About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 797383, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/797383
Review Article

Experimental Trauma Models: An Update

Trauma Department, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany

Received 9 October 2010; Accepted 17 December 2010

Academic Editor: Monica Fedele

Copyright © 2011 Michael Frink et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Nast-Kolb, M. Aufmkolk, S. Rucholtz, U. Obertacke, and C. Waydhas, “Multiple organ failure still a major cause of morbidity but not mortality in blunt multiple trauma,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 835–842, 2001. View at Scopus
  2. M. B. Shapiro, D. H. Jenkins, C. W. Schwab, and M. F. Rotondo, “Damage control: collective review,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 969–978, 2000. View at Scopus
  3. M. Keel and O. Trentz, “Pathophysiology of polytrauma,” Injury, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 691–709, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Tsukamoto and H. C. Pape, “Animal models for trauma research: what are the options?” Shock, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. J. Hauser, X. Zhou, P. Joshi et al., “The immune microenvironment of human fracture/soft-tissue hematomas and its relationship to systemic immunity,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 895–904, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. J. Hauser, “Preclinical models of traumatic, hemorrhagic shock,” Shock, vol. 24, no. 1, supplement, pp. 24–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. D. Rotstein, “Modeling the two-hit hypothesis for evaluating strategies to prevent organ injury after shock/resuscitation,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 54, no. 5, supplement, pp. S203–S206, 2003. View at Scopus
  8. R. C. Bone, “Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis, SIRS, and CARS,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1125–1126, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Hietbrink, L. Koenderman, G. T. Rijkers, and L. P. H. Leenen, “Trauma: the role of the innate immune system,” World Journal of Emergency Surgery, vol. 1, no. 1, article 15, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. E. Spruijt, T. Visser, and L. P.H. Leenen, “A systematic review of randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of immunomodulative interventions on infection, organ failure, and mortality in trauma patients,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 4, R150 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. R. M. Durham, J. J. Moran, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, A. E. Baue, and L. M. Flint, “Multiple organ failure in trauma patients,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 608–616, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Hildebrand, P. Giannoudis, C. Kretteck, and H. C. Pape, “Damage control: extremities,” Injury, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 678–689, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Redl and S. Bahrami, “Large animal models: baboons for trauma, shock, and sepsis studies,” Shock, vol. 24, supplement 1, pp. 88–93, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. A. Deitch, “Animal models of sepsis and shock: a review and lessons learned,” Shock, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1998. View at Scopus
  15. R. H. Waterston, K. Lindblad-Toh, E. Birney et al., “Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6915, pp. 520–562, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. L. Lomas-Niera, M. Perl, C. S. Chung, and A. Ayala, “Shock and hemorrhage: an overview of animal models,” Shock, vol. 24, supplement 1, pp. 33–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. H. Hsieh, E. A. Nickel, J. T. Hsu, M. G. Schwacha, K. I. Bland, and I. H. Chaudry, “Trauma-hemorrhage and hypoxia differentially influence kupffer cell phagocytic capacity: role of hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt activation,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 250, no. 6, pp. 995–1001, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. H. Hsieh, J. T. Hsu, YA. C. Hsieh et al., “Suppression of activation and costimulatory signaling in splenic CD4+ T cells after trauma-hemorrhage reduces t-cell function: a mechanism of post-traumatic immune suppression,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 175, no. 4, pp. 1504–1514, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Kawasaki, T. Suzuki, M. A. Choudhry, K. I. Bland, and I. H. Chaudry, “Salutary effects of 17β-estradiol on Peyer's patch T cell functions following trauma-hemorrhage,” Cytokine, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 166–172, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Suzuki, T. Kawasaki, M. A. Choudhry, and I. H. Chaudry, “Role of PPARγ in the salutary effects of 17β-estradiol on kupffer cell cytokine production following trauma-hemorrhage,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 205–211, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. Y. Murao, M. Hata, K. Ohnishi et al., “Hypertonic saline resuscitation reduces apoptosis and tissue damage of the small intestine in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock,” Shock, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2003. View at Scopus
