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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 975479, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/975479
Review Article

Animal Models to Study the Role of Long-Term Hypergastrinemia in Gastric Carcinogenesis

1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, St. Olavs Hospital HF, Trondheim University Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
2Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

Received 31 August 2010; Accepted 28 October 2010

Academic Editor: Andrea Vecchione

Copyright © 2011 Reidar Fossmark et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Patients with chronic hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis or gastrinomas have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancy, and it has been questioned whether also patients with hypergastrinemia caused by long-term use of acid inhibiting drugs are at risk. Gastric carcinogenesis in humans is affected by numerous factors and progresses slowly over years. When using animal models with the possibility of intervention, a complex process can be dissected by studying the role of hypergastrinemia in carcinogenesis within a relatively short period of time. We have reviewed findings from relevant models where gastric changes in animal models of long-term hypergastrinemia have been investigated. In all species where long-term hypergastrinemia has been induced, there is an increased risk of gastric malignancy. There is evidence that hypergastrinemia is a common causative factor in carcinogenesis in the oxyntic mucosa, while other cofactors may vary in the different models.