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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 582358, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/582358
Research Article

Gene Entropy-Fractal Dimension Informatics with Application to Mouse-Human Translational Medicine

Queensborough Community College of CUNY, 222-05 56th Avenve Bayside, NY 11364, USA

Received 6 October 2012; Accepted 5 February 2013

Academic Editor: Tun-Wen Pai

Copyright © 2013 T. Holden et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example.