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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 740105, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/740105
Research Article

The Renal Effects of Vanadate Exposure: Potential Biomarkers and Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Functional Renal Disorders—Preliminary Studies

1Laboratory of Physiology and Animal Biochemistry, Department of Zoology and Invertebrate Ecology, Institute of Environmental Protection, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 102 Kraśnicka Avenue, 20-718 Lublin, Poland
2Laboratory of Oxidative Stress, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 102 Kraśnicka Avenue, 20-718 Lublin, Poland
3Laboratory of Separation and Spectroscopic Method Applications, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 102 Kraśnicka Avenue, 20-718 Lublin, Poland

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 22 October 2013; Accepted 28 October 2013; Published 28 January 2014

Academic Editor: Maha Zaki Rizk

Copyright © 2014 Agnieszka Ścibior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The alterations in the levels/activities of selected biomarkers for detecting kidney toxicity and in the levels of some oxidative stress (OS) markers and elements were studied in male rats to evaluate biochemically the degree of kidney damage, investigate the role of OS in the mechanism of functional renal disorders, reveal potential biomarkers of renal function, and assess the renal mineral changes in the conditions of a 12-week sodium metavanadate (SMV, 0.125 mg V/mL) exposure. The results showed that OS is involved in the mechanism underlying the development of SMV-induced functional renal disturbances. They also suggest that the urinary cystatin C (CysCu) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1u) could be the most appropriate to evaluate renal function at the conditions of SMV intoxication when the fluid intake, excreted urinary volume (EUV), body weight (BW), and the urinary creatinine excretion (Creu) decreased. The use of such tests as the urinary lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (LDHu, ALPu, GGTPu, and NAGu) seems not to be valid given their reduced activities. The use of only traditional biomarkers of renal function in these conditions may, in turn, be insufficient because their alterations are greatly influenced by the changes in the fluid intake and/or BW.