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This article has been retracted as an almost identical paper by the same author has been simultaneously submitted to and published in Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics. The other publication is “Solution of nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential equations using a hybrid of block pulse functions and normalized Bernstein polynomials,” Volume 260, April 2014, Pages 258–265, DOI: 10.1016/j.cam.2013.09.036.
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 416757, 8 pages
Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integrodifferential Equations by Hybrid of Block-Pulse Functions and Normalized Bernstein Polynomials
General Required Courses Department, Jeddah Community College, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Received 24 April 2013; Accepted 1 September 2013
Academic Editor: Santanu Saha Ray
Copyright © 2013 S. H. Behiry. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A numerical method for solving nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equations is proposed. The method is based on hybrid functions approximate. The properties of hybrid of block pulse functions and orthonormal Bernstein polynomials are presented and utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear algebraic equations. Numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the present method.
Integrodifferential equations are often involved in mathematical formulation of physical phenomena. Fredholm integrodifferential equations play an important role in many fields such as economics, biomechanics, control, elasticity, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, oscillation theory, and airfoil theory; for examples see [1–3] and references cited therein. Finding numerical solutions for Fredholm integrodifferential equations is one of the oldest problems in applied mathematics. Numerous works have been focusing on the development of more advanced and efficient methods for solving integrodifferential equations such as wavelets method [4, 5], Walsh functions method , sinc-collocation method , homotopy analysis method , differential transform method , the hybrid Legendre polynomials and block-pulse functions , Chebyshev polynomials method , and Bernoulli matrix method .
Block-pulse functions have been studied and applied extensively as a basic set of functions for signals and functions approximations. All these studies and applications show that block-pulse functions have definite advantages for solving problems involving integrals and derivatives due to their clearness in expressions and their simplicity in formulations; see . Also, Bernstein polynomials play a prominent role in various areas of mathematics. Many authors have used these polynomials in the solution of integral equations, differential equations, and approximation theory; see for instance [14–17].
The purpose of this work is to utilize the hybrid functions consisting of combination of block-pulse functions with normalized Bernstein polynomials for obtaining numerical solution of nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equation: with the conditions where is the th derivative of the unknown function that will be determined, is the kernel of the integral, and are known analytic functions, is a positive integer, and and are suitable constants. The proposed approach for solving this problem uses few numbers of basis and benefits of the orthogonality of block-pulse functions and the advantages of orthonormal Bernstein polynomials properties to reduce the nonlinear integrodifferential equation to easily solvable nonlinear algebraic equations.
This paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we present Bernstein polynomials and hybrid of block-pulse functions. Also, their useful properties such as functions approximation, convergence analysis, operational matrix of product, and operational matrix of differentiation are given. In Section 3, the numerical scheme for the solution of (1) and (2) is described. In Section 4, the proposed method is applied to some nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equations, and comparisons are mad with the existing analytic or numerical solutions that were reported in other published works in the literature. Finally conclusions are given in Section 5.
2. Properties of Hybrid Functions
2.1. Hybrid of Block-Pulse Functions and Orthonormal Bernstein Polynomials
The Bernstein polynomials of th degree are defined on the interval as  where There are th degree Bernstein polynomials. Using Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process on , we obtain a class of orthonormal polynomials from the Bernstein polynomials. We call them orthonormal Bernstein polynomials of degree and denote them by , . For , the four orthonormal Bernstein polynomials are given by
Hybrid functions and are defined on the interval as where and are the order of block-pulse functions and degree of orthonormal Bernstein polynomials, respectively.
It is clear that these sets of hybrid functions in (6) are orthonormal and disjoint.
2.2. Functions Approximation
A function may be approximated as where and , . The constant coefficients are , , , and is the standard inner product on .
We can also approximate the function by where is an matrix, such that the elements of the sub matrix are utilizing properties of block-pulse function and orthonormal Bernstein polynomials.
2.3. Convergence Analysis
In this section, the error bound and convergence is established by the following lemma.
