- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 195483, 10 pages
The Representative Porcine Model for Human Cardiovascular Disease
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya Heart Center, 461-0045 Aichi, Japan
2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Falk CVRB007, Stanford, CA94305, USA
Received 17 September 2010; Accepted 13 December 2010
Academic Editor: Andrea Vecchione
Copyright © 2011 Yoriyasu Suzuki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- D. Bustad and D. Mcclellan, “Swine in biomedical research,” Science, vol. 152, no. 3728, pp. 1526–1530, 1966.
- P. Verdouw D, M. A. Van Den Doel, S. De Zeeuw, and D. J. Duncker, “Animal models in the study of myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic syndromes,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 121–135, 1998.
- J. Litvak, L. E. Siderides, and A. M. Vineberg, “The experimental production of coronary artery insufficiency and occlusion,” American Heart Journal, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 505–518, 1957.
- H. A. Fozzard, “Validity of myocardial infarction models,” Circulation, vol. 52, no. 6, supplement, pp. 131–146, 1975.
- E. R. Schwarz, H. Montino, J. Fleischhauer, H. G. Klues, J. Vom Dahl, and P. Hanrath, “The angiotensin II receptor antagonist EXP 3174 reduces infarct size comparable with enalaprilat and augments preconditioning in the pig heart,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 687–695, 1997.
- E. R. Schwarz, J. Fleischhauer, H. Montino et al., “Infarct size reduction by ischemic preconditioning is a monophasic, short-lived phenomenon in anesthetized pigs,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 63–70, 1998.
- E. R. Schwarz, T. Reffelmann, F. Schoendube et al., “Hypoxic hypoperfusion fails to induce myocardial hibernation in anesthetized swine,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 235–247, 1999.
- D. L. Kraitchman, D. A. Bluemke, B. B. Chin, A. W. Heldman, and A. W. Heldman, “A minimally invasive method for creating coronary stenosis in a swine model for MRI and SPECT imaging,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 445–451, 2000.
- R. Edwards, Z. Yousef, R. Rakhit et al., “A model of closed chest regional myocardial infarction in the rabbit: a clinically relevant in vivo assay system of post-infarction remodelling,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 374–383, 2002.
- T. Reffelmann, O. Sensebat, Y. Birnbaum et al., “A novel minimal-invasive model of chronic myocardial infarction in swine,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2004.
- G. A. Krombach, S. Kinzel, A. H. Mahnken, R. W. Günther, and A. Buecker, “Minimally invasive close-chest method for creating reperfused or occlusive myocardial infarction in swine,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 14–18, 2005.
- Y. Suzuki, J. K. Lyons, A. C. Yeung, and F. Ikeno, “In vivo porcine model of reperfused myocardial infarction: in situ double staining to measure precise infarct area/area at risk,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 100–107, 2008.
- S. H. Rahimtoola, “A perspective on the three large multicenter randomized clinical trials of coronary bypass surgery for chronic stable angina,” Circulation, vol. 72, no. 6, part 2, pp. V123–V135, 1985.
- C. Brunelli, O. Parodi, G. Sambuceti et al., “Improvement of hibernation in the clinical setting,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2415–2418, 1996.
- J. Czernin, G. Porenta, R. Brunken et al., “Regional blood flow, oxidative metabolism, and glucose utilization in patients with recent myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 884–895, 1993.
- P. Marzullo, O. Parodi, G. Sambuceti et al., “Residual coronary reserve identifies segmental viability in patients with wall motion abnormalities,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 342–350, 1995.
- K. T. Sun, J. Czernin, J. Krivokapich et al., “Effects of dobutamine stimulation on myocardial blood flow, glucose metabolism, and wall motion in normal and dysfunctional myocardium,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 3146–3154, 1996.
- M. Matsuzaki, K. P. Gallagher, and W. S. Kemper, “Sustained regional dysfunction produced by prolonged coronary stenosis: gradual recovery after reperfusion,” Circulation, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 170–182, 1983.
- C. Chen, L. Chen, J. T. Fallon et al., “Functional and structural alterations with 24-hour myocardial hibernation and recovery after reperfusion: a pig model of myocardial hibernation,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 507–516, 1996.
- C. Chen, L. Ma, W. Dyckman et al., “Left ventricular remodeling in myocardial hibernation,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 9, supplement, pp. II46–II50, 1997.
- R. K. Kudej, B. Ghaleh, N. Sato, Y. T. Shen, S. P. Bishop, and S. F. Vatner, “Ineffective perfusion-contraction matching in conscious, chronically instrumented pigs with an extended period of coronary stenosis,” Circulation Research, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1199–1205, 1998.
- S. H. Rahimtoola, “The hibernating myocardium,” American Heart Journal, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 211–221, 1989.
- J. M. Canty and F. J. Klocke, “Reductions in regional myocardial function at rest in conscious dogs with chronically reduced regional coronary artery pressure,” Circulation Research, vol. 61, no. 5, part 2, pp. I-107–I-116, 1987.