  22. Y. Murao, K. Isayama, F. Saito, A. Hirakawa, and T. Nakatani, “Effect of hypertonic saline resuscitation on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and gammadelta T cells after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in relation to apoptosis and iNOS,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 975–982, 2009. View at Scopus
  23. J. A. Claridge, A. C. Weed, R. Enelow, and J. S. Young, “Laparotomy potentiates cytokine release and impairs pulmonary function after hemorrhage and resuscitation in mice,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 244–252, 2001. View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Claridge, A. M. Schulman, and J. S. Young, “Improved resuscitation minimizes respiratory dysfunction and blunts interleukin-6 and nuclear factor-κB activation after traumatic hemorrhage,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1815–1819, 2002. View at Scopus
  25. M. Rajnik, C. A. Salkowski, K. E. Thomas, Y. Y. Li, F. M. Rollwagen, and S. N. Vogel, “Induction of early inflammatory gene expression in a murine model of nonresuscitated, fixed-volume hemorrhage,” Shock, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 322–328, 2002. View at Scopus
  26. T. Barkhausen, C. Probst, F. Hildebrand, H. C. Pape, C. Krettek, and M. van Griensven, “Insulin therapy induces changes in the inflammatory response in a murine 2-hit model,” Injury, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 806–814, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Oberbeck, E. Nickel, M. Von Griensven et al., “The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on hemorrhage-induced suppression of cellular immune function,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 963–968, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Xiang, L. Yin, Y. Li, et al., “Hemorrhagic shock activates lung endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase via neutrophil NADPH oxidase,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. In press.
  29. B. Cai, W. Dong, S. Sharpe, E. A. Deitch, and L. Ulloa, “Survival and inflammatory responses in experimental models of hemorrhage,” Journal of Surgical Research. In press.
  30. M. Jungner, P. O. Grande, G. Mattiasson, and P. Bentzer, “Effects on brain edema of crystalloid and albumin fluid resuscitation after brain trauma and hemorrhage in the rat,” Anesthesiology, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 1194–1203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. V. Kozlov, J. Catharina Duvigneau, T. C. Hyatt et al., “Effect of estrogen on mitochondrial function and intracellular stress markers in rat liver and kidney following trauma-hemorrhagic shock and prolonged hypotension,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 7-8, pp. 254–261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. P. Troy, D. J. Heslop, R. Bandler, and K. A. Keay, “Haemodynamic response to haemorrhage: distinct contributions of midbrain and forebrain structures,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. P. Yu, T. L. Hwang, T. L. Hwang, C. H. Yen, and Y. T. Lau, “Resveratrol prevents endothelial dysfunction and aortic superoxide production after trauma hemorrhage through estrogen receptor-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 pathway,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1147–1154, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Doucet, C. Badami, D. Palange et al., “Estrogen receptor hormone agonists limit trauma hemorrhage shock-induced gut and lung injury in rats,” PloS One, vol. 5, no. 2, article e9421, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Fang, T. Li, X. Fan, YU. Zhu, and L. Liu, “Beneficial effects of activation of PKC on hemorrhagic shock in rats,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 865–873, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. H. Diehl, R. Hull, D. Morton et al., “A good practice guide to the administration of substances and removal of blood, including routes and volumes,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. A. Johnson, W. Durante, T. Craig et al., “Vascular arginase contributes to arteriolar endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 384–391, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. J. Garner, S. Watts, C. Parry, J. Bird, G. Cooper, and E. Kirkman, “Prolonged permissive hypotensive resuscitation is associated with poor outcome in primary blast injury with controlled hemorrhage,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 251, no. 6, pp. 1131–1139, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. E. George, K. E. Mulier, and G. J. Beilman, “Hypothermia is associated with improved outcomes in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 662–668, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Namas, A. Ghuma, A. Torres et al., “An adequately robust early TNF-alpha response is a hallmark of survival following trauma/hemorrhage,” PloS One, vol. 4, no. 12, article e8406, 2009. View at Scopus