Lemma 1. Suppose that is times continuously differentiable function such that , and let , . If is the best approximation to from , then approximates with the following error bound:
Proof. The Taylor expansion for the function is for which it is known that Since is the best approximation to form and , using (14) we have Now, By taking the square roots we have the above bound.
2.4. The Operational Matrix of Product
In this section, we present a general formula for finding the operational matrix of product whenever where In (18), are symmetric matrices depending on , where
Furthermore, the integration of cross-product of two hybrid functions vectors is where is the identity matrix.
2.5. The Operational Matrix of Differentiation
The operational matrix of derivative of the hybrid functions vector is defined by where is the operational matrix of derivative given as where is the coefficient matrix of the coefficient submatrix , and is the vector with , such that . Now where is the matrix of the sub-matrix , such that Hence, In general, we can have
3. Outline of the Solution Method
Step 1. The functions , are being approximated by where is given by (25).
Step 2. The function is being approximated by (10).
Step 4. Approximate the functions and by where and are constant coefficient vectors which are defined similarly to (7).
Now, using (27)–(32) and (10) to substitute into (1), we can obtain Utilizing (17) and (20), we may have and hence we get The matrix (35) gives a system of nonlinear algebraic equations which can be solved utilizing the initial condition for the elements of . Once is known, can be constructed by using (7).
4. Applications and Numerical Results
In this section, numerical results of some examples are presented to validate accuracy, applicability, and convergence of the proposed method. Absolute difference errors of this method is compared with the existing methods reported in the literature [5, 6, 17, 18]. The computations associated with these examples were performed using MATLAB 9.0.
Example 1. Consider the first-order nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equation [17, 18] as follows:
with the initial condition
In this example, we have , , , , , and .
The matrix (35) for this example is where for and we haveEquation (38) gives a system of nonlinear algebraic equations that can be solved utilizing the initial condition (37); that is, , we obtain Substituting these values into (7), the result will be , that is, the exact solution. It is noted that the result gives the exact solution as in , while in  using the sinc method the maximum absolute error is .
Example 2. Consider the first-order nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equation [6, 17] as follows:
with the initial condition
In this example, we have , , , , , and .
The matrix (35) for this example is where for and we have
Equation (43) gives a system of nonlinear algebraic equations that can be solved utilizing the initial condition (42); that is, , we obtain Substituting these values into (7), the result will be , that is, the exact solution. It is noted that the result gives the exact solution as in , while in  approximate solution is obtained with maximum absolute error .
Example 3. Consider the second-order nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equation  as follows: with the initial conditions The exact solution is . We solve this example by using the proposed method with , and , . Comparison among the proposed method and methods in  is shown in Table 1. It is clear from this table that the results obtained by the proposed method, using few numbers of basis, are very promising and superior to that of .
Example 4. Consider the following nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equation [5, 17]:
with the initial conditions
The exact solution of this problem is . In Table 2 we have compared the absolute difference errors of the proposed method with the collocation method based on Haar wavelets in  and method in .
Maximum absolute errors of Example 4 for some different values of and are shown in Table 3. As it is seen from Table 3, for a certain value of as increases the accuracy increases, and for a certain value of as increases the accuracy increases as well. In case of , the numerical solution obtained is based on orthonormal Bernstein polynomials only, while in case of , the numerical solution obtained is based on block-pulse functions only.
In this work, we present a numerical method for solving nonlinear Fredholm integrodifferential equations based on hybrid of block-pulse functions and normalized Bernstein polynomials. One of the most important properties of this method is obtaining the analytical solutions if the equation has an exact solution, that is, a polynomial function. Another considerable advantage is this method has high relative accuracy for small numbers of basis . The matrices , , and in (10), (17), and (25), respectively, have large numbers of zero elements, and they are sparse; hence, the present method is very attractive and reduces the CPU time and computer memory. Moreover, satisfactory results of illustrative examples with respect to several other methods (e.g., Haar wavelets method, Walsh functions method, Bernstein polynomials method, and sinc collocation method) are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.
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