- Y. T. Shen and S. F. Vatner, “Mechanism of impaired myocardial function during progressive coronary stenosis in conscious pigs: hibernation versus stunning?” Circulation Research, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 479–488, 1995.
- J. A. Fallavollita and J. M. Canty, “Differential F-2-deoxyglucose uptake in viable dysfunctional myocardium with normal resting perfusion: evidence for chronic stunning in pigs,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 21, pp. 2798–2805, 1999.
- A. J. Liedtke, B. Renstrom, S. H. Nellis, J. L. Hall, and W. C. Stanley, “Mechanical and metabolic functions in pig hearts after 4 days of chronic coronary stenosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 815–825, 1995.
- S. Firoozan, K. Wei, A. Linka, D. Skyba, N. C. Goodman, and S. Kaul, “A canine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy: characterization of regional flow-function relations,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 276, no. 2, part 2, pp. H446–H455, 1999.
- I. Mills, J. T. Fallon, D. Wrenn et al., “Adaptive responses of coronary circulation and myocardium to chronic reduction in perfusion pressure and flow,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 266, no. 2, part 2, pp. H447–H457, 1994.
- J. A. Fallavollita, B. J. Perry, and J. M. Canty, “F-2-Deoxyglucose deposition and regional flow in pigs with chronically dysfunctional myocardium: evidence for transmural variations in chronic hibernating myocardium,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 1900–1909, 1997.
- E. O. McFalls, D. Baldwin, B. Palmer et al., “Regional glucose uptake within hypoperfused swine myocardium as measured by positron emission tomography,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 272, no. 1, part 2, pp. H343–H349, 1997.
- R. S. Schwartz, J. G. Murphy, W. D. Edwards, A. R. Camrud, R. E. Vlietstra, and D. R. Holmes, “Restenosis after balloon angioplasty. A practical proliferative model in porcine coronary arteries,” Circulation, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 2190–2200, 1990.
- R. S. Schwartz, K. C. Huber, J. G. Murphy et al., “Restenosis and the proportional neointimal response to coronary artery injury: results in a porcine model,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 267–274, 1992.
- R. S. Schwartz, D. J. Holder, D. R. Holmes et al., “Neointimal thickening after severe coronary artery injury is limited by short-term administration of a factor Xa inhibitor: results in a porcine model,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 1542–1548, 1996.
- K. C. Huber, R. S. Schwartz, W. D. Edwards et al., “Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on neointimal proliferation in a porcine coronary injury model,” American Heart Journal, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 695–701, 1993.
- P. W. Serruys, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe et al., “Intravascular ultrasound findings in the multicenter, randomized, double-blind RAVEL (RAndomized study with the sirolimus-eluting VElocity balloon-expandable stent in the treatment of patients with de novo native coronary artery lesions) trial,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 7, pp. 798–803, 2002.
- J. E. Sousa, M. A. Costa, A. Abizaid et al., “Sirolimus-eluting stent for the treatment of in-stent restenosis: a quantitative coronary angiography and three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 24–27, 2003.
- R. Gallo, A. Padurean, T. Jayaraman et al., “Inhibition of intimal thickening after balloon angioplasty in porcine coronary arteries by targeting regulators of the cell cycle,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 16, pp. 2164–2170, 1999.
- T. Suzuki, G. Kopia, S. I. Hayashi et al., “Stent-based delivery of sirolimus reduces neointimal formation in a porcine coronary model,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 1188–1193, 2001.
- P. S. Teirstein, “Living the dream of no restenosis,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 17, pp. 1996–1998, 2001.
- A. W. Heldman, L. Cheng, G. M. Jenkins et al., “Paclitaxel stent coating inhibits neointimal hyperplasia at 4 weeks in a porcine model of coronary restenosis,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 18, pp. 2289–2295, 2001.
- R. S. Schwartz, E. R. Edelman, A. Carter et al., “Drug-eluting stents in preclinical studies recommended evaluation from a consensus group,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 14, pp. 1867–1873, 2002.
- R. S. Schwartz, E. Edelman, R. Virmani et al., “Drug-eluting stents in preclinical studies: updated consensus recommendations for preclinical evaluation,” Circulation, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 143–153, 2008.
- R. S. Schwartz, D. R. Holmes, and E. J. Topol, “The restenosis paradigm revisites: an alternative proposal for cellular mechanisms,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1284–1293, 1992.
- R. Kornowski, M. K. Hong, F. O. Tio, O. Bramwell, H. Wu, and M. B. Leon, “In-stent restenosis: contributions of inflammatory responses and arterial injury to neointimal hyperplasia,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 224–230, 1998.
- A. J. Taylor, P. D. Gorman, B. Kenwood, C. Hudak, G. Tashko, and R. Virmani, “A comparison of four stent designs on arterial injury, cellular proliferation, neointima formation, and arterial dimensions in an experimental porcine model,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 420–425, 2001.
