Table 1: Decomposition of the income-related gaps in cognitive school readiness scores in the ECLS-B (US) cohort.

Percentile point gap in mean scores between incomequintile 𝑄 and income quintile 3 attributed to domain (% of total raw gap attributed to domain)
DomainLiteracy scoreMathematics scoreLanguage score
𝑄 = 1 𝑄 = 5 𝑄 = 1 𝑄 = 5 𝑄 = 1 𝑄 = 5

Parenting style −2.67 2.87 −2.98 2.96 −4.38 4.15
[ 2 1 . 0 ] [ 1 2 . 9 ] [ 1 9 . 2 ] [ 1 4 . 1 ] [ 3 2 . 9 ] [ 2 1 . 8 ]
Home learning environment −2.62 3.05 −2.52 2.78 −2.24 3.10
[ 2 0 . 7 ] [ 1 3 . 7 ] [ 1 6 . 2 ] [ 1 3 . 3 ] [ 1 6 . 8 ] [ 1 6 . 3 ]
Maternal health & health behaviours −0.65 0.99 −1.00 1.28 −0.47 0.52
[ 5 . 1 ] [ 4 . 5 ] [ 6 . 5 ] [ 6 . 1 ] [ 3 . 5 ] [ 2 . 7 ]
Child health −0.48 0.48 −0.59 0.42 −0.53 0.54
[ 3 . 8 ] [ 2 . 1 ] [ 3 . 8 ] [ 2 . 0 ] [ 4 . 0 ] [ 2 . 9 ]
Child care (excluding Head Start) −0.72 1.16 −0.64 1.44 −0.60 0.94
[ 5 . 7 ] [ 5 . 2 ] [ 4 . 1 ] [ 6 . 9 ] [ 4 . 5 ] [ 4 . 9 ]
Ever in Head Start 1.17 −0.62 0.85 −0.45 0.97 −0.51
[ 9 . 2 ] [ 2 . 8 ] [ 5 . 5 ] [ 2 . 1 ] [ 7 . 3 ] [ 2 . 7 ]
Mother's education −1.85 4.00 −1.62 3.34 −0.29 1.41
[ 1 4 . 6 ] [ 1 8 . 0 ] [ 1 0 . 4 ] [ 1 5 . 9 ] [ 2 . 2 ] [ 7 . 4 ]
Demographics −2.36 2.22 −2.47 2.71 −2.48 3.43
[ 1 8 . 6 ] [ 1 0 . 0 ] [ 1 5 . 9 ] [ 1 3 . 0 ] [ 1 8 . 6 ] [ 1 8 . 0 ]
All missing dummies −0.07 −0.03 −0.24 0.01 −0.26 0.03
[ 0 . 5 ] [ 0 . 1 ] [ 1 . 5 ] [ 0 . 0 ] [ 1 . 9 ] [ 0 . 1 ]
Residual unexplained component −2.45 8.15 −4.36 6.44 −3.04 5.45
[ 1 9 . 3 ] [ 3 6 . 6 ] [ 2 8 . 0 ] [ 3 0 . 8 ] [ 2 2 . 8 ] [ 2 8 . 6 ]

Total raw gap −12.68 22.27 −15.56 20.93 −13.31 19.06
(Sum of rows above) [ 1 0 0 ] [ 1 0 0 ] [ 1 0 0 ] [ 1 0 0 ] [ 1 0 0 ] [ 1 0 0 ]

N = 7950.