  41. D. Pehböck, V. Wenzel, W. Voelckel et al., “Effects of preoxygenation on desaturation time during hemorrhagic shock in pigs,” Anesthesiology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 593–599, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. O. Chiara, P. Pelosi, L. Brazzi et al., “Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock: experimental model comparing normal saline, dextran, and hypertonic saline solutions,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1915–1922, 2003. View at Scopus
  43. H. B. Alam, K. Stanton, E. Koustova, D. Burris, N. Rich, and P. Rhee, “Effect of different resuscitation strategies on neutrophil activation in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock,” Resuscitation, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 91–99, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. I. Batchinsky, J. E. Skinner, C. Necsoiu, B. S. Jordan, D. Weiss, and L. C. Cancio, “New measures of heart-rate complexity: effect of chest trauma and hemorrhage,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1178–1185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. E. Wade, “Prior exercise alters responses to hemorrhage,” Shock, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. S. Englehart, C. E. Allison, B. H. Tieu et al., “Ketamine-based total intravenous anesthesia versus isoflurane anesthesia in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 901–909, 2008. View at Scopus
  47. G. B. York, J. S. Eggers, D. L. Smith et al., “Low-volume resuscitation with a polymerized bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOC-201) provides adequate tissue oxygenation for survival in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 873–885, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. M. Katz, J. E. Manning, S. McCurdy et al., “Nitroglycerin attenuates vasoconstriction of HBOC-201 during hemorrhagic shock resuscitation,” Resuscitation, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 481–487, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. S. Kheirabadi, M. R. Scherer, J. S. Estep, M. A. Dubick, and J. B. Holcomb, “Determination of efficacy of new hemostatic dressings in a model of extremity arterial hemorrhage in swine,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 450–460, 2009. View at Scopus
  50. B. S. Kheirabadi, J. W. Edens, I. B. Terrazas et al., “Comparison of new hemostatic granules/powders with currently deployed hemostatic products in a lethal model of extremity arterial hemorrhage in swine,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 316–328, 2009. View at Scopus
  51. G. C. Velmahos, K. Spaniolas, M. Tabbara et al., “Abdominal insufflation decreases blood loss without worsening the inflammatory response: implications for prehospital control of internal bleeding,” American Surgeon, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 297–301, 2008. View at Scopus
  52. W. S. Carbonell, D. O. Maris, T. Mccall, and M. S. Grady, “Adaptation of the fluid percussion injury model to the mouse,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 217–229, 1998. View at Scopus
  53. A. M. Dennis, M. L. Haselkorn, V. A. Vagni et al., “Hemorrhagic shock after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice: effect on neuronal death,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 889–899, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. J. L. Exo, D. K. Shellington, H. Bayir et al., “Resuscitation of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock with polynitroxylated albumin, hextend, hypertonic saline, and lactated ringer's: effects on acute hemodynamics, survival, and neuronal death in mice,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2403–2408, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Israelsson, H. Bengtsson, A. Kylberg et al., “Distinct cellular patterns of upregulated chemokine expression supporting a prominent inflammatory role in traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 959–974, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. H. Smith, H. D. Soares, J. S. Pierce et al., “A model of parasagittal controlled cortical impact in the mouse: cognitive and histopathologic effects,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 169–178, 1995. View at Scopus
  57. C. Bert-Weissenberger and A. L. Siren, “Experimental traumatic brain injury,” Experimental and Translational Stroke Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 16, 2010.