- A. J. Carter, J. R. Laird, A. Farb, W. Kufs, D. C. Wortham, and R. Virmani, “Morphologic characteristics of lesion formation and time course of smooth muscle cell proliferation in a porcine proliferative restenosis model,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1398–1405, 1994.
- E. R. Edelman and C. Rogers, “Pathobiologic responses to stenting,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 81, no. 7 A, pp. 4E–6E, 1998.
- R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. Farb, and A. Lafont, “Drug eluting stents: are human and animal studies comparable?” Heart, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 133–138, 2003.
- G. Nakazawa, A. V. Finn, M. C. John, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “The significance of preclinical evaluation of sirolimus-, paclitaxel-, and zotarolimus-eluting stents,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 8B, pp. M36–M44, 2007.
- Y. Suzuki, J. K. Lyons, A. C. Yeung, and F. Ikeno, “The porcine restenosis model using thermal balloon injury: comparison with the model by coronary stenting,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 142–146, 2008.
- Y. Suzuki, A. Oyane, F. Ikeno, J. K. Lyons, and A. C. Yeung, “Development of animal model for calcified chronic total occlusion,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 468–475, 2009.
- A. V. Finn, F. D. Kolodgie, J. Harnek et al., “Differential response of delayed healing and persistent inflammation at sites of overlapping sirolimus- or paclitaxel-eluting stents,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 270–278, 2005.
- M. Joner, A. V. Finn, A. Farb et al., “Pathology of drug-eluting stents in humans: delayed healing and late thrombotic risk,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 193–202, 2006.
- M. E. Staab, S. S. Srivatsa, A. Lerman et al., “Arterial remodeling after experimental percutaneous injury is highly dependent on adventitial injury and histopathology,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 1997.
- W. E. Elzinga, “Ameroid constrictor: uniform closure rates and a calibration procedure,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 419–421, 1969.
- B. H. Strauss, L. Goldman, B. Qiang et al., “Collagenase plaque digestion for facilitating guide wire crossing in chronic total occlusions,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 1259–1262, 2003.
- B. H. Strauss, A. Segev, G. A. Wright et al., “Microvessels in chronic total occlusions: pathways for successful guidewire crossing?” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 425–436, 2005.
- S. Nikol, S. Armeanu, M. G. Engelmann et al., “Evaluation of endovascular techniques for creating a porcine femoral artery occlusion model,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 401–407, 2001.
- M. Katsuragawa, H. Fujiwara, M. Miyamae, and S. Sasayama, “Histologic studies in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for chronic total occlusion: comparison of tapering and abrupt types of occlusion and short and long occluded segments,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 604–611, 1993.
- S. S. Srivatsa, W. D. Edwards, C. M. Boos et al., “Histologic correlates of angiographic chronic total coronary artery occlusions. Influence of occlusion duration on neovascular channel patterns and intimal plaque composition,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 955–963, 1997.
- J. F. Tanguay, J. P. Zidar, H. R. Phillips, and R. S. Stack, “Current status of biodegradable stents,” Cardiology Clinics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 699–713, 1994.
- L. Prosser, C. M. Agrawal, J. Polan, J. Elliott, D. G. Adams, and S. R. Bailey, “Implantation of oxygen enhanced, three-dimensional microporous L-PLA polymers: a reproducible porcine model of chronic total coronary occlusion,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 412–416, 2006.
- K. Suzuki, N. Saito, G. Zhang et al., “Development of a novel calcified total occlusion model in porcine coronary arteries,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 296–301, 2008.
- J. F. Granada, P. R. Moreno, A. P. Burke, D. G. Schulz, A. E. Raizner, and G. L. Kaluza, “Endovascular needle injection of cholesteryl linoleate into the arterial wall produces complex vascular lesions identifiable by intravascular ultrasound: early development in a porcine model of vulnerable plaque,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 217–224, 2005.
- J. F. Granada, D. Wallace-Bradley, H. K. Win et al., “In vivo plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in a porcine model of complex coronary lesions,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 387–393, 2007.
- J. Hasler-Rapacz, H. Ellegren, A. K. Fridolfsson et al., “Identification of a mutation in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene associated with recessive familial hypercholesterolemia in swine,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 379–386, 1998.
- M. F. Prescott, C. H. McBride, J. Hasler-Rapacz, J. Von Linden, and J. Rapacz, “Development of complex atherosclerotic lesions in pigs with inherited hyper-LDL cholesterolemia bearing mutant alleles for apolipoprotein B,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 139–147, 1991.
- R. G. Gerrity, R. Natarajan, J. L. Nadler, and T. Kimsey, “Diabetes-Induced Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Swine,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1654–1665, 2001.
- M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, “Correlation of vulnerable coronary plaques to sudden cardiac events. Lessons from a myocardial infarction-prone animal model (the WHHLMI rabbit),” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 184–189, 2004.
- M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk et al., “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: part II,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 15, pp. 1772–1778, 2003.