD) parameters, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in breast lesions. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to screen for statistically significant variables to differentiate the high (≥30%) and low (<30%) Ki-67 expression groups. Their performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. We analyzed 97 patients. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the high Ki-67 expression group (n = 57) had significantly higher parameters generated using SyMRI (pre-T1, ) and lower ADC values () compared with the low Ki-67 expression group (n = 40). Pre-T1 showed the best diagnostic performance for predicting the Ki-67 expression level in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (areas under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.711; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.609–0.813). Conclusions. Pre-T1 could be used to predict the pretreatment Ki-67 expression level in invasive ductal breast cancer.
MYL5 as a Novel Prognostic Marker is Associated with Immune Infiltrating in Breast Cancer: A Preliminary Study
Background. Myosin light chain plays a vital regulatory function in a large-scale cellular physiological procedure, however, the role of myosin light chain 5 (MYL5) in breast cancer has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of MYL5 on clinical prognosis and immune cell infiltration, and further explore the potential mechanism in breast cancer patients. Methods. In this study, we first explored the expression pattern and prognostic value of MYL5 in breast cancer across multiple databases, including Oncomine, TCGA, GTEx, GEPIA2, PrognoScan, and Kaplan–Meier Plotter. The correlations of MYL5 expression with immune cell infiltration and associational gene markers in breast cancer were analyzed by using the TIMER, TIMER2.0, and TISIDB databases. The enrichment and prognosis analysis of MYL5-related genes were implemented by using LinkOmics datasets. Results. We found that there was a low expression of MYL5 in breast cancer than in corresponding normal tissue by analyzing the data from Oncomine and TCGA datasets. Furthermore, research showed the prognosis of the MYL5 high-expression group was better than the low-expression group in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, MYL5 expression is markedly related to the tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), including cancer-associated fibroblast, B cell, CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, macrophage, neutrophil, and dendritic cell, and related to immune molecules as well as the associated gene markers of TIICs. Conclusion. MYL5 can serve as a prognostic signature in breast cancer and is associated with immune infiltration. This study first offers a relatively comprehensive understanding of the oncogenic roles of MYL5 for breast cancer.
The Oncologic Safety of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients with Node-Positive Breast Cancer with Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Single-Center Experience
Objective. To evaluate the efficiency and safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with breast cancer with complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods. Ninety-two consecutive (T1-4 and N1-2) patients with breast cancer who had pathologic and/or clinical and radiologic axillary lymph node involvement were included. All patients received NAC. Patients with a clinical and radiologic complete response in the axilla after NAC underwent SLNB. Pathologic complete response (ypCR) was defined as the absence of residual invasive and in situ cancer, and near-complete response (ypNCR) represented in situ and/or ≤ 1 mm residual tumor in the breast and/or presence of malignant cell clusters (≤0.2 mm) and/or micrometastases (≤2.0 mm) in the axillary lymph nodes (ALN) (ypTis/T1mi, ypN0i+/pN1mi). Results. The mean age of the 92 patients was 49.6 ± 10.3 years and the mean follow-up was 34.0 ± 17.8 months. With respect to breast tumors, 23 (25.0%) patients had complete and 14 (15.2%) had a near-complete response to NAC. Complete response in ALN was obtained in 39 (42.4%) patients and near-complete in six (6.5%) patients. The overall survival of the 33 patients who achieved ypCR and ypNCR was 100% and the remaining 59 patients with partial or no response to NAC was 83.1% at a mean follow-up of 34 months (). Conclusions. In this study, no event developed in cases with ypCR and ypNCR in the breast and axilla. The persistence of the same results in long-termfollow-ups may enable the use of ypNCR as a positive prognostic marker in addition to ypCR.