  58. C. L. Floyd, K. M. Golden, R. T. Black, R. J. Hamm, and B. G. Lyeth, “Craniectomy position affects morris water maze performance and hippocampal cell loss after parasagittal fluid percussion,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 303–316, 2002. View at Scopus
  59. V. Bansal, T. Costantini, S. Y. Ryu et al., “Stimulating the central nervous system to prevent intestinal dysfunction after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1059–1063, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. A. Flierl, P. F. Stahel, K. M. Beauchamp, S. J. Morgan, W. R. Smith, and E. Shohami, “Mouse closed head injury model induced by a weight-drop device,” Nature Protocols, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1328–1337, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. V. Bansal, T. Costantini, L. Kroll et al., “Traumatic brain injury and intestinal dysfunction: uncovering the neuro-enteric axis,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1353–1359, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. J. Thompson, J. Lifshitz, N. Marklund et al., “Lateral fluid percussion brain injury: a 15-year review and evaluation,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 42–75, 2005. View at Scopus
  63. H. L. Laurer and T. K. McIntosh, “Experimental models of brain trauma,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 715–721, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. L. Sell, M. A. Avila, G. Yu et al., “Hypertonic resuscitation improves neuronal and behavioral outcomes after traumatic brain injury plus hemorrhage,” Anesthesiology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 873–881, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. C. Stein, K. Ganguly, C. M. Belfield et al., “Erythrocyte-bound tissue plasminogen activator is neuroprotective in experimental traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1585–1592, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. D. Kerby, J. G. Sainz, F. Zhang et al., “Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with HBOC-201 in the setting of traumatic brain injury,” Shock, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 652–656, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. Wu, D. Lu, H. Jiang et al., “Simvastatin-mediated upregulation of VEGF and BDNF, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and increase of neurogenesis are associated with therapeutic improvement after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 130–139, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. S. Lahoud-Rahme, J. Stezoski, P. M. Kochanek, J. Melick, S. A. Tisherman, and T. Drabek, “Blood-brain barrier integrity in a rat model of emergency preservation and resuscitation,” Resuscitation, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 484–488, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Geeraerts, C. Ract, M. Tardieu et al., “Changes in cerebral energy metabolites induced by impact-acceleration brain trauma and hypoxic-hypotensive injury in rats,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1059–1071, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Signoretti, V. Di Pietro, R. Vagnozzi et al., “Transient alterations of creatine, creatine phosphate, N-acetylaspartate and high-energy phosphates after mild traumatic brain injury in the rat,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 333, no. 1-2, pp. 269–277, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. N. Biber, H. Z. Toklu, S. Solakoglu et al., “Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast decreases blood-brain barrier permeability but does not prevent oedema formation in traumatic brain injury,” Brain Injury, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 577–584, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. Salci, P. Nilsson, M. Goiny, C. Contant, I. Piper, and P. Enblad, “Low intracranial compliance increases the impact of intracranial volume insults to the traumatized brain: a microdialysis study in a traumatic brain injury rodent model,” Neurosurgery, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 367–373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. B. J. Zink, S. A. Stern, B. D. McBeth, X. Wang, and M. Mertz, “Effects of ethanol on limited resuscitation in a model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 884–893, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. J. Feinstein, M. B. Patel, M. Sanui, S. M. Cohn, M. Majetschak, and K. G. Proctor, “Resuscitation with pressors after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 201, no. 4, pp. 536–545, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. B. Gibson, R. A. Maxwell, J. B. Schweitzer, T. C. Fabian, and K. G. Proctor, “Resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock after traumatic brain injury using saline, shed blood, or a blood substitute,” Shock, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2002. View at Scopus
  76. G. T. Manley, G. Rosenthal, M. Lam et al., “Controlled cortical impact in swine: pathophysiology and biomechanics,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 128–139, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. Rosenthal, D. Morabito, M. Cohen et al., “Use of hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution-201 to improve resuscitation parameters and prevent secondary brain injury in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhage: laboratory investigation,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 575–587, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. K. M. C. Cheung, K. Kaluarachi, G. Andrew, W. Lu, D. Chan, and K. S. E. Cheah, “An externally fixed femoral fracture model for mice,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 685–690, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. M. Hanratty, J. T. Ryaby, X. H. Pan, and G. Li, “Thrombin related peptide TP508 promoted fracture repair in a mouse high energy fracture model,” Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, vol. 4, no. 1, article 1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. H. Holstein, P. Garcia, T. Histing et al., “Advances in the establishment of defined mouse models for the study of fracture healing and bone regeneration,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 23, supplement 5, pp. S31–S38, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. P. Garcia, J. H. Holstein, T. Histing et al., “A new technique for internal fixation of femoral fractures in mice: impact of stability on fracture