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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 616810, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/616810
Research Article

Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium via Conventional Liposomes, Ethosomes, and Transfersomes

1Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664-14766, Iran
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664-14766, Iran
3Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664-14766, Iran
4Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664-14766, Iran

Received 29 April 2013; Revised 16 June 2013; Accepted 17 June 2013

Academic Editor: Ajit S. Narang

Copyright © 2013 Saeed Ghanbarzadeh and Sanam Arami. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of Diclofenac sodium, a poorly water-soluble drug, employing conventional liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes. The prepared formulations had been characterized for the loaded drug amount and vesicle size. The prepared vesicular systems were incorporated into 1% Carbopol 914 gel, and a survey of in vitro drug release and drug retention into rat skin has been done on them using a modified Franz diffusion cell. The cumulative amount of drug permeated after 24 h, flux, and permeability coefficient were assessed. Stability studies were performed for three months. The size of vesicles ranged from 145 to 202 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency of the Diclofenac sodium was obtained between 42.61% and 51.72%. The transfersomes and ethosomes provided a significantly higher amount of cumulative permeation, steady state flux, permeability coefficient, and residual drug into skin compared to the conventional liposomes, conventional gel, or hydroethanolic solution. The in vitro release data of all vesicular systems were well fit into Higuchi model (RSD > 0.99). Stability tests indicated that the vesicular formulations were stable over three months. Results revealed that both ethosome and transfersome formulations can act as drug reservoir in skin and extend the pharmacologic effects of Diclofenac sodium.