healing,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1689–1696, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. H. Holstein, R. Matthys, T. Histing et al., “Development of a stable closed femoral fracture model in mice,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. T. Colburn, K. J. M. Zaal, F. Wang, and R. S. Tuan, “A role for γ/δ T cells in a mouse model of fracture healing,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1694–1703, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Hiltunen, E. Vuorio, and H. T. Aro, “A standardized experimental fracture in the mouse tibia,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 305–312, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. K. Connolly, G. Li, J. R. Bunn, M. Mushipe, G. R. Dickson, and D. R. Marsh, “A reliable externally fixated murine femoral fracture model that accounts for variation in movement between animals,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 843–849, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. J. H. Holstein, M. D. Menger, U. Culemann, C. Meier, and T. Pohlemann, “Development of a locking femur nail for mice,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 215–219, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. F. Bonnarens and T. A. Einhorn, “Production of a standard closed fracture in laboratory animal bone,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 97–101, 1984. View at Scopus
  88. M. B. Manigrasso and J. P. O'Connor, “Characterization of a closed femur fracture model in mice,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 687–695, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. I. Grongroft, P. Heil, R. Matthys et al., “Fixation compliance in a mouse osteotomy model induces two different processes of bone healing but does not lead to delayed union,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2089–2096, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. Matthys and S. M. Perren, “Internal fixator for use in the mouse,” Injury, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. S103–S109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. Claes, R. Blakytny, M. Gockelmann, M. Schoen, A. Ignatius, and B. Willie, “Early dynamization by reduced fixation stiffness does not improve fracture healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. Simman, A. Hoffmann, R. J. Bohinc, W. C. Peterson, and A. J. Russ, “Role of platelet-rich plasma in acceleration of bone fracture healing,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 337–344, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Li, M. Ahmed, J. Bergstrom, P. Ackermann, A. Stark, and A. Kreicbergs, “Occurrence of substance P in bone repair under different load comparison of straight and angulated fracture in rat tibia,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1643–1650, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. G. Janezic, E.-E. Widni, E. Q. Haxhija, M. Stradner, E. Fröhlich, and A.-M. Weinberg, “Proliferation analysis of the growth plate after diaphyseal midshaft fracture by 5-bromo-2-deoxy-uridine,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 457, no. 1, pp. 77–85, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. J. A. Cottrell and J. P. O'Connor, “Pharmacological inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase accelerates and enhances fracture-healing,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Series A, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 2653–2665, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. A. Cottrell, M. Meyenhofer, S. Medicherla, L. Higgins, and J. P. O'Connor, “Analgesic effects of p38 kinase inhibitor treatment on bone fracture healing,” Pain, vol. 142, no. 1-2, pp. 116–126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. R. S. Gilley, L. J. Wallace, C. A. Bourgeault, L. S. Kidder, and J. E. Bechtold, “OP-1 augments glucocorticoid-inhibited fracture healing in a rat fracture model,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 467, no. 12, pp. 3104–3112, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. E. Utvag, L. Korsnes, D. B. Rindal, and O. Reikerås, “Influence of flexible nailing in the later phase of fracture healing: strength and mineralization in rat femora,” Journal of Orthopaedic Science, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 576–584, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. Schoen, R. Rotter, S. Schattner et al., “Introduction of a new interlocked intramedullary nailing device for stabilization of critically sized femoral defects in the rat: a combined biomechanical and animal experimental study,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 184–189, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L. Kolios, A. K. Hoerster, S. Sehmisch et al., “Do estrogen and alendronate improve metaphyseal fracture healing when applied as osteoporosis prophylaxis?” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. Sarban, A. Senkoylu, U. E. Isikan, P. Korkusuz, and F. Korkusuz, “Can rhBMP-2 containing collagen sponges enhance bone repair in ovariectomized rats? A preliminary study,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 467, no. 12, pp. 3113–3120, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. T. Kokubu, D. J. Hak, S. J. Hazelwood, and A. H. Reddi, “Development of an atrophic nonunion model and comparison to a closed healing fracture in rat femur,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 503–510, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. Bergenstock, W. Min, A. M. Simon, C. Sabatino, and J. P. O'Connor, “A comparison between the effects of acetaminophen and celecoxib on bone fracture healing in rats,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 717–723, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. M. S. Hughes, P. Kazmier, T. A. Burd et al., “Enhanced fracture and soft-tissue healing by means of anabolic dietary supplementation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Series A, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 2386–2394, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. B. Habermann, K. Kafchitsas, G. Olender, P. Augat, and A. Kurth, “Strontium ranelate enhances callus strength more than PTH 1–34 in an osteoporotic rat model of fracture healing,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 82–89, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. D. E. Heiner, M. H. Meyer, S. L. Frick, J. F. Kellam, J. Fiechtl, and R. A. Meyer, “Gene expression during fracture healing in rats comparing intramedullary fixation to plate fixation by DNA microarray,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 27–38, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. R. Schmidhammer, S. Zandieh, R. Mittermayr et al., “Assessment of bone union/nonunion in an experimental model using microcomputed technology,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 199–205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. O. B. Betz, V. M. Betz, A. Nazarian et al., “Direct percutaneous gene delivery to enhance healing of segmental bone defects,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Series A, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 355–365, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. H. Mark, J. Bergholm, A. Nilsson, B. Rydevik, and L. Strömberg, “An external fixation method and device to study fracture healing in rats,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 476–482, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Komrakova, C. Werner, M. Wicke et al., “Effect of daidzein, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor or estrogen on gastrocnemius muscle of osteoporotic rats undergoing tibia healing period,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 201, no. 2, pp. 253–262, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. G. L. Garces, J. M. Garcia-Castellano, and J. Nogales, “Longitudinal overgrowth of bone after osteotomy in young rats: influence of bone stability,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 391–393, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. H. B. Alam, F. Shuja, M. U. Butt et al., “Surviving blood loss without blood transfusion in a swine poly-trauma model,” Surgery, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 325–333, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. D. Cho, J. B. Holcomb, B. H. Tieu et al., “Reproducibility of an animal model simulating complex combat-related injury in a multiple-institution format,” Shock, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 87–96, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. A. Girolami, R. A. Little, B. A. Foëx, and P. M. Dark, “Hemodynamic responses to fluid resuscitation after blunt trauma,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 385–392, 2002. View at Scopus
  115. M. Majetschak, S. M. Cohn, U. Obertacke, and K. G. Proctor, “Therapeutic potential of exogenous ubiquitin during resuscitation from severe trauma,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 991–999, 2004. View at Scopus
  116. M. Van Der Elst, A. R. A. Dijkema, C. P. A. T. Klein, P. Patka, and H. J. Haarman, “Tissue reaction on PLLA versus stainless steel interlocking nails for fracture fixation: an animal study,” Biomaterials, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 103–106, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. R. Zellweger, A. Ayala, X. L. Zhu, K. R. Holme, C. M. DeMaso, and I. H. Chaudry, “A novel nonanticoagulant heparin improves splenocyte and peritoneal macrophage immune function after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 211–218, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. P. M. Hewitt, N. Armstrong, P. Bowrey, M. Cherian, and D. L. Morris, “Cimetidine prevents suppression of delayed hypersensitivity in an animal model of haemorrhagic shock,” Injury, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 673–678, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. R. Oberbeck, M. Van Griensven, E. Nickel, T. Tschernig, T. Wittwer, and H. C. Pape, “Influence of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on hemorrhage-induced cellular immune suppression,” Shock, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 331–335, 2002. View at Scopus
  120. F. Hildebrand, M. Van Griensven, P. Giannoudis et al., “Effects of hypothermia and re-warming on the inflammatory response in a murine multiple hit model of trauma,” Cytokine, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 382–393, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. M. Frink, YA. C. Hsieh, S. Hu et al., “Mechanism of salutary effects of finasteride on post-traumatic immune/inflammatory response: upregulation of estradiol synthesis,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 246, no. 5, pp. 836–843, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. F. Hildebrand, B. M. Thobe, W. J. Hubbard, M. A. Choudhry, H.-C. Pape, and I. H. Chaudry, “Effects of 17β-estradiol and flutamide on splenic macrophages and splenocytes after trauma-hemorrhage,” Cytokine, vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 107–114, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. F. Hildebrand, W. J. Hubbard, M. A. Choudhry et al., “Kupffer cells and their mediators: the culprits in producing distant organ damage after trauma-hemorrhage,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 784–794, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. F. Hildebrand, W. J. Hubbard, M. A. Choudhry, B. M. Thobe, H. C. Pape, and I. H. Chaudry, “Effects of 17β-estradiol and flutamide on inflammatory response and distant organ damage following trauma-hemorrhage in metestrus females,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 759–765, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. M. Perl, C. S. Chung, U. Perl, R. Thakkar, J. Lomas-Neira, and A. Ayala, “Therapeutic accessibility of caspase-mediated cell death as a key pathomechanism in indirect acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1179–1186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. A. M. Morrison, P. Wang, and I. H. Chaudry, “A novel nonanticoagulant heparin prevents vascular endothelial cell dysfunction during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Shock, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 46–51, 1996. View at Scopus
  127. P. Wang, Z. F. Ba, S. S. Reich, M. Zhou, K. R. Holme, and I. H. Chaudry, “Effects of nonanticoagulant heparin on cardiovascular and hepatocellular function after hemorrhagic shock,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 270, no. 4, pp. H1294–H1302, 1996. View at Scopus
  128. H. Kim, J. Chen, K. R. Zinn, W. J. Hubbard, N. S. Fineberg, and I. H. Chaudry, “Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated efficacy of 17β-estradiol therapy in male rats after trauma-hemorrhage and extended hypotension,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 1266–1273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. T. K. Arora, A. K. Malhotra, R. Ivatury, and M. J. Mangino, “l-Arginine infusion during resuscitation for hemorrhagic shock: impact and mechanism,” The Journal of Trauma. In press.
  130. B. Relja, M. Lehnert, K. Seyboth et al., “Simvastatin reduces mortality and hepatic injury after hemorrhage/resuscitation in rats,” Shock, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 46–54, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. G. Dickneite, B. Dorr, F. Kaspereit, and K. A. Tanaka, “Prothrombin complex concentrate versus recombinant factor vIIa for reversal of hemodilutional coagulopathy in a porcine trauma model,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1151–1157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. G. Regel, P. Lobenhoffer, M. Grotz, H. C. Pape, U. Lehmann, and H. Tscherne, “Treatment results of patients with multiple trauma: an analysis of 3406 cases treated between 1972 and 1991 at a German Level I Trauma Center,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 70–78, 1995. View at Scopus
  133. K. L. Thibault and S. S. Margulies, “Age-dependent material properties of the porcine cerebrumml: effect on pediatric inertial head injury criteria,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1119–1126, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. W. Finnie and P. C. Blumbergs, “Traumatic brain injury,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 679–689, 2002. View at Scopus
  135. F. Hildebrand, P. V. Giannoudis, M. V. Griensven et al., “Management of polytraumatized patients with associated blunt chest trauma: a comparison of two European countries,” Injury, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 293–302, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. S. M. Cohn, “Pulmonary contusion: review of the clinical entity,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 973–979, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. M. W. Knöferl, U. C. Liener, D. H. Seitz et al., “Cardiopulmonary, histological, and inflammatory alterations after lung contusion in a novel mouse model of blunt chest trauma,” Shock, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 519–525, 2003. View at Scopus
  138. Y. Satoh, S. Sato, D. Saitoh et al., “Pulmonary blast injury in mice: a novel model for studying blast injury in the laboratory using laser-induced stress waves,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 313–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. M. Majetschak, L. T. Sorell, T. Patricelli, D. H. Seitz, and M. W. Knoferl, “Detection and possible role of proteasomes in the bronchoalveolar space of the injured lung,” Physiological Research, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 363–372, 2009. View at Scopus
  140. M. D. Aydin, A. Eroglu, C. Gundogdu, A. Turkyilmaz, S. Altas, and N. Aydin, “The preventive role of thoracic duct ligation on cerebral fat embolism in lung injury: an experimental study,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. BR256–BR260, 2008. View at Scopus
  141. K. Raghavendran, B. A. Davidson, J. D. Helinski et al., “A rat model for isolated bilateral lung contusion from blunt chest trauma,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 1482–1489, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. K. Raghavendran, B. A. Davidson, J. C. Huebschmann et al., “Superimposed gastric aspiration increases the severity of inflammation and permeability injury in a rat model of lung contusion,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 273–282, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. J. J. Hoth, W. P. Hudson, N. A. Brownlee et al., “Toll-like receptor 2 participates in the response to lung injury in a murine model of pulmonary contusion,” Shock, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 447–452, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. K. A. Davis, T. C. Fabian, D. N. Ragsdale, L. L. Trenthem, and K. G. Proctor, “Endogenous adenosine and secondary injury after chest trauma,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 892–898, 2000. View at Scopus
  145. C. B. Moomey Jr., T. C. Fabian, M. A. Croce, S. M. Melton, and K. G. Proctor, “Cardiopulmonary function after pulmonary contusion and partial liquid ventilation,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 283–290, 1998. View at Scopus
  146. V. Fanelli, V. Puntorieri, B. Assenzio et al., “Pulmonary-derived phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) contributes to ventilator-induced lung injury and edema,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1935–1945, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  147. M. Bueltmann, X. Kong, M. Mertens et al., “Inhaled milrinone attenuates experimental acute lung injury,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 171–178, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. K. Ulrich, M. Stern, M. E. Goddard et al., “Keratinocyte growth factor therapy in murine oleic acid-induced acute lung injury,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 6, pp. L1179–L1192, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. W. R. Henderson Jr., E. Y. Chi, X. Ye et al., “Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin/CREB binding protein (CBP) signaling reverses pulmonary fibrosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 32, pp. 14309–14314, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  150. S. M. Melton, K. A. Davis, C. B. Moomey Jr., T. C. Fabian, and K. G. Proctor, “Mediator-dependent secondary injury after unilateral blunt thoracic trauma,” Shock, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 396–402, 1999. View at Scopus
  151. M. Westphal, S. Noshima, T. Isago et al., “Selective thromboxane A2 synthase inhibition by OKY-046 prevents cardiopulmonary dysfunction after ovine smoke inhalation injury,” Anesthesiology, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 954–961, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. A. Esechie, P. Enkhbaatar, D. L. Traber et al., “Beneficial effect of a hydrogen sulphide donor (sodium sulphide) in an ovine model of burn- and smoke-induced acute lung injury,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 1442–1453, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. F. D. Saunders, M. Westphal, P. Enkhbaatar et al., “Molecular biological effects of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition in ovine lung injury,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 298, no. 3, pp. L427–L436, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. M. K. Ball, N. H. Hillman, S. G. Kallapur, G. R. Polglase, A. H. Jobe, and J. J. Pillow, “Body temperature effects on lung injury in ventilated preterm lambs,” Resuscitation, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 749–754, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. D. Rixen, S. Sauerland, H.-J. Oestern, and B. Bouillon, “Management strategies in the first operative phase after long-bone injury of the lower extremity in multiple-injured patients. A systematic literature review,” Unfallchirurg, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 829–842, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  156. C. Lu, T. Miclau, D. Hu et al., “Cellular basis for age-related changes in fracture repair,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1300–1307, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. D. M. Nunamaker, “Experimental models of fracture repair,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, supplement 355, pp. S56–S65, 1998. View at Scopus
  158. J. E. Marturano, B. C. Cleveland, M. A. Byrne, S. L. O'Connell, J. J. Wixted, and K. L. Billiar, “An improved murine femur fracture device for bone healing studies,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1222–1228, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. T. Barkhausen, F. Hildebrand, C. Krettek, and M. van Griensven, “DHEA-dependent and organ-specific regulation of TNF-α mRNA expression in a murine polymicrobial sepsis and trauma model,” Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 4, article R114, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. T. Manabe, S. Mori, T. Mashiba et al., “Human parathyroid hormone (1–34) accelerates natural fracture healing process in the femoral osteotomy model of cynomolgus monkeys,” Bone, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1475–1482, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. B. A. Lindsey, N. B. Clovis, E. S. Smith, S. Salihu, and D. F. Hubbard, “An animal model for open femur fracture and osteomyelitis—part I,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 38–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. I. Drosse, E. Volkmer, S. Seitz et al., “Validation of a femoral critical size defect model for orthotopic evaluation of bone healing: a biomechanical, veterinary and trauma surgical perspective,” Tissue Engineering. Part C, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. K. Atesok, R. Li, D. J. Stewart, and E. H. Schemitsch, “Endothelial progenitor cells promote fracture healing in a segmental bone defect model,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1007–1014, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  164. O. M. Flannery, J. R. Britton, P. O'reilly, N. Mahony, P. J. Prendergast, and P. J. Kenny, “The threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery,” Acta Orthopaedica, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 303–307, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. M. C. Pierce, A. Valdevit, L. Anderson, N. Inoue, and D. L. Hauser, “Biomechanical evaluation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for predicting fracture loads of the infant femur for injury investigation: an in vitro porcine model,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 571–576, 2000. View at